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Erschienen in: Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie 1/2015

01.01.2015 | CME Zertifizierte Fortbildung

Vitamin-B12-Mangel im Alter

verfasst von: M.A. Dr. A.H. Leischker, G.F. Kolb

Erschienen in: Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie | Ausgabe 1/2015

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Zusammenfassung

Die Prävalenz von Vitamin-B12-Mangelzuständen steigt mit zunehmendem Lebensalter an. Stationär behandelte Patienten sowie Patienten mit Demenz und deren Ehepartner haben ein besonders hohes Risiko, einen Vitamin-B12-Mangel zu entwickeln. Vitamin B12 in natürlicher Form kommt praktisch nur in tierischen Nahrungsmitteln vor. Veganer entwickeln deshalb sehr häufig einen Vitamin-B12-Mangel, wenn sie nicht vitaminhaltige Supplemente oder mit Vitamin B12 angereicherte Nahrungsmittel verzehren.
Mit Ausnahme einer seit längerer Zeit bestehenden Demenz sind fast alle Manifestationen des Vitamin-B12-Mangels unter Therapie reversibel. Deshalb ist es wichtig, auch atypische Manifestationen des Vitamin-B12-Mangels bei geriatrischen Patienten frühzeitig zu diagnostizieren und zu behandeln.
In diesem Beitrag werden die Physiologie und Pathophysiologie des Vitamin-B12-Stoffwechsels behandelt. Es wird ein praxisorientierter Algorithmus zur rationalen Labordiagnostik vorgestellt, der auch gesundheitsökonomische Aspekte berücksichtigt.
Die Therapie sollte insbesondere bei schweren neurologischen Symptomen zumindest initial in parenteraler Form erfolgen. Hydroxycobalamin ist hierfür das Medikament der Wahl.
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Metadaten
Titel
Vitamin-B12-Mangel im Alter
verfasst von
M.A. Dr. A.H. Leischker
G.F. Kolb
Publikationsdatum
01.01.2015
Verlag
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Erschienen in
Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie / Ausgabe 1/2015
Print ISSN: 0948-6704
Elektronische ISSN: 1435-1269
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00391-014-0837-0