Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen

Erschienen in: Notfall +  Rettungsmedizin 8/2015

01.12.2015 | ERC Leitlinien

Kurzdarstellung

Kapitel 1 der Leitlinien zur Reanimation 2015 des European Resuscitation Council

verfasst von: K.G. Monsieurs, J.P. Nolan, L.L. Bossaert, R. Greif, I.K. Maconochie, N.I. Nikolaou, G.D. Perkins, J. Soar, A. Truhlář, J. Wyllie, D.A. Zideman, on behalf of the ERC Guidelines 2015 Writing Group

Erschienen in: Notfall + Rettungsmedizin | Ausgabe 8/2015

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten

Auszug

Diese Kurzdarstellung zeigt die wesentlichen Behandlungsalgorithmen für die Wiederbelebung von Kindern und Erwachsenen und hebt die wichtigsten Leitlinienänderungen seit 2010 hervor. In jedem der 10 Kapitel, die als Einzelartikel in diesem Heft von Notfall + Rettungsmedizin publiziert werden, wird eine detaillierte Anleitung gegeben. Die Kapitel der ERC-Leitlinien 2015 sind:
1.
Kurzdarstellung
 
2.
Basismaßnahmen zur Wiederbelebung Erwachsener und Verwendung automatisierter externer Defibrillatoren [ 1]
 
3.
Erweiterte Reanimationsmaßnahmen für Erwachsene [ 2]
 
4.
Kreislaufstillstand unter besonderen Umständen [ 3]
 
5.
Postreanimationsbehandlung [ 4]
 
6.
Lebensrettende Maßnahmen bei Kindern [ 5]
 
7.
Die Versorgung und Reanimation des Neugeborenen [ 6]
 
8.
Das initiale Management des akuten Koronarsyndroms [ 7]
 
9.
Erste Hilfe [ 8]
 
10.
Ausbildung und Implementierung der Reanimation [ 9]
 
11.
Ethik der Reanimation und Entscheidungen am Lebensende [ 10]
 
Fußnoten
1
Nach dem deutschen Transplantationsgesetz dürfen Herztoten nur dann Organe entnommen werden, wenn der Hirntod festgestellt wurde oder seit dem Kreislaufstillstand mindestens drei Stunden vergangen sind.
 
Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Handley AJ, Koster KW et al (2015) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 2 adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation. Resuscitation 95:81–98 Perkins GD, Handley AJ, Koster KW et al (2015) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 2 adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation. Resuscitation 95:81–98
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Soar J, Nolan JP, Bottiger BW et al (2015) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 3 Adult Advanced Life Support. Resuscitation 95:99–146 Soar J, Nolan JP, Bottiger BW et al (2015) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 3 Adult Advanced Life Support. Resuscitation 95:99–146
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Truhlar A, Deakin CD, Soar J et al (2015) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 4 Cardiac Arrest in Special Circumstances. Resuscitation 95:147–200 Truhlar A, Deakin CD, Soar J et al (2015) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 4 Cardiac Arrest in Special Circumstances. Resuscitation 95:147–200
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Nolan JP, Soar J, Cariou A et al (2015) European Resuscitation Council and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine Guidelines for Post-resuscitation Care 2015 Section 5 Post Resuscitation Care. Resuscitation 95:201–221 Nolan JP, Soar J, Cariou A et al (2015) European Resuscitation Council and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine Guidelines for Post-resuscitation Care 2015 Section 5 Post Resuscitation Care. Resuscitation 95:201–221
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Maconochie I, Bingham R, Eich C et al (2015) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 6 Paediatric Life Support. Resuscitation 95:222–247 Maconochie I, Bingham R, Eich C et al (2015) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 6 Paediatric Life Support. Resuscitation 95:222–247
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Wyllie J, Jos Bruinenberg J, Roehr CC, Rüdiger M, Trevisanuto D (2015) B. U. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 7 Resuscitation and Support of Transition of Babies at Birth. Resuscitation 95:248–262 Wyllie J, Jos Bruinenberg J, Roehr CC, Rüdiger M, Trevisanuto D (2015) B. U. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 7 Resuscitation and Support of Transition of Babies at Birth. Resuscitation 95:248–262
7.
Zurück zum Zitat Nikolaou NI, Arntz HR, Bellou A, Beygui F, Bossaert LL, Cariou A (2015) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015. Section 8. Initial Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes. Resuscitation 95:263–276 Nikolaou NI, Arntz HR, Bellou A, Beygui F, Bossaert LL, Cariou A (2015) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015. Section 8. Initial Management of Acute Coronary Syndromes. Resuscitation 95:263–276
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Zideman DA, De Buck EDJ, Singletary EM et al (2015) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 9 First Aid. Resuscitation 95:277–286 Zideman DA, De Buck EDJ, Singletary EM et al (2015) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 9 First Aid. Resuscitation 95:277–286
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Greif R, Lockey AS, Conaghan P, Lippert A, De Vries W, Monsieurs KG (2015) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 10 Principles of Education in Resuscitation. Resuscitation 95:287–300 Greif R, Lockey AS, Conaghan P, Lippert A, De Vries W, Monsieurs KG (2015) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 10 Principles of Education in Resuscitation. Resuscitation 95:287–300
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Bossaert L, Perkins GD, Askitopoulou H et al (2015) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 11 The Ethics of Resuscitation and End-of-Life Decisions. Resuscitation 95:301–310 Bossaert L, Perkins GD, Askitopoulou H et al (2015) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2015 Section 11 The Ethics of Resuscitation and End-of-Life Decisions. Resuscitation 95:301–310
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Soreide E, Morrison L, Hillman K et al (2013) The formula for survival in resuscitation. Resuscitation 84:1487–1493 Soreide E, Morrison L, Hillman K et al (2013) The formula for survival in resuscitation. Resuscitation 84:1487–1493
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakin CD, Nolan JP, Soar J et al (2010) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 4. Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation 81:1305–1352 Deakin CD, Nolan JP, Soar J et al (2010) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 4. Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation 81:1305–1352
13.
Zurück zum Zitat Nolan J, Soar J, Eikeland H (2006) The chain of survival. Resuscitation 71:270–271 Nolan J, Soar J, Eikeland H (2006) The chain of survival. Resuscitation 71:270–271
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Morley PT, Lang E, Aickin R et al (2015) Part 2: Evidence Evaluation and Management of Conflict of Interest for the ILCOR 2015 Consensus on Science and Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 95:e33–e41 Morley PT, Lang E, Aickin R et al (2015) Part 2: Evidence Evaluation and Management of Conflict of Interest for the ILCOR 2015 Consensus on Science and Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 95:e33–e41
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Nolan JP, Hazinski MF, Aicken R et al (2015) Part I. Executive Summary: 2015 International Consensus on cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 95:e1–e32 Nolan JP, Hazinski MF, Aicken R et al (2015) Part I. Executive Summary: 2015 International Consensus on cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 95:e1–e32
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Hazinski MF, Nolan JP, Aicken R et al (2015) Part I. Executive Summary: 2015 International Consensus on cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Circulation Hazinski MF, Nolan JP, Aicken R et al (2015) Part I. Executive Summary: 2015 International Consensus on cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Circulation
18.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Travers AH, Considine J et al (2015) Part 3: adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 95:e43–e70 Perkins GD, Travers AH, Considine J et al (2015) Part 3: adult basic life support and automated external defibrillation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 95:e43–e70
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Ringh M, Herlitz J, Hollenberg J, Rosenqvist M, Svensson L (2009) Out of hospital cardiac arrest outside home in Sweden, change in characteristics, outcome and availability for public access defibrillation. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 17:18 Ringh M, Herlitz J, Hollenberg J, Rosenqvist M, Svensson L (2009) Out of hospital cardiac arrest outside home in Sweden, change in characteristics, outcome and availability for public access defibrillation. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 17:18
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Hulleman M, Berdowski J, de Groot JR et al (2012) Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators have reduced the incidence of resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by lethal arrhythmias. Circulation 126:815–821 Hulleman M, Berdowski J, de Groot JR et al (2012) Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators have reduced the incidence of resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by lethal arrhythmias. Circulation 126:815–821
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Blom MT, Beesems SG, Homma PC et al (2014) Improved survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and use of automated external defibrillators. Circulation 130:1868–1875 Blom MT, Beesems SG, Homma PC et al (2014) Improved survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and use of automated external defibrillators. Circulation 130:1868–1875
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Weisfeldt ML, Sitlani CM, Ornato JP et al (2010) Survival after application of automatic external defibrillators before arrival of the emergency medical system: evaluation in the resuscitation outcomes consortium population of 21 Mio. J Am Coll Cardiol 55:1713–1720 Weisfeldt ML, Sitlani CM, Ornato JP et al (2010) Survival after application of automatic external defibrillators before arrival of the emergency medical system: evaluation in the resuscitation outcomes consortium population of 21 Mio. J Am Coll Cardiol 55:1713–1720
23.
Zurück zum Zitat Berdowski J, Blom MT, Bardai A, Tan HL, Tijssen JG, Koster RW (2011) Impact of onsite or dispatched automated external defibrillator use on survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 124:2225–2232 Berdowski J, Blom MT, Bardai A, Tan HL, Tijssen JG, Koster RW (2011) Impact of onsite or dispatched automated external defibrillator use on survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 124:2225–2232
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Sasson C, Rogers MA, Dahl J, Kellermann AL (2010) Predictors of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 3:63–81 Sasson C, Rogers MA, Dahl J, Kellermann AL (2010) Predictors of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 3:63–81
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Nehme Z, Andrew E, Bernard S, Smith K (2015) Comparison of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest occurring before and after paramedic arrival: epidemiology, survival to hospital discharge and 12-month functional recovery. Resuscitation 89:50–57 Nehme Z, Andrew E, Bernard S, Smith K (2015) Comparison of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest occurring before and after paramedic arrival: epidemiology, survival to hospital discharge and 12-month functional recovery. Resuscitation 89:50–57
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Takei Y, Nishi T, Kamikura T et al (2015) Do early emergency calls before patient collapse improve survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests? Resuscitation 88:20–27 Takei Y, Nishi T, Kamikura T et al (2015) Do early emergency calls before patient collapse improve survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests? Resuscitation 88:20–27
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Holmberg M, Holmberg S, Herlitz J (2001) Factors modifying the effect of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation on survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in Sweden. Eur Heart J 22:511–519 Holmberg M, Holmberg S, Herlitz J (2001) Factors modifying the effect of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation on survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in Sweden. Eur Heart J 22:511–519
28.
Zurück zum Zitat Wissenberg M, Lippert FK, Folke F et al (2013) Association of national initiatives to improve cardiac arrest management with rates of bystander intervention and patient survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 310:1377–1384 Wissenberg M, Lippert FK, Folke F et al (2013) Association of national initiatives to improve cardiac arrest management with rates of bystander intervention and patient survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 310:1377–1384
29.
Zurück zum Zitat Hasselqvist-Ax I, Riva G, Herlitz J et al (2015) Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 372:2307–2315 Hasselqvist-Ax I, Riva G, Herlitz J et al (2015) Early cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 372:2307–2315
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Rea TD, Fahrenbruch C, Culley L et al (2010) CPR with chest compresssions alone or with rescue breathing. N Engl J Med 363:423–433 Rea TD, Fahrenbruch C, Culley L et al (2010) CPR with chest compresssions alone or with rescue breathing. N Engl J Med 363:423–433
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Svensson L, Bohm K, Castren M et al (2010) Compression-only CPR or standard CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 363:434–442 Svensson L, Bohm K, Castren M et al (2010) Compression-only CPR or standard CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 363:434–442
32.
Zurück zum Zitat Hupfl M, Selig HF, Nagele P (2010) Chest-compression-only versus standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a meta-analysis. Lancet 376:1552–1557 Hupfl M, Selig HF, Nagele P (2010) Chest-compression-only versus standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a meta-analysis. Lancet 376:1552–1557
33.
Zurück zum Zitat Ringh M, Rosenqvist M, Hollenberg J et al (2015) Mobile-phone dispatch of laypersons for CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 372:2316–2325 Ringh M, Rosenqvist M, Hollenberg J et al (2015) Mobile-phone dispatch of laypersons for CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 372:2316–2325
34.
Zurück zum Zitat van Alem AP, Vrenken RH, de Vos R, Tijssen JG, Koster RW (2003) Use of automated external defibrillator by first responders in out of hospital cardiac arrest: prospective controlled trial. BMJ 327:1312 van Alem AP, Vrenken RH, de Vos R, Tijssen JG, Koster RW (2003) Use of automated external defibrillator by first responders in out of hospital cardiac arrest: prospective controlled trial. BMJ 327:1312
35.
Zurück zum Zitat Fothergill RT, Watson LR, Chamberlain D, Virdi GK, Moore FP, Whitbread M (2013) Increases in survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a five year study. Resuscitation 84:1089–1092 Fothergill RT, Watson LR, Chamberlain D, Virdi GK, Moore FP, Whitbread M (2013) Increases in survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a five year study. Resuscitation 84:1089–1092
36.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Lall R, Quinn T et al (2015) Mechanical versus manual chest compression for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (PARAMEDIC): a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet 385:947–955 Perkins GD, Lall R, Quinn T et al (2015) Mechanical versus manual chest compression for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (PARAMEDIC): a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet 385:947–955
37.
Zurück zum Zitat Zijlstra JA, Stieglis R, Riedijk F, Smeekes M, van der Worp WE, Koster RW (2014) Local lay rescuers with AEDs, alerted by text messages, contribute to early defibrillation in a Dutch out-of-hospital cardiac arrest dispatch system. Resuscitation 85:1444–1449 Zijlstra JA, Stieglis R, Riedijk F, Smeekes M, van der Worp WE, Koster RW (2014) Local lay rescuers with AEDs, alerted by text messages, contribute to early defibrillation in a Dutch out-of-hospital cardiac arrest dispatch system. Resuscitation 85:1444–1449
38.
Zurück zum Zitat Bahr J, Klingler H, Panzer W, Rode H, Kettler D (1997) Skills of lay people in checking the carotid pulse. Resuscitation 35:23–26 Bahr J, Klingler H, Panzer W, Rode H, Kettler D (1997) Skills of lay people in checking the carotid pulse. Resuscitation 35:23–26
39.
Zurück zum Zitat Nyman J, Sihvonen M (2000) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills in nurses and nursing students. Resuscitation 47:179–184 Nyman J, Sihvonen M (2000) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills in nurses and nursing students. Resuscitation 47:179–184
40.
Zurück zum Zitat Tibballs J, Russell P (2009) Reliability of pulse palpation by healthcare personnel to diagnose paediatric cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 80:61–64 Tibballs J, Russell P (2009) Reliability of pulse palpation by healthcare personnel to diagnose paediatric cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 80:61–64
41.
Zurück zum Zitat Tibballs J, Weeranatna C (2010) The influence of time on the accuracy of healthcare personnel to diagnose paediatric cardiac arrest by pulse palpation. Resuscitation 81:671–675 Tibballs J, Weeranatna C (2010) The influence of time on the accuracy of healthcare personnel to diagnose paediatric cardiac arrest by pulse palpation. Resuscitation 81:671–675
42.
Zurück zum Zitat Moule P (2000) Checking the carotid pulse: diagnostic accuracy in students of the healthcare professions. Resuscitation 44:195–201 Moule P (2000) Checking the carotid pulse: diagnostic accuracy in students of the healthcare professions. Resuscitation 44:195–201
43.
Zurück zum Zitat Bobrow BJ, Zuercher M, Ewy GA et al (2008) Gasping during cardiac arrest in humans is frequent and associated with improved survival. Circulation 118:2550–2554 Bobrow BJ, Zuercher M, Ewy GA et al (2008) Gasping during cardiac arrest in humans is frequent and associated with improved survival. Circulation 118:2550–2554
44.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Stephenson B, Hulme J, Monsieurs KG (2005) Birmingham assessment of breathing study (BABS). Resuscitation 64:109–113 Perkins GD, Stephenson B, Hulme J, Monsieurs KG (2005) Birmingham assessment of breathing study (BABS). Resuscitation 64:109–113
45.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Walker G, Christensen K, Hulme J, Monsieurs KG (2006) Teaching recognition of agonal breathing improves accuracy of diagnosing cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 70:432–437 Perkins GD, Walker G, Christensen K, Hulme J, Monsieurs KG (2006) Teaching recognition of agonal breathing improves accuracy of diagnosing cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 70:432–437
46.
Zurück zum Zitat Breckwoldt J, Schloesser S, Arntz HR (2009) Perceptions of collapse and assessment of cardiac arrest by bystanders of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA). Resuscitation 80:1108–1113 Breckwoldt J, Schloesser S, Arntz HR (2009) Perceptions of collapse and assessment of cardiac arrest by bystanders of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA). Resuscitation 80:1108–1113
47.
Zurück zum Zitat Stecker EC, Reinier K, Uy-Evanado A et al (2013) Relationship between seizure episode and sudden cardiac arrest in patients with epilepsy: a community-based study. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 6:912–916 Stecker EC, Reinier K, Uy-Evanado A et al (2013) Relationship between seizure episode and sudden cardiac arrest in patients with epilepsy: a community-based study. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 6:912–916
48.
Zurück zum Zitat Dami F, Fuchs V, Praz L, Vader JP (2010) Introducing systematic dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (telephone-CPR) in a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System (AMPDS): implementation process and costs. Resuscitation 81:848–852 Dami F, Fuchs V, Praz L, Vader JP (2010) Introducing systematic dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (telephone-CPR) in a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System (AMPDS): implementation process and costs. Resuscitation 81:848–852
49.
Zurück zum Zitat Nurmi J, Pettila V, Biber B, Kuisma M, Komulainen R, Castren M (2006) Effect of protocol compliance to cardiac arrest identification by emergency medical dispatchers. Resuscitation 70:463–469 Nurmi J, Pettila V, Biber B, Kuisma M, Komulainen R, Castren M (2006) Effect of protocol compliance to cardiac arrest identification by emergency medical dispatchers. Resuscitation 70:463–469
50.
Zurück zum Zitat Lewis M, Stubbs BA, Eisenberg MS (2013) Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation: time to identify cardiac arrest and deliver chest compression instructions. Circulation 128:1522–1530 Lewis M, Stubbs BA, Eisenberg MS (2013) Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation: time to identify cardiac arrest and deliver chest compression instructions. Circulation 128:1522–1530
51.
Zurück zum Zitat Hauff SR, Rea TD, Culley LL, Kerry F, Becker L, Eisenberg MS (2003) Factors impeding dispatcher-assisted telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ann Emerg Med 42:731–737 Hauff SR, Rea TD, Culley LL, Kerry F, Becker L, Eisenberg MS (2003) Factors impeding dispatcher-assisted telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ann Emerg Med 42:731–737
52.
Zurück zum Zitat Bohm K, Stalhandske B, Rosenqvist M, Ulfvarson J, Hollenberg J, Svensson L (2009) Tuition of emergency medical dispatchers in the recognition of agonal respiration increases the use of telephone assisted CPR. Resuscitation 80:1025–1028 Bohm K, Stalhandske B, Rosenqvist M, Ulfvarson J, Hollenberg J, Svensson L (2009) Tuition of emergency medical dispatchers in the recognition of agonal respiration increases the use of telephone assisted CPR. Resuscitation 80:1025–1028
53.
Zurück zum Zitat Bohm K, Rosenqvist M, Hollenberg J, Biber B, Engerstrom L, Svensson L (2007) Dispatcher-assisted telephone-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation: an underused lifesaving system. Eur J Emerg Med 14:256–259 Bohm K, Rosenqvist M, Hollenberg J, Biber B, Engerstrom L, Svensson L (2007) Dispatcher-assisted telephone-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation: an underused lifesaving system. Eur J Emerg Med 14:256–259
54.
Zurück zum Zitat Bång A, Herlitz J, Martinell S (2003) Interaction between emergency medical dispatcher and caller in suspected out-of-hospital cardiac arrest calls with focus on agonal breathing. A review of 100 tape recordings of true cardiac arrest cases. Resuscitation 56:25–34 Bång A, Herlitz J, Martinell S (2003) Interaction between emergency medical dispatcher and caller in suspected out-of-hospital cardiac arrest calls with focus on agonal breathing. A review of 100 tape recordings of true cardiac arrest cases. Resuscitation 56:25–34
55.
Zurück zum Zitat Roppolo LP, Westfall A, Pepe PE et al (2009) Dispatcher assessments for agonal breathing improve detection of cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 80:769–772 Roppolo LP, Westfall A, Pepe PE et al (2009) Dispatcher assessments for agonal breathing improve detection of cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 80:769–772
56.
Zurück zum Zitat Vaillancourt C, Verma A, Trickett J et al (2007) Evaluating the effectiveness of dispatch-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructions. Acad Emerg Med 14:877–883 Vaillancourt C, Verma A, Trickett J et al (2007) Evaluating the effectiveness of dispatch-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructions. Acad Emerg Med 14:877–883
57.
Zurück zum Zitat Tanaka Y, Taniguchi J, Wato Y, Yoshida Y, Inaba H (2012) The continuous quality improvement project for telephone-assisted instruction of cardiopulmonary resuscitation increased the incidence of bystander CPR and improved the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. Resuscitation 83:1235–1241 Tanaka Y, Taniguchi J, Wato Y, Yoshida Y, Inaba H (2012) The continuous quality improvement project for telephone-assisted instruction of cardiopulmonary resuscitation increased the incidence of bystander CPR and improved the outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. Resuscitation 83:1235–1241
58.
Zurück zum Zitat Clawson J, Olola C, Heward A, Patterson B (2007) Cardiac arrest predictability in seizure patients based on emergency medical dispatcher identification of previous seizure or epilepsy history. Resuscitation 75:298–304 Clawson J, Olola C, Heward A, Patterson B (2007) Cardiac arrest predictability in seizure patients based on emergency medical dispatcher identification of previous seizure or epilepsy history. Resuscitation 75:298–304
59.
Zurück zum Zitat Eisenberg MS, Hallstrom AP, Carter WB, Cummins RO, Bergner L, Pierce J, Emergency CPR (1985) instruction via telephone. Am J Public Health 75:47–50 Eisenberg MS, Hallstrom AP, Carter WB, Cummins RO, Bergner L, Pierce J, Emergency CPR (1985) instruction via telephone. Am J Public Health 75:47–50
60.
Zurück zum Zitat Akahane M, Ogawa T, Tanabe S et al (2012) Impact of telephone dispatcher assistance on the outcomes of pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 40:1410–1416 Akahane M, Ogawa T, Tanabe S et al (2012) Impact of telephone dispatcher assistance on the outcomes of pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 40:1410–1416
61.
Zurück zum Zitat Bray JE, Deasy C, Walsh J, Bacon A, Currell A, Smith K, Changing EMS (2011) dispatcher CPR instructions to 400 compressions before mouth-to-mouth improved bystander CPR rates. Resuscitation 82:1393–1398 Bray JE, Deasy C, Walsh J, Bacon A, Currell A, Smith K, Changing EMS (2011) dispatcher CPR instructions to 400 compressions before mouth-to-mouth improved bystander CPR rates. Resuscitation 82:1393–1398
62.
Zurück zum Zitat Culley LL, Clark JJ, Eisenberg MS, Larsen MP (1991) Dispatcher-assisted telephone CPR: common delays and time standards for delivery. Ann Emerg Med 20:362–366 Culley LL, Clark JJ, Eisenberg MS, Larsen MP (1991) Dispatcher-assisted telephone CPR: common delays and time standards for delivery. Ann Emerg Med 20:362–366
63.
Zurück zum Zitat Stipulante S, Tubes R, El Fassi M et al (2014) Implementation of the ALERT algorithm, a new dispatcher-assisted telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation protocol, in non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System (AMPDS) Emergency Medical Services centres. Resuscitation 85:177–181 Stipulante S, Tubes R, El Fassi M et al (2014) Implementation of the ALERT algorithm, a new dispatcher-assisted telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation protocol, in non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System (AMPDS) Emergency Medical Services centres. Resuscitation 85:177–181
64.
Zurück zum Zitat Rea TD, Eisenberg MS, Culley LL, Becker L (2001) Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival in cardiac arrest. Circulation 104:2513–2516 Rea TD, Eisenberg MS, Culley LL, Becker L (2001) Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival in cardiac arrest. Circulation 104:2513–2516
65.
Zurück zum Zitat Hallstrom AP (2000) Dispatcher-assisted „phone“ cardiopulmonary resuscitation by chest compression alone or with mouth-to-mouth ventilation. Crit Care Med 28:N190–N192 Hallstrom AP (2000) Dispatcher-assisted „phone“ cardiopulmonary resuscitation by chest compression alone or with mouth-to-mouth ventilation. Crit Care Med 28:N190–N192
66.
Zurück zum Zitat Stromsoe A, Svensson L, Axelsson AB et al (2015) Improved outcome in Sweden after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and possible association with improvements in every link in the chain of survival. Eur Heart J 36:863–871 Stromsoe A, Svensson L, Axelsson AB et al (2015) Improved outcome in Sweden after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and possible association with improvements in every link in the chain of survival. Eur Heart J 36:863–871
67.
Zurück zum Zitat Takei Y, Inaba H, Yachida T, Enami M, Goto Y, Ohta K (2010) Analysis of reasons for emergency call delays in Japan in relation to location: high incidence of correctable causes and the impact of delays on patient outcomes. Resuscitation 81:1492–1498 Takei Y, Inaba H, Yachida T, Enami M, Goto Y, Ohta K (2010) Analysis of reasons for emergency call delays in Japan in relation to location: high incidence of correctable causes and the impact of delays on patient outcomes. Resuscitation 81:1492–1498
68.
Zurück zum Zitat Herlitz J, Engdahl J, Svensson L, Young M, Angquist KA, Holmberg S (2003) A short delay from out of hospital cardiac arrest to call for ambulance increases survival. Eur Heart J 24:1750–1755 Herlitz J, Engdahl J, Svensson L, Young M, Angquist KA, Holmberg S (2003) A short delay from out of hospital cardiac arrest to call for ambulance increases survival. Eur Heart J 24:1750–1755
69.
Zurück zum Zitat Nehme Z, Andrew E, Cameron P et al (2014) Direction of first bystander call for help is associated with outcome from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 85:42–48 Nehme Z, Andrew E, Cameron P et al (2014) Direction of first bystander call for help is associated with outcome from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 85:42–48
70.
Zurück zum Zitat Cha KC, Kim HJ, Shin HJ, Kim H, Lee KH, Hwang SO (2013) Hemodynamic effect of external chest compressions at the lower end of the sternum in cardiac arrest patients. J Emerg Med 44:691–697 Cha KC, Kim HJ, Shin HJ, Kim H, Lee KH, Hwang SO (2013) Hemodynamic effect of external chest compressions at the lower end of the sternum in cardiac arrest patients. J Emerg Med 44:691–697
71.
Zurück zum Zitat Qvigstad E, Kramer-Johansen J, Tomte O et al (2013) Clinical pilot study of different hand positions during manual chest compressions monitored with capnography. Resuscitation 84:1203–1207 Qvigstad E, Kramer-Johansen J, Tomte O et al (2013) Clinical pilot study of different hand positions during manual chest compressions monitored with capnography. Resuscitation 84:1203–1207
72.
Zurück zum Zitat Orlowski JP (1986) Optimum position for external cardiac compression in infants and young children. Ann Emerg Med 15:667–673 Orlowski JP (1986) Optimum position for external cardiac compression in infants and young children. Ann Emerg Med 15:667–673
73.
Zurück zum Zitat Chamberlain D, Smith A, Colquhoun M, Handley AJ, Kern KB, Woollard M (2001) Randomised controlled trials of staged teaching for basic life support: 2. Comparison of CPR performance and skill retention using either staged instruction or conventional training. Resuscitation 50:27–37 Chamberlain D, Smith A, Colquhoun M, Handley AJ, Kern KB, Woollard M (2001) Randomised controlled trials of staged teaching for basic life support: 2. Comparison of CPR performance and skill retention using either staged instruction or conventional training. Resuscitation 50:27–37
74.
Zurück zum Zitat Handley AJ (2002) Teaching hand placement for chest compression – a simpler technique. Resuscitation 53:29–36 Handley AJ (2002) Teaching hand placement for chest compression – a simpler technique. Resuscitation 53:29–36
75.
Zurück zum Zitat Handley AJ, Handley JA (2004) Performing chest compressions in a confined space. Resuscitation 61:55–61 Handley AJ, Handley JA (2004) Performing chest compressions in a confined space. Resuscitation 61:55–61
76.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Stephenson BT, Smith CM, Gao F (2004) A comparison between over-the-head and standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 61:155–161 Perkins GD, Stephenson BT, Smith CM, Gao F (2004) A comparison between over-the-head and standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 61:155–161
77.
Zurück zum Zitat Hostler D, Everson-Stewart S, Rea TD et al (2011) Effect of real-time feedback during cardiopulmonary resuscitation outside hospital: prospective, cluster-randomised trial. BMJ 342:d512 Hostler D, Everson-Stewart S, Rea TD et al (2011) Effect of real-time feedback during cardiopulmonary resuscitation outside hospital: prospective, cluster-randomised trial. BMJ 342:d512
78.
Zurück zum Zitat Stiell IG, Brown SP, Christenson J et al (2012) What is the role of chest compression depth during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation?*. Crit Care Med 40:1192–1198 Stiell IG, Brown SP, Christenson J et al (2012) What is the role of chest compression depth during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation?*. Crit Care Med 40:1192–1198
79.
Zurück zum Zitat Stiell IG, Brown SP, Nichol G et al (2014) What is the optimal chest compression depth during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation of adult patients? Circulation 130:1962–1970 Stiell IG, Brown SP, Nichol G et al (2014) What is the optimal chest compression depth during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation of adult patients? Circulation 130:1962–1970
80.
Zurück zum Zitat Vadeboncoeur T, Stolz U, Panchal A et al (2014) Chest compression depth and survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 85:182–188 Vadeboncoeur T, Stolz U, Panchal A et al (2014) Chest compression depth and survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 85:182–188
81.
Zurück zum Zitat Hellevuo H, Sainio M, Nevalainen R et al (2013) Deeper chest compression – more complications for cardiac arrest patients? Resuscitation 84:760–765 Hellevuo H, Sainio M, Nevalainen R et al (2013) Deeper chest compression – more complications for cardiac arrest patients? Resuscitation 84:760–765
82.
Zurück zum Zitat Idris AH, Guffey D, Pepe PE et al (2015) Chest compression rates and survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 43:840–848 Idris AH, Guffey D, Pepe PE et al (2015) Chest compression rates and survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 43:840–848
83.
Zurück zum Zitat Idris AH, Guffey D, Aufderheide TP et al (2012) Relationship between chest compression rates and outcomes from cardiac arrest. Circulation 125:3004–3012 Idris AH, Guffey D, Aufderheide TP et al (2012) Relationship between chest compression rates and outcomes from cardiac arrest. Circulation 125:3004–3012
84.
Zurück zum Zitat Cheskes S, Schmicker RH, Verbeek PR et al (2014) The impact of peri-shock pause on survival from out-of-hospital shockable cardiac arrest during the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium PRIMED trial. Resuscitation 85:336–342 Cheskes S, Schmicker RH, Verbeek PR et al (2014) The impact of peri-shock pause on survival from out-of-hospital shockable cardiac arrest during the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium PRIMED trial. Resuscitation 85:336–342
85.
Zurück zum Zitat Cheskes S, Schmicker RH, Christenson J et al (2011) Perishock pause: an independent predictor of survival from out-of-hospital shockable cardiac arrest. Circulation 124:58–66 Cheskes S, Schmicker RH, Christenson J et al (2011) Perishock pause: an independent predictor of survival from out-of-hospital shockable cardiac arrest. Circulation 124:58–66
86.
Zurück zum Zitat Vaillancourt C, Everson-Stewart S, Christenson J et al (2011) The impact of increased chest compression fraction on return of spontaneous circulation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients not in ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation 82:1501–1507 Vaillancourt C, Everson-Stewart S, Christenson J et al (2011) The impact of increased chest compression fraction on return of spontaneous circulation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients not in ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation 82:1501–1507
87.
Zurück zum Zitat Sell RE, Sarno R, Lawrence B et al (2010) Minimizing pre- and post-defibrillation pauses increases the likelihood of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Resuscitation 81:822–825 Sell RE, Sarno R, Lawrence B et al (2010) Minimizing pre- and post-defibrillation pauses increases the likelihood of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Resuscitation 81:822–825
88.
Zurück zum Zitat Christenson J, Andrusiek D, Everson-Stewart S et al (2009) Chest compression fraction determines survival in patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Circulation 120:1241–1247 Christenson J, Andrusiek D, Everson-Stewart S et al (2009) Chest compression fraction determines survival in patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Circulation 120:1241–1247
89.
Zurück zum Zitat Delvaux AB, Trombley MT, Rivet CJ et al (2009) Design and development of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation mattress. J Intensive Care Med 24:195–199 Delvaux AB, Trombley MT, Rivet CJ et al (2009) Design and development of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation mattress. J Intensive Care Med 24:195–199
90.
Zurück zum Zitat Nishisaki A, Maltese MR, Niles DE et al (2012) Backboards are important when chest compressions are provided on a soft mattress. Resuscitation 83:1013–1020 Nishisaki A, Maltese MR, Niles DE et al (2012) Backboards are important when chest compressions are provided on a soft mattress. Resuscitation 83:1013–1020
91.
Zurück zum Zitat Sato H, Komasawa N, Ueki R et al (2011) Backboard insertion in the operating table increases chest compression depth: a manikin study. J Anesth 25:770–772 Sato H, Komasawa N, Ueki R et al (2011) Backboard insertion in the operating table increases chest compression depth: a manikin study. J Anesth 25:770–772
92.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Smith CM, Augre C et al (2006) Effects of a backboard, bed height, and operator position on compression depth during simulated resuscitation. Intensive Care Med 32:1632–1635 Perkins GD, Smith CM, Augre C et al (2006) Effects of a backboard, bed height, and operator position on compression depth during simulated resuscitation. Intensive Care Med 32:1632–1635
93.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Kocierz L, Smith SC, McCulloch RA, Davies RP (2009) Compression feedback devices over estimate chest compression depth when performed on a bed. Resuscitation 80:79–82 Perkins GD, Kocierz L, Smith SC, McCulloch RA, Davies RP (2009) Compression feedback devices over estimate chest compression depth when performed on a bed. Resuscitation 80:79–82
94.
Zurück zum Zitat Cloete G, Dellimore KH, Scheffer C, Smuts MS, Wallis LA (2011) The impact of backboard size and orientation on sternum-to-spine compression depth and compression stiffness in a manikin study of CPR using two mattress types. Resuscitation 82:1064–1070 Cloete G, Dellimore KH, Scheffer C, Smuts MS, Wallis LA (2011) The impact of backboard size and orientation on sternum-to-spine compression depth and compression stiffness in a manikin study of CPR using two mattress types. Resuscitation 82:1064–1070
95.
Zurück zum Zitat Niles DE, Sutton RM, Nadkarni VM et al (2011) Prevalence and hemodynamic effects of leaning during CPR. Resuscitation 82(Suppl 2):S23–S26 Niles DE, Sutton RM, Nadkarni VM et al (2011) Prevalence and hemodynamic effects of leaning during CPR. Resuscitation 82(Suppl 2):S23–S26
96.
Zurück zum Zitat Zuercher M, Hilwig RW, Ranger-Moore J et al (2010) Leaning during chest compressions impairs cardiac output and left ventricular myocardial blood flow in piglet cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 38:1141–1146 Zuercher M, Hilwig RW, Ranger-Moore J et al (2010) Leaning during chest compressions impairs cardiac output and left ventricular myocardial blood flow in piglet cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 38:1141–1146
97.
Zurück zum Zitat Aufderheide TP, Pirrallo RG, Yannopoulos D et al (2005) Incomplete chest wall decompression: a clinical evaluation of CPR performance by EMS personnel and assessment of alternative manual chest compression-decompression techniques. Resuscitation 64:353–362 Aufderheide TP, Pirrallo RG, Yannopoulos D et al (2005) Incomplete chest wall decompression: a clinical evaluation of CPR performance by EMS personnel and assessment of alternative manual chest compression-decompression techniques. Resuscitation 64:353–362
98.
Zurück zum Zitat Yannopoulos D, McKnite S, Aufderheide TP et al (2005) Effects of incomplete chest wall decompression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation on coronary and cerebral perfusion pressures in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 64:363–372 Yannopoulos D, McKnite S, Aufderheide TP et al (2005) Effects of incomplete chest wall decompression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation on coronary and cerebral perfusion pressures in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 64:363–372
99.
Zurück zum Zitat Couper K, Salman B, Soar J, Finn J, Perkins GD (2013) Debriefing to improve outcomes from critical illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med 39:1513–1523 Couper K, Salman B, Soar J, Finn J, Perkins GD (2013) Debriefing to improve outcomes from critical illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med 39:1513–1523
100.
Zurück zum Zitat Couper K, Kimani PK, Abella BS et al (2015) The system-wide effect of real-time audiovisual feedback and postevent debriefing for in-hospital cardiac arrest: the cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality improvement initiative. Crit Care Med (in press) Couper K, Kimani PK, Abella BS et al (2015) The system-wide effect of real-time audiovisual feedback and postevent debriefing for in-hospital cardiac arrest: the cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality improvement initiative. Crit Care Med (in press)
101.
Zurück zum Zitat Baskett P, Nolan J, Parr M (1996) Tidal volumes which are perceived to be adequate for resuscitation. Resuscitation 31:231–234 Baskett P, Nolan J, Parr M (1996) Tidal volumes which are perceived to be adequate for resuscitation. Resuscitation 31:231–234
102.
Zurück zum Zitat Beesems SG, Wijmans L, Tijssen JG, Koster RW (2013) Duration of ventilations during cardiopulmonary resuscitation by lay rescuers and first responders: relationship between delivering chest compressions and outcomes. Circulation 127:1585–1590 Beesems SG, Wijmans L, Tijssen JG, Koster RW (2013) Duration of ventilations during cardiopulmonary resuscitation by lay rescuers and first responders: relationship between delivering chest compressions and outcomes. Circulation 127:1585–1590
103.
Zurück zum Zitat Sayre MR, Cantrell SA, White LJ, Hiestand BC, Keseg DP, Koser S (2009) Impact of the 2005 American Heart Association cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care guidelines on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival. Prehosp Emerg Care 13:469–477 Sayre MR, Cantrell SA, White LJ, Hiestand BC, Keseg DP, Koser S (2009) Impact of the 2005 American Heart Association cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care guidelines on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival. Prehosp Emerg Care 13:469–477
104.
Zurück zum Zitat Steinmetz J, Barnung S, Nielsen SL, Risom M, Rasmussen LS (2008) Improved survival after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using new guidelines. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 52:908–913 Steinmetz J, Barnung S, Nielsen SL, Risom M, Rasmussen LS (2008) Improved survival after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using new guidelines. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 52:908–913
105.
Zurück zum Zitat Olasveengen TM, Vik E, Kuzovlev A, Sunde K (2009) Effect of implementation of new resuscitation guidelines on quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival. Resuscitation 80:407–411 Olasveengen TM, Vik E, Kuzovlev A, Sunde K (2009) Effect of implementation of new resuscitation guidelines on quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival. Resuscitation 80:407–411
106.
Zurück zum Zitat Hinchey PR, Myers JB, Lewis R et al (2010) Improved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival after the sequential implementation of 2005 AHA guidelines for compressions, ventilations, and induced hypothermia: the Wake County experience. Ann Emerg Med 56:348–357 Hinchey PR, Myers JB, Lewis R et al (2010) Improved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival after the sequential implementation of 2005 AHA guidelines for compressions, ventilations, and induced hypothermia: the Wake County experience. Ann Emerg Med 56:348–357
107.
Zurück zum Zitat Panchal AR, Bobrow BJ, Spaite DW et al (2013) Chest compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed by lay rescuers for adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to non-cardiac aetiologies. Resuscitation 84:435–439 Panchal AR, Bobrow BJ, Spaite DW et al (2013) Chest compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed by lay rescuers for adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to non-cardiac aetiologies. Resuscitation 84:435–439
108.
Zurück zum Zitat Kitamura T, Iwami T, Kawamura T et al (2011) Time-dependent effectiveness of chest compression-only and conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac origin. Resuscitation 82:3–9 Kitamura T, Iwami T, Kawamura T et al (2011) Time-dependent effectiveness of chest compression-only and conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of cardiac origin. Resuscitation 82:3–9
109.
Zurück zum Zitat Mohler MJ, Wendel CS, Mosier J et al (2011) Cardiocerebral resuscitation improves out-of-hospital survival in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 59:822–826 Mohler MJ, Wendel CS, Mosier J et al (2011) Cardiocerebral resuscitation improves out-of-hospital survival in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 59:822–826
110.
Zurück zum Zitat Bobrow BJ, Spaite DW, Berg RA et al (2010) Chest compression-only CPR by lay rescuers and survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 304:1447–1454 Bobrow BJ, Spaite DW, Berg RA et al (2010) Chest compression-only CPR by lay rescuers and survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 304:1447–1454
111.
Zurück zum Zitat Kitamura T, Iwami T, Kawamura T, Nagao K, Tanaka H, Hiraide A (2010) Bystander-Initiated Rescue Breathing for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests of Noncardiac Origin. Circulation 122:293–299 Kitamura T, Iwami T, Kawamura T, Nagao K, Tanaka H, Hiraide A (2010) Bystander-Initiated Rescue Breathing for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests of Noncardiac Origin. Circulation 122:293–299
112.
Zurück zum Zitat Ong ME, Ng FS, Anushia P et al (2008) Comparison of chest compression only and standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Singapore. Resuscitation 78:119–126 Ong ME, Ng FS, Anushia P et al (2008) Comparison of chest compression only and standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Singapore. Resuscitation 78:119–126
113.
Zurück zum Zitat Bohm K, Rosenqvist M, Herlitz J, Hollenberg J, Svensson L (2007) Survival is similar after standard treatment and chest compression only in out-of-hospital bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 116:2908–2912 Bohm K, Rosenqvist M, Herlitz J, Hollenberg J, Svensson L (2007) Survival is similar after standard treatment and chest compression only in out-of-hospital bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 116:2908–2912
114.
Zurück zum Zitat SOS-KANTO Study Group (2007) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders with chest compression only (SOS-KANTO): an observational study. Lancet 369:920–926 SOS-KANTO Study Group (2007) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders with chest compression only (SOS-KANTO): an observational study. Lancet 369:920–926
115.
Zurück zum Zitat Iwami T, Kawamura T, Hiraide A et al (2007) Effectiveness of bystander-initiated cardiac-only resuscitation for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 116:2900–2907 Iwami T, Kawamura T, Hiraide A et al (2007) Effectiveness of bystander-initiated cardiac-only resuscitation for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 116:2900–2907
116.
Zurück zum Zitat Bossaert L, Van Hoeyweghen R (1989) Evaluation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques. The Cerebral Resuscitation Study Group. Resuscitation 17(Suppl):S99–S109 (discussion S 99–206) Bossaert L, Van Hoeyweghen R (1989) Evaluation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques. The Cerebral Resuscitation Study Group. Resuscitation 17(Suppl):S99–S109 (discussion S 99–206)
117.
Zurück zum Zitat Gallagher EJ, Lombardi G, Gennis P (1995) Effectiveness of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 274:1922–1925 Gallagher EJ, Lombardi G, Gennis P (1995) Effectiveness of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 274:1922–1925
118.
Zurück zum Zitat Olasveengen TM, Wik L, Steen PA (2008) Standard basic life support vs. continuous chest compressions only in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 52:914–919 Olasveengen TM, Wik L, Steen PA (2008) Standard basic life support vs. continuous chest compressions only in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 52:914–919
119.
Zurück zum Zitat Kitamura T, Iwami T, Kawamura T et al (2010) Conventional and chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders for children who have out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: a prospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study. Lancet 375:1347–1354 Kitamura T, Iwami T, Kawamura T et al (2010) Conventional and chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders for children who have out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: a prospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study. Lancet 375:1347–1354
120.
Zurück zum Zitat Goto Y, Maeda T, Goto Y (2014) Impact of dispatcher-assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation on neurological outcomes in children with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: a prospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study. J Am Heart Assoc 3:e000499 Goto Y, Maeda T, Goto Y (2014) Impact of dispatcher-assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation on neurological outcomes in children with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: a prospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study. J Am Heart Assoc 3:e000499
121.
Zurück zum Zitat Yeung J, Okamoto D, Soar J, Perkins GD (2011) AED training and its impact on skill acquisition, retention and performance – a systematic review of alternative training methods. Resuscitation 82:657–664 Yeung J, Okamoto D, Soar J, Perkins GD (2011) AED training and its impact on skill acquisition, retention and performance – a systematic review of alternative training methods. Resuscitation 82:657–664
122.
Zurück zum Zitat Mitani Y, Ohta K, Yodoya N et al (2013) Public access defibrillation improved the outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in school-age children: a nationwide, population-based, Utstein registry study in Japan. Europace 15:1259–1266 Mitani Y, Ohta K, Yodoya N et al (2013) Public access defibrillation improved the outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in school-age children: a nationwide, population-based, Utstein registry study in Japan. Europace 15:1259–1266
123.
Zurück zum Zitat Johnson MA, Grahan BJ, Haukoos JS et al (2014) Demographics, bystander CPR, and AED use in out-of-hospital pediatric arrests. Resuscitation 85:920–926 Johnson MA, Grahan BJ, Haukoos JS et al (2014) Demographics, bystander CPR, and AED use in out-of-hospital pediatric arrests. Resuscitation 85:920–926
124.
Zurück zum Zitat Akahane M, Tanabe S, Ogawa T et al (2013) Characteristics and outcomes of pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by scholastic age category. Pediatr Crit Care Med 14:130–136 Akahane M, Tanabe S, Ogawa T et al (2013) Characteristics and outcomes of pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by scholastic age category. Pediatr Crit Care Med 14:130–136
125.
Zurück zum Zitat Nichol G, Valenzuela T, Roe D, Clark L, Huszti E, Wells GA (2003) Cost effectiveness of defibrillation by targeted responders in public settings. Circulation 108:697–703 Nichol G, Valenzuela T, Roe D, Clark L, Huszti E, Wells GA (2003) Cost effectiveness of defibrillation by targeted responders in public settings. Circulation 108:697–703
126.
Zurück zum Zitat Nichol G, Huszti E, Birnbaum A et al (2009) Cost-effectiveness of lay responder defibrillation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med 54:226–235, e1–2 Nichol G, Huszti E, Birnbaum A et al (2009) Cost-effectiveness of lay responder defibrillation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med 54:226–235, e1–2
127.
Zurück zum Zitat Folke F, Lippert FK, Nielsen SL et al (2009) Location of cardiac arrest in a city center: strategic placement of automated external defibrillators in public locations. Circulation 120:510–517 Folke F, Lippert FK, Nielsen SL et al (2009) Location of cardiac arrest in a city center: strategic placement of automated external defibrillators in public locations. Circulation 120:510–517
128.
Zurück zum Zitat Hansen CM, Lippert FK, Wissenberg M et al (2014) Temporal trends in coverage of historical cardiac arrests using a volunteer-based network of automated external defibrillators accessible to laypersons and emergency dispatch centers. Circulation 130:1859–1867 Hansen CM, Lippert FK, Wissenberg M et al (2014) Temporal trends in coverage of historical cardiac arrests using a volunteer-based network of automated external defibrillators accessible to laypersons and emergency dispatch centers. Circulation 130:1859–1867
129.
Zurück zum Zitat Weisfeldt ML, Everson-Stewart S, Sitlani C et al (2011) Ventricular tachyarrhythmias after cardiac arrest in public versus at home. N Engl J Med 364:313–321 Weisfeldt ML, Everson-Stewart S, Sitlani C et al (2011) Ventricular tachyarrhythmias after cardiac arrest in public versus at home. N Engl J Med 364:313–321
130.
Zurück zum Zitat The Public Access Defibrillation Trial Investigators (2004) Public-access defibrillation and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 351:637–646 The Public Access Defibrillation Trial Investigators (2004) Public-access defibrillation and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 351:637–646
132.
Zurück zum Zitat Forcina MS, Farhat AY, O’Neil WW, Haines DE (2009) Cardiac arrest survival after implementation of automated external defibrillator technology in the in-hospital setting. Crit Care Med 37:1229–1236 Forcina MS, Farhat AY, O’Neil WW, Haines DE (2009) Cardiac arrest survival after implementation of automated external defibrillator technology in the in-hospital setting. Crit Care Med 37:1229–1236
133.
Zurück zum Zitat Smith RJ, Hickey BB, Santamaria JD (2009) Automated external defibrillators and survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest: early experience at an Australian teaching hospital. Crit Care Resusc 11:261–265 Smith RJ, Hickey BB, Santamaria JD (2009) Automated external defibrillators and survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest: early experience at an Australian teaching hospital. Crit Care Resusc 11:261–265
134.
Zurück zum Zitat Smith RJ, Hickey BB, Santamaria JD (2011) Automated external defibrillators and in-hospital cardiac arrest: patient survival and device performance at an Australian teaching hospital. Resuscitation 82:1537–1542 Smith RJ, Hickey BB, Santamaria JD (2011) Automated external defibrillators and in-hospital cardiac arrest: patient survival and device performance at an Australian teaching hospital. Resuscitation 82:1537–1542
135.
Zurück zum Zitat Chan PS, Krumholz HM, Spertus JA et al (2010) Automated external defibrillators and survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 304:2129–2136 Chan PS, Krumholz HM, Spertus JA et al (2010) Automated external defibrillators and survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 304:2129–2136
136.
Zurück zum Zitat Gibbison B, Soar J (2011) Automated external defibrillator use for in-hospital cardiac arrest is not associated with improved survival. Evid Based Med 16:95–96 Gibbison B, Soar J (2011) Automated external defibrillator use for in-hospital cardiac arrest is not associated with improved survival. Evid Based Med 16:95–96
137.
Zurück zum Zitat Chan PS, Krumholz HM, Nichol G, Nallamothu BK (2008) Delayed time to defibrillation after in-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 358:9–17 Chan PS, Krumholz HM, Nichol G, Nallamothu BK (2008) Delayed time to defibrillation after in-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 358:9–17
138.
Zurück zum Zitat Fingerhut LA, Cox CS, Warner M (1998) International comparative analysis of injury mortality. Findings from the ICE on injury statistics. International Collaborative Effort on Injury Statistics. Adv Data (303):1–20 Fingerhut LA, Cox CS, Warner M (1998) International comparative analysis of injury mortality. Findings from the ICE on injury statistics. International Collaborative Effort on Injury Statistics. Adv Data (303):1–20
139.
Zurück zum Zitat (2005) Proceedings of the 2005 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 67:157–341 (2005) Proceedings of the 2005 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 67:157–341
140.
Zurück zum Zitat Langhelle A, Sunde K, Wik L, Steen PA (2000) Airway pressure with chest compressions versus Heimlich manoeuvre in recently dead adults with complete airway obstruction. Resuscitation 44:105–108 Langhelle A, Sunde K, Wik L, Steen PA (2000) Airway pressure with chest compressions versus Heimlich manoeuvre in recently dead adults with complete airway obstruction. Resuscitation 44:105–108
141.
Zurück zum Zitat Guildner CW, Williams D, Subitch T (1976) Airway obstructed by foreign material: the Heimlich maneuver. JACEP 5:675–677 Guildner CW, Williams D, Subitch T (1976) Airway obstructed by foreign material: the Heimlich maneuver. JACEP 5:675–677
142.
Zurück zum Zitat Ruben H, Macnaughton FI (1978) The treatment of food-choking. Practitioner 221:725–729 Ruben H, Macnaughton FI (1978) The treatment of food-choking. Practitioner 221:725–729
143.
Zurück zum Zitat Sandroni C, Nolan J, Cavallaro F, Antonelli M (2007) In-hospital cardiac arrest: incidence, prognosis and possible measures to improve survival. Intensive Care Med 33:237–245 Sandroni C, Nolan J, Cavallaro F, Antonelli M (2007) In-hospital cardiac arrest: incidence, prognosis and possible measures to improve survival. Intensive Care Med 33:237–245
144.
Zurück zum Zitat Nolan JP, Soar J, Smith GB et al (2014) Incidence and outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest in the United Kingdom National Cardiac Arrest Audit. Resuscitation 85:987–992 Nolan JP, Soar J, Smith GB et al (2014) Incidence and outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest in the United Kingdom National Cardiac Arrest Audit. Resuscitation 85:987–992
145.
Zurück zum Zitat Smith GB (2010) In-hospital cardiac arrest: is it time for an in-hospital ‚chain of prevention‘? Resuscitation Smith GB (2010) In-hospital cardiac arrest: is it time for an in-hospital ‚chain of prevention‘? Resuscitation
146.
Zurück zum Zitat Muller D, Agrawal R, Arntz HR (2006) How sudden is sudden cardiac death? Circulation 114:1146–1150 Muller D, Agrawal R, Arntz HR (2006) How sudden is sudden cardiac death? Circulation 114:1146–1150
147.
Zurück zum Zitat Winkel BG, Risgaard B, Sadjadieh G, Bundgaard H, Haunso S, Tfelt-Hansen J (2014) Sudden cardiac death in children (1–18 years): symptoms and causes of death in a nationwide setting. Eur Heart J 35:868–875 Winkel BG, Risgaard B, Sadjadieh G, Bundgaard H, Haunso S, Tfelt-Hansen J (2014) Sudden cardiac death in children (1–18 years): symptoms and causes of death in a nationwide setting. Eur Heart J 35:868–875
148.
Zurück zum Zitat Harmon KG, Drezner JA, Wilson MG, Sharma S (2014) Incidence of sudden cardiac death in athletes: a state-of-the-art review. Heart 100:1227–1234 Harmon KG, Drezner JA, Wilson MG, Sharma S (2014) Incidence of sudden cardiac death in athletes: a state-of-the-art review. Heart 100:1227–1234
149.
Zurück zum Zitat Basso C, Carturan E, Pilichou K, Rizzo S, Corrado D, Thiene G (2010) Sudden cardiac death with normal heart: molecular autopsy. Cardiovasc Pathol 19:321–325 Basso C, Carturan E, Pilichou K, Rizzo S, Corrado D, Thiene G (2010) Sudden cardiac death with normal heart: molecular autopsy. Cardiovasc Pathol 19:321–325
150.
Zurück zum Zitat Mazzanti A, O’Rourke S, Ng K et al (2014) The usual suspects in sudden cardiac death of the young: a focus on inherited arrhythmogenic diseases. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 12:499–519 Mazzanti A, O’Rourke S, Ng K et al (2014) The usual suspects in sudden cardiac death of the young: a focus on inherited arrhythmogenic diseases. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 12:499–519
151.
Zurück zum Zitat Goldberger JJ, Basu A, Boineau R et al (2014) Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death: a plan for the future. Circulation 129:516–526 Goldberger JJ, Basu A, Boineau R et al (2014) Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death: a plan for the future. Circulation 129:516–526
152.
Zurück zum Zitat Corrado D, Drezner J, Basso C, Pelliccia A, Thiene G (2011) Strategies for the prevention of sudden cardiac death during sports. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 18:197–208 Corrado D, Drezner J, Basso C, Pelliccia A, Thiene G (2011) Strategies for the prevention of sudden cardiac death during sports. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 18:197–208
153.
Zurück zum Zitat Mahmood S, Lim L, Akram Y, Alford-Morales S, Sherin K, Committee APP (2013) Screening for sudden cardiac death before participation in high school and collegiate sports: american College of Preventive Medicine position statement on preventive practice. Am J Prev Med 45:130–133 Mahmood S, Lim L, Akram Y, Alford-Morales S, Sherin K, Committee APP (2013) Screening for sudden cardiac death before participation in high school and collegiate sports: american College of Preventive Medicine position statement on preventive practice. Am J Prev Med 45:130–133
154.
Zurück zum Zitat Skinner JR (2012) Investigating sudden unexpected death in the young: a chance to prevent further deaths. Resuscitation 83:1185–1186 Skinner JR (2012) Investigating sudden unexpected death in the young: a chance to prevent further deaths. Resuscitation 83:1185–1186
155.
Zurück zum Zitat Skinner JR (2013) Investigation following resuscitated cardiac arrest. Arch Dis Child 98:66–71 Skinner JR (2013) Investigation following resuscitated cardiac arrest. Arch Dis Child 98:66–71
156.
Zurück zum Zitat Vriesendorp PA, Schinkel AF, Liebregts M et al (2015) Validation of the 2014 ESC Guidelines Risk Prediction Model for the Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol Vriesendorp PA, Schinkel AF, Liebregts M et al (2015) Validation of the 2014 ESC Guidelines Risk Prediction Model for the Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
157.
Zurück zum Zitat Morrison LJ, Visentin LM, Kiss A et al (2006) Validation of a rule for termination of resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 355:478–487 Morrison LJ, Visentin LM, Kiss A et al (2006) Validation of a rule for termination of resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 355:478–487
158.
Zurück zum Zitat Richman PB, Vadeboncoeur TF, Chikani V, Clark L, Bobrow BJ (2008) Independent evaluation of an out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation (TOR) clinical decision rule. Acad Emerg Med 15:517–521 Richman PB, Vadeboncoeur TF, Chikani V, Clark L, Bobrow BJ (2008) Independent evaluation of an out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation (TOR) clinical decision rule. Acad Emerg Med 15:517–521
159.
Zurück zum Zitat Morrison LJ, Verbeek PR, Zhan C, Kiss A, Allan KS (2009) Validation of a universal prehospital termination of resuscitation clinical prediction rule for advanced and basic life support providers. Resuscitation 80:324–328 Morrison LJ, Verbeek PR, Zhan C, Kiss A, Allan KS (2009) Validation of a universal prehospital termination of resuscitation clinical prediction rule for advanced and basic life support providers. Resuscitation 80:324–328
160.
Zurück zum Zitat Sasson C, Hegg AJ, Macy M, Park A, Kellermann A, McNally B (2008) Prehospital termination of resuscitation in cases of refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 300:1432–1438 Sasson C, Hegg AJ, Macy M, Park A, Kellermann A, McNally B (2008) Prehospital termination of resuscitation in cases of refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 300:1432–1438
161.
Zurück zum Zitat Morrison LJ, Eby D, Veigas PV et al (2014) Implementation trial of the basic life support termination of resuscitation rule: reducing the transport of futile out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. Resuscitation 85:486–491 Morrison LJ, Eby D, Veigas PV et al (2014) Implementation trial of the basic life support termination of resuscitation rule: reducing the transport of futile out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. Resuscitation 85:486–491
162.
Zurück zum Zitat Skrifvars MB, Vayrynen T, Kuisma M et al (2010) Comparison of Helsinki and European Resuscitation Council „do not attempt to resuscitate“ guidelines, and a termination of resuscitation clinical prediction rule for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients found in asystole or pulseless electrical activity. Resuscitation 81:679–684 Skrifvars MB, Vayrynen T, Kuisma M et al (2010) Comparison of Helsinki and European Resuscitation Council „do not attempt to resuscitate“ guidelines, and a termination of resuscitation clinical prediction rule for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients found in asystole or pulseless electrical activity. Resuscitation 81:679–684
163.
Zurück zum Zitat Fukuda T, Ohashi N, Matsubara T et al (2014) Applicability of the prehospital termination of resuscitation rule in an area dense with hospitals in Tokyo: a single-center, retrospective, observational study: is the pre hospital TOR rule applicable in Tokyo? Am J Emerg Med 32:144–149 Fukuda T, Ohashi N, Matsubara T et al (2014) Applicability of the prehospital termination of resuscitation rule in an area dense with hospitals in Tokyo: a single-center, retrospective, observational study: is the pre hospital TOR rule applicable in Tokyo? Am J Emerg Med 32:144–149
164.
Zurück zum Zitat Chiang WC, Ko PC, Chang AM et al (2015) Predictive performance of universal termination of resuscitation rules in an Asian community: are they accurate enough? Emerg Med J 32:318–323 Chiang WC, Ko PC, Chang AM et al (2015) Predictive performance of universal termination of resuscitation rules in an Asian community: are they accurate enough? Emerg Med J 32:318–323
165.
Zurück zum Zitat Diskin FJ, Camp-Rogers T, Peberdy MA, Ornato JP, Kurz MC (2014) External validation of termination of resuscitation guidelines in the setting of intra-arrest cold saline, mechanical CPR, and comprehensive post resuscitation care. Resuscitation 85:910–914 Diskin FJ, Camp-Rogers T, Peberdy MA, Ornato JP, Kurz MC (2014) External validation of termination of resuscitation guidelines in the setting of intra-arrest cold saline, mechanical CPR, and comprehensive post resuscitation care. Resuscitation 85:910–914
166.
Zurück zum Zitat Drennan IR, Lin S, Sidalak DE, Morrison LJ (2014) Survival rates in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients transported without prehospital return of spontaneous circulation: an observational cohort study. Resuscitation 85:1488–1493 Drennan IR, Lin S, Sidalak DE, Morrison LJ (2014) Survival rates in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients transported without prehospital return of spontaneous circulation: an observational cohort study. Resuscitation 85:1488–1493
167.
Zurück zum Zitat Brennan RT, Braslow A (1998) Skill mastery in public CPR classes. Am J Emerg Med 16:653–657 Brennan RT, Braslow A (1998) Skill mastery in public CPR classes. Am J Emerg Med 16:653–657
168.
Zurück zum Zitat Chamberlain D, Smith A, Woollard M et al (2002) Trials of teaching methods in basic life support (3): comparison of simulated CPR performance after first training and at 6 months, with a note on the value of re-training. Resuscitation 53:179–187 Chamberlain D, Smith A, Woollard M et al (2002) Trials of teaching methods in basic life support (3): comparison of simulated CPR performance after first training and at 6 months, with a note on the value of re-training. Resuscitation 53:179–187
169.
Zurück zum Zitat Eberle B, Dick WF, Schneider T, Wisser G, Doetsch S, Tzanova I (1996) Checking the carotid pulse check: diagnostic accuracy of first responders in patients with and without a pulse. Resuscitation 33:107–116 Eberle B, Dick WF, Schneider T, Wisser G, Doetsch S, Tzanova I (1996) Checking the carotid pulse check: diagnostic accuracy of first responders in patients with and without a pulse. Resuscitation 33:107–116
170.
Zurück zum Zitat Lapostolle F, Toumelin P L, Agostinucci JM, Catineau J, Adnet F (2004) Basic cardiac life support providers checking the carotid pulse: performance, degree of conviction, and influencing factors. Acad Emerg Med 11:878–880 Lapostolle F, Toumelin P L, Agostinucci JM, Catineau J, Adnet F (2004) Basic cardiac life support providers checking the carotid pulse: performance, degree of conviction, and influencing factors. Acad Emerg Med 11:878–880
171.
Zurück zum Zitat Liberman M, Lavoie A, Mulder D, Sampalis J (1999) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: errors made by pre-hospital emergency medical personnel. Resuscitation 42:47–55 Liberman M, Lavoie A, Mulder D, Sampalis J (1999) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: errors made by pre-hospital emergency medical personnel. Resuscitation 42:47–55
172.
Zurück zum Zitat Ruppert M, Reith MW, Widmann JH et al (1999) Checking for breathing: evaluation of the diagnostic capability of emergency medical services personnel, physicians, medical students, and medical laypersons. Ann Emerg Med 34:720–729 Ruppert M, Reith MW, Widmann JH et al (1999) Checking for breathing: evaluation of the diagnostic capability of emergency medical services personnel, physicians, medical students, and medical laypersons. Ann Emerg Med 34:720–729
173.
Zurück zum Zitat White L, Rogers J, Bloomingdale M et al (2010) Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation: risks for patients not in cardiac arrest. Circulation 121:91–97 White L, Rogers J, Bloomingdale M et al (2010) Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation: risks for patients not in cardiac arrest. Circulation 121:91–97
174.
Zurück zum Zitat Sheak KR, Wiebe DJ, Leary M et al (2015) Quantitative relationship between end-tidal carbon dioxide and CPR quality during both in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 89:149–154 Sheak KR, Wiebe DJ, Leary M et al (2015) Quantitative relationship between end-tidal carbon dioxide and CPR quality during both in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 89:149–154
175.
Zurück zum Zitat Soar J, Callaway CW, Aibiki M et al (2015) Part 4: Advanced life support: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 95:e71–e122 Soar J, Callaway CW, Aibiki M et al (2015) Part 4: Advanced life support: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 95:e71–e122
176.
Zurück zum Zitat Edelson DP, Robertson-Dick BJ, Yuen TC et al (2010) Safety and efficacy of defibrillator charging during ongoing chest compressions: a multi-center study. Resuscitation 81:1521–1526 Edelson DP, Robertson-Dick BJ, Yuen TC et al (2010) Safety and efficacy of defibrillator charging during ongoing chest compressions: a multi-center study. Resuscitation 81:1521–1526
177.
Zurück zum Zitat Hansen LK, Mohammed A, Pedersen M et al (2015) Eur J Emerg Med Hansen LK, Mohammed A, Pedersen M et al (2015) Eur J Emerg Med
178.
Zurück zum Zitat Featherstone P, Chalmers T, Smith GB (2008) RSVP: a system for communication of deterioration in hospital patients. Br J Nurs 17:860–864 Featherstone P, Chalmers T, Smith GB (2008) RSVP: a system for communication of deterioration in hospital patients. Br J Nurs 17:860–864
179.
Zurück zum Zitat Marshall S, Harrison J, Flanagan B (2009) The teaching of a structured tool improves the clarity and content of interprofessional clinical communication. Qual Saf Health Care 18:137–140 Marshall S, Harrison J, Flanagan B (2009) The teaching of a structured tool improves the clarity and content of interprofessional clinical communication. Qual Saf Health Care 18:137–140
180.
Zurück zum Zitat Abella BS, Alvarado JP, Myklebust H et al (2005) Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during in-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 293:305–310 Abella BS, Alvarado JP, Myklebust H et al (2005) Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during in-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 293:305–310
181.
Zurück zum Zitat Abella BS, Sandbo N, Vassilatos P et al (2005) Chest compression rates during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are suboptimal: a prospective study during in-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 111:428–434 Abella BS, Sandbo N, Vassilatos P et al (2005) Chest compression rates during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are suboptimal: a prospective study during in-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 111:428–434
182.
Zurück zum Zitat Pokorna M, Necas E, Kratochvil J, Skripsky R, Andrlik M, Franek O (2010) A sudden increase in partial pressure end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO(2)) at the moment of return of spontaneous circulation. J Emerg Med 38:614–621 Pokorna M, Necas E, Kratochvil J, Skripsky R, Andrlik M, Franek O (2010) A sudden increase in partial pressure end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO(2)) at the moment of return of spontaneous circulation. J Emerg Med 38:614–621
183.
Zurück zum Zitat Heradstveit BE, Sunde K, Sunde GA, Wentzel-Larsen T, Heltne JK (2012) Factors complicating interpretation of capnography during advanced life support in cardiac arrest–a clinical retrospective study in 575 patients. Resuscitation 83:813–818 Heradstveit BE, Sunde K, Sunde GA, Wentzel-Larsen T, Heltne JK (2012) Factors complicating interpretation of capnography during advanced life support in cardiac arrest–a clinical retrospective study in 575 patients. Resuscitation 83:813–818
184.
Zurück zum Zitat Davis DP, Sell RE, Wilkes N et al (2013) Electrical and mechanical recovery of cardiac function following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 84:25–30 Davis DP, Sell RE, Wilkes N et al (2013) Electrical and mechanical recovery of cardiac function following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 84:25–30
185.
Zurück zum Zitat Stiell IG, Wells GA, Field B et al (2004) Advanced cardiac life support in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 351:647–656 Stiell IG, Wells GA, Field B et al (2004) Advanced cardiac life support in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 351:647–656
186.
Zurück zum Zitat Olasveengen TM, Sunde K, Brunborg C, Thowsen J, Steen PA, Wik L (2009) Intravenous drug administration during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized trial. JAMA 302:2222–2229 Olasveengen TM, Sunde K, Brunborg C, Thowsen J, Steen PA, Wik L (2009) Intravenous drug administration during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized trial. JAMA 302:2222–2229
187.
Zurück zum Zitat Herlitz J, Ekstrom L, Wennerblom B, Axelsson A, Bang A, Holmberg S (1995) Adrenaline in out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Does it make any difference? Resuscitation 29:195–201 Herlitz J, Ekstrom L, Wennerblom B, Axelsson A, Bang A, Holmberg S (1995) Adrenaline in out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Does it make any difference? Resuscitation 29:195–201
188.
Zurück zum Zitat Holmberg M, Holmberg S, Herlitz J (2002) Low chance of survival among patients requiring adrenaline (epinephrine) or intubation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden. Resuscitation 54:37–45 Holmberg M, Holmberg S, Herlitz J (2002) Low chance of survival among patients requiring adrenaline (epinephrine) or intubation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden. Resuscitation 54:37–45
189.
Zurück zum Zitat Jacobs IG, Finn JC, Jelinek GA, Oxer HF, Thompson PL (2011) Effect of adrenaline on survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Resuscitation 82:1138–1143 Jacobs IG, Finn JC, Jelinek GA, Oxer HF, Thompson PL (2011) Effect of adrenaline on survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Resuscitation 82:1138–1143
190.
Zurück zum Zitat Benoit JL, Gerecht RB, Steuerwald MT, McMullan JT (2015) Endotracheal intubation versus supraglottic airway placement in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a meta-analysis. Resuscitation 93:20–26 Benoit JL, Gerecht RB, Steuerwald MT, McMullan JT (2015) Endotracheal intubation versus supraglottic airway placement in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a meta-analysis. Resuscitation 93:20–26
191.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Nolan JP (2014) Early adrenaline for cardiac arrest. BMJ 348:g3245 Perkins GD, Nolan JP (2014) Early adrenaline for cardiac arrest. BMJ 348:g3245
192.
Zurück zum Zitat Soar J, Nolan JP (2013) Airway management in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Curr Opin Crit Care 19:181–187 Soar J, Nolan JP (2013) Airway management in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Curr Opin Crit Care 19:181–187
193.
Zurück zum Zitat Lexow K, Sunde K, Norwegian W (2007) 2005 guidelines differs slightly from the ERC guidelines. Resuscitation 72:490–492 Lexow K, Sunde K, Norwegian W (2007) 2005 guidelines differs slightly from the ERC guidelines. Resuscitation 72:490–492
194.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakin CD, Nolan JP, Sunde K, Koster RW (2010) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 3. Electrical therapies: automated external defibrillators, defibrillation, cardioversion and pacing. Resuscitation 81:1293–1304 Deakin CD, Nolan JP, Sunde K, Koster RW (2010) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 3. Electrical therapies: automated external defibrillators, defibrillation, cardioversion and pacing. Resuscitation 81:1293–1304
195.
Zurück zum Zitat Koster RW, Walker RG, Chapman FW (2008) Recurrent ventricular fibrillation during advanced life support care of patients with prehospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 78:252–257 Koster RW, Walker RG, Chapman FW (2008) Recurrent ventricular fibrillation during advanced life support care of patients with prehospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 78:252–257
196.
Zurück zum Zitat Morrison LJ, Henry RM, Ku V, Nolan JP, Morley P, Deakin CD (2013) Single-shock defibrillation success in adult cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 84:1480–1486 Morrison LJ, Henry RM, Ku V, Nolan JP, Morley P, Deakin CD (2013) Single-shock defibrillation success in adult cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 84:1480–1486
197.
Zurück zum Zitat Edelson DP, Abella BS, Kramer-Johansen J et al (2006) Effects of compression depth and pre-shock pauses predict defibrillation failure during cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 71:137–145 Edelson DP, Abella BS, Kramer-Johansen J et al (2006) Effects of compression depth and pre-shock pauses predict defibrillation failure during cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 71:137–145
198.
Zurück zum Zitat Eftestol T, Sunde K, Steen PA (2002) Effects of interrupting precordial compressions on the calculated probability of defibrillation success during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 105:2270–2273 Eftestol T, Sunde K, Steen PA (2002) Effects of interrupting precordial compressions on the calculated probability of defibrillation success during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 105:2270–2273
199.
Zurück zum Zitat Karlis G, Iacovidou N, Lelovas P et al (2014) Effects of early amiodarone administration during and immediately after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a swine model. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 58:114–122 Karlis G, Iacovidou N, Lelovas P et al (2014) Effects of early amiodarone administration during and immediately after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a swine model. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 58:114–122
200.
Zurück zum Zitat Bhende MS, Thompson AE (1995) Evaluation of an end-tidal CO2 detector during pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Pediatrics 95:395–399 Bhende MS, Thompson AE (1995) Evaluation of an end-tidal CO2 detector during pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Pediatrics 95:395–399
201.
Zurück zum Zitat Sehra R, Underwood K, Checchia P (2003) End tidal CO2 is a quantitative measure of cardiac arrest. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 26:515–517 Sehra R, Underwood K, Checchia P (2003) End tidal CO2 is a quantitative measure of cardiac arrest. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 26:515–517
202.
Zurück zum Zitat Giberson B, Uber A, Gaieski DF et al (2014) When to stop CPR and when to perform rhythm analysis: potential confusion among ACLS providers. J Intensive Care Med Giberson B, Uber A, Gaieski DF et al (2014) When to stop CPR and when to perform rhythm analysis: potential confusion among ACLS providers. J Intensive Care Med
203.
Zurück zum Zitat Berg RA, Hilwig RW, Kern KB, Ewy GA (2002) Precountershock cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves ventricular fibrillation median frequency and myocardial readiness for successful defibrillation from prolonged ventricular fibrillation: a randomized, controlled swine study. Ann Emerg Med 40:563–570 Berg RA, Hilwig RW, Kern KB, Ewy GA (2002) Precountershock cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves ventricular fibrillation median frequency and myocardial readiness for successful defibrillation from prolonged ventricular fibrillation: a randomized, controlled swine study. Ann Emerg Med 40:563–570
204.
Zurück zum Zitat Eftestol T, Sunde K, Aase SO, Husoy JH, Steen PA (2001) „Probability of successful defibrillation“ as a monitor during CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrested patients. Resuscitation 48:245–254 Eftestol T, Sunde K, Aase SO, Husoy JH, Steen PA (2001) „Probability of successful defibrillation“ as a monitor during CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrested patients. Resuscitation 48:245–254
205.
Zurück zum Zitat Kolarova J, Ayoub IM, Yi Z, Gazmuri RJ (2003) Optimal timing for electrical defibrillation after prolonged untreated ventricular fibrillation. Crit Care Med 31:2022–2028 Kolarova J, Ayoub IM, Yi Z, Gazmuri RJ (2003) Optimal timing for electrical defibrillation after prolonged untreated ventricular fibrillation. Crit Care Med 31:2022–2028
206.
Zurück zum Zitat Yeung J, Chilwan M, Field R, Davies R, Gao F, Perkins GD (2014) The impact of airway management on quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation: an observational study in patients during cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 85:898–904 Yeung J, Chilwan M, Field R, Davies R, Gao F, Perkins GD (2014) The impact of airway management on quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation: an observational study in patients during cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 85:898–904
207.
Zurück zum Zitat Lee PM, Lee C, Rattner P, Wu X, Gershengorn H, Acquah S (2015) Intraosseous versus central venous catheter utilization and performance during inpatient medical emergencies. Crit Care Med 43:1233–1238 Lee PM, Lee C, Rattner P, Wu X, Gershengorn H, Acquah S (2015) Intraosseous versus central venous catheter utilization and performance during inpatient medical emergencies. Crit Care Med 43:1233–1238
208.
Zurück zum Zitat Reades R, Studnek JR, Vandeventer S, Garrett J (2011) Intraosseous versus intravenous vascular access during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med 58:509–516 Reades R, Studnek JR, Vandeventer S, Garrett J (2011) Intraosseous versus intravenous vascular access during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Emerg Med 58:509–516
209.
Zurück zum Zitat Leidel BA, Kirchhoff C, Bogner V, Braunstein V, Biberthaler P, Kanz KG (2012) Comparison of intraosseous versus central venous vascular access in adults under resuscitation in the emergency department with inaccessible peripheral veins. Resuscitation 83:40–45 Leidel BA, Kirchhoff C, Bogner V, Braunstein V, Biberthaler P, Kanz KG (2012) Comparison of intraosseous versus central venous vascular access in adults under resuscitation in the emergency department with inaccessible peripheral veins. Resuscitation 83:40–45
210.
Zurück zum Zitat Helm M, Haunstein B, Schlechtriemen T, Ruppert M, Lampl L, Gassler M (2015) EZ-IO(®) intraosseous device implementation in German Helicopter Emergency Medical Service. Resuscitation 88:43–47 Helm M, Haunstein B, Schlechtriemen T, Ruppert M, Lampl L, Gassler M (2015) EZ-IO(®) intraosseous device implementation in German Helicopter Emergency Medical Service. Resuscitation 88:43–47
211.
Zurück zum Zitat Wenzel V, Lindner KH, Augenstein S et al (1999) Intraosseous vasopressin improves coronary perfusion pressure rapidly during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pigs. Crit Care Med 27:1565–1569 Wenzel V, Lindner KH, Augenstein S et al (1999) Intraosseous vasopressin improves coronary perfusion pressure rapidly during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pigs. Crit Care Med 27:1565–1569
212.
Zurück zum Zitat Hoskins SL, do Nascimento P Jr, Lima RM, Espana-Tenorio JM, Kramer GC (2012) Pharmacokinetics of intraosseous and central venous drug delivery during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 83:107–112 Hoskins SL, do Nascimento P Jr, Lima RM, Espana-Tenorio JM, Kramer GC (2012) Pharmacokinetics of intraosseous and central venous drug delivery during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 83:107–112
213.
Zurück zum Zitat Myerburg RJ, Halperin H, Egan DA et al (2013) Pulseless electric activity: definition, causes, mechanisms, management, and research priorities for the next decade: report from a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute workshop. Circulation 128:2532–2541 Myerburg RJ, Halperin H, Egan DA et al (2013) Pulseless electric activity: definition, causes, mechanisms, management, and research priorities for the next decade: report from a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute workshop. Circulation 128:2532–2541
214.
Zurück zum Zitat Nordseth T, Edelson DP, Bergum D et al (2014) Optimal loop duration during the provision of in-hospital advanced life support (ALS) to patients with an initial non-shockable rhythm. Resuscitation 85:75–81 Nordseth T, Edelson DP, Bergum D et al (2014) Optimal loop duration during the provision of in-hospital advanced life support (ALS) to patients with an initial non-shockable rhythm. Resuscitation 85:75–81
215.
Zurück zum Zitat Narasimhan M, Koenig SJ, Mayo PH (2014) Advanced echocardiography for the critical care physician: part 1. Chest 145:129–134 Narasimhan M, Koenig SJ, Mayo PH (2014) Advanced echocardiography for the critical care physician: part 1. Chest 145:129–134
216.
Zurück zum Zitat Flato UA, Paiva EF, Carballo MT, Buehler AM, Marco R, Timerman A (2015) Echocardiography for prognostication during the resuscitation of intensive care unit patients with non-shockable rhythm cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 92:1–6 Flato UA, Paiva EF, Carballo MT, Buehler AM, Marco R, Timerman A (2015) Echocardiography for prognostication during the resuscitation of intensive care unit patients with non-shockable rhythm cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 92:1–6
217.
Zurück zum Zitat Breitkreutz R, Price S, Steiger HV et al (2010) Focused echocardiographic evaluation in life support and peri-resuscitation of emergency patients: a prospective trial. Resuscitation 81:1527–1533 Breitkreutz R, Price S, Steiger HV et al (2010) Focused echocardiographic evaluation in life support and peri-resuscitation of emergency patients: a prospective trial. Resuscitation 81:1527–1533
218.
Zurück zum Zitat Olaussen A, Shepherd M, Nehme Z, Smith K, Bernard S, Mitra B (2014) Return of consciousness during ongoing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: a systematic review. Resuscitation 86C:44–48 Olaussen A, Shepherd M, Nehme Z, Smith K, Bernard S, Mitra B (2014) Return of consciousness during ongoing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: a systematic review. Resuscitation 86C:44–48
219.
Zurück zum Zitat Couper K, Smyth M, Perkins GD (2015) Mechanical devices for chest compression: to use or not to use? Curr Opin Crit Care 21:188–194 Couper K, Smyth M, Perkins GD (2015) Mechanical devices for chest compression: to use or not to use? Curr Opin Crit Care 21:188–194
220.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakin CD, Low JL (2000) Accuracy of the advanced trauma life support guidelines for predicting systolic blood pressure using carotid, femoral, and radial pulses: observational study. BMJ 321:673–674 Deakin CD, Low JL (2000) Accuracy of the advanced trauma life support guidelines for predicting systolic blood pressure using carotid, femoral, and radial pulses: observational study. BMJ 321:673–674
221.
Zurück zum Zitat Connick M, Berg RA (1994) Femoral venous pulsations during open-chest cardiac massage. Ann Emerg Med 24:1176–1179 Connick M, Berg RA (1994) Femoral venous pulsations during open-chest cardiac massage. Ann Emerg Med 24:1176–1179
222.
Zurück zum Zitat Weil MH, Rackow EC, Trevino R, Grundler W, Falk JL, Griffel MI (1986) Difference in acid-base state between venous and arterial blood during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. N Engl J Med 315:153–156 Weil MH, Rackow EC, Trevino R, Grundler W, Falk JL, Griffel MI (1986) Difference in acid-base state between venous and arterial blood during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. N Engl J Med 315:153–156
223.
Zurück zum Zitat Meaney PA, Bobrow BJ, Mancini ME et al (2013) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality: improving cardiac resuscitation outcomes both inside and outside the hospital: a consensus statement from the american heart association. Circulation 128:417–435 Meaney PA, Bobrow BJ, Mancini ME et al (2013) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality: improving cardiac resuscitation outcomes both inside and outside the hospital: a consensus statement from the american heart association. Circulation 128:417–435
224.
Zurück zum Zitat Friess SH, Sutton RM, French B et al (2014) Hemodynamic directed CPR improves cerebral perfusion pressure and brain tissue oxygenation. Resuscitation 85:1298–1303 Friess SH, Sutton RM, French B et al (2014) Hemodynamic directed CPR improves cerebral perfusion pressure and brain tissue oxygenation. Resuscitation 85:1298–1303
225.
Zurück zum Zitat Friess SH, Sutton RM, Bhalala U et al (2013) Hemodynamic directed cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves short-term survival from ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 41:2698–2704 Friess SH, Sutton RM, Bhalala U et al (2013) Hemodynamic directed cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves short-term survival from ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 41:2698–2704
226.
Zurück zum Zitat Sutton RM, Friess SH, Bhalala U et al (2013) Hemodynamic directed CPR improves short-term survival from asphyxia-associated cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 84:696–701 Sutton RM, Friess SH, Bhalala U et al (2013) Hemodynamic directed CPR improves short-term survival from asphyxia-associated cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 84:696–701
227.
Zurück zum Zitat Babbs CF (2013) We still need a real-time hemodynamic monitor for CPR. Resuscitation 84:1297–1298 Babbs CF (2013) We still need a real-time hemodynamic monitor for CPR. Resuscitation 84:1297–1298
228.
Zurück zum Zitat Fukuda T, Ohashi N, Nishida M et al (2014) Application of cerebral oxygen saturation to prediction of the futility of resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest patients: a single-center, prospective, observational study: can cerebral regional oxygen saturation predict the futility of CPR? Am J Emerg Med 32:747–751 Fukuda T, Ohashi N, Nishida M et al (2014) Application of cerebral oxygen saturation to prediction of the futility of resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest patients: a single-center, prospective, observational study: can cerebral regional oxygen saturation predict the futility of CPR? Am J Emerg Med 32:747–751
229.
Zurück zum Zitat Parnia S, Nasir A, Ahn A et al (2014) A feasibility study of cerebral oximetry during in-hospital mechanical and manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation*. Crit Care Med 42:930–933 Parnia S, Nasir A, Ahn A et al (2014) A feasibility study of cerebral oximetry during in-hospital mechanical and manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation*. Crit Care Med 42:930–933
230.
Zurück zum Zitat Genbrugge C, Meex I, Boer W et al (2015) Increase in cerebral oxygenation during advanced life support in out-of-hospital patients is associated with return of spontaneous circulation. Crit Care 19:112 Genbrugge C, Meex I, Boer W et al (2015) Increase in cerebral oxygenation during advanced life support in out-of-hospital patients is associated with return of spontaneous circulation. Crit Care 19:112
231.
Zurück zum Zitat Nolan JP (2014) Cerebral oximetry during cardiac arrest-feasible, but benefit yet to be determined*. Crit Care Med 42:1001–1002 Nolan JP (2014) Cerebral oximetry during cardiac arrest-feasible, but benefit yet to be determined*. Crit Care Med 42:1001–1002
232.
Zurück zum Zitat Hamrick JL, Hamrick JT, Lee JK, Lee BH, Koehler RC, Shaffner DH (2014) Efficacy of chest compressions directed by end-tidal CO2 feedback in a pediatric resuscitation model of basic life support. J Am Heart Assoc 3:e000450 Hamrick JL, Hamrick JT, Lee JK, Lee BH, Koehler RC, Shaffner DH (2014) Efficacy of chest compressions directed by end-tidal CO2 feedback in a pediatric resuscitation model of basic life support. J Am Heart Assoc 3:e000450
233.
Zurück zum Zitat Wallmuller C, Sterz F, Testori C et al (2013) Emergency cardio-pulmonary bypass in cardiac arrest: seventeen years of experience. Resuscitation 84:326–330 Wallmuller C, Sterz F, Testori C et al (2013) Emergency cardio-pulmonary bypass in cardiac arrest: seventeen years of experience. Resuscitation 84:326–330
234.
Zurück zum Zitat Kagawa E, Dote K, Kato M et al (2012) Should we emergently revascularize occluded coronaries for cardiac arrest?: rapid-response extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and intra-arrest percutaneous coronary intervention. Circulation 126:1605–1613 Kagawa E, Dote K, Kato M et al (2012) Should we emergently revascularize occluded coronaries for cardiac arrest?: rapid-response extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and intra-arrest percutaneous coronary intervention. Circulation 126:1605–1613
235.
Zurück zum Zitat Xie A, Phan K, Yi-Chin Tsai M, Yan TD, Forrest P (2015) Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest: a meta-analysis. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 29:637–645 Xie A, Phan K, Yi-Chin Tsai M, Yan TD, Forrest P (2015) Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest: a meta-analysis. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 29:637–645
236.
Zurück zum Zitat Riggs KR, Becker LB, Sugarman J (2015) Ethics in the use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adults. Resuscitation 91:73–75 Riggs KR, Becker LB, Sugarman J (2015) Ethics in the use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adults. Resuscitation 91:73–75
237.
Zurück zum Zitat Gundersen K, Kvaloy JT, Kramer-Johansen J, Steen PA, Eftestol T (2009) Development of the probability of return of spontaneous circulation in intervals without chest compressions during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: an observational study. BMC Med 7:6 Gundersen K, Kvaloy JT, Kramer-Johansen J, Steen PA, Eftestol T (2009) Development of the probability of return of spontaneous circulation in intervals without chest compressions during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: an observational study. BMC Med 7:6
238.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Davies RP, Soar J, Thickett DR (2007) The impact of manual defibrillation technique on no-flow time during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 73:109–114 Perkins GD, Davies RP, Soar J, Thickett DR (2007) The impact of manual defibrillation technique on no-flow time during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 73:109–114
239.
Zurück zum Zitat Fouche PF, Simpson PM, Bendall J, Thomas RE, Cone DC, Doi SA (2014) Airways in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: systematic review and meta-analysis. Prehosp Emerg Care 18:244–256 Fouche PF, Simpson PM, Bendall J, Thomas RE, Cone DC, Doi SA (2014) Airways in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: systematic review and meta-analysis. Prehosp Emerg Care 18:244–256
240.
Zurück zum Zitat Voss S, Rhys M, Coates D et al (2014) How do paramedics manage the airway during out of hospital cardiac arrest? Resuscitation 85:1662–1666 Voss S, Rhys M, Coates D et al (2014) How do paramedics manage the airway during out of hospital cardiac arrest? Resuscitation 85:1662–1666
241.
Zurück zum Zitat Lin S, Callaway CW, Shah PS et al (2014) Adrenaline for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Resuscitation 85:732–740 Lin S, Callaway CW, Shah PS et al (2014) Adrenaline for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Resuscitation 85:732–740
242.
Zurück zum Zitat Patanwala AE, Slack MK, Martin JR, Basken RL, Nolan PE (2014) Effect of epinephrine on survival after cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Minerva Anestesiol 80:831–843 Patanwala AE, Slack MK, Martin JR, Basken RL, Nolan PE (2014) Effect of epinephrine on survival after cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Minerva Anestesiol 80:831–843
243.
Zurück zum Zitat Lindner KH, Dirks B, Strohmenger HU, Prengel AW, Lindner IM, Lurie KG (1997) Randomised comparison of epinephrine and vasopressin in patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Lancet 349:535–537 Lindner KH, Dirks B, Strohmenger HU, Prengel AW, Lindner IM, Lurie KG (1997) Randomised comparison of epinephrine and vasopressin in patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Lancet 349:535–537
244.
Zurück zum Zitat Wenzel V, Krismer AC, Arntz HR, Sitter H, Stadlbauer KH, Lindner KH (2004) A comparison of vasopressin and epinephrine for out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. N Engl J Med 350:105–113 Wenzel V, Krismer AC, Arntz HR, Sitter H, Stadlbauer KH, Lindner KH (2004) A comparison of vasopressin and epinephrine for out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. N Engl J Med 350:105–113
245.
Zurück zum Zitat Stiell IG, Hebert PC, Wells GA et al (2001) Vasopressin versus epinephrine for inhospital cardiac arrest: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 358:105–109 Stiell IG, Hebert PC, Wells GA et al (2001) Vasopressin versus epinephrine for inhospital cardiac arrest: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 358:105–109
246.
Zurück zum Zitat Ong ME, Tiah L, Leong BS et al (2012) A randomised, double-blind, multi-centre trial comparing vasopressin and adrenaline in patients with cardiac arrest presenting to or in the Emergency Department. Resuscitation 83:953–960 Ong ME, Tiah L, Leong BS et al (2012) A randomised, double-blind, multi-centre trial comparing vasopressin and adrenaline in patients with cardiac arrest presenting to or in the Emergency Department. Resuscitation 83:953–960
247.
Zurück zum Zitat Mentzelopoulos SD, Zakynthinos SG, Siempos I, Malachias S, Ulmer H, Wenzel V (2012) Vasopressin for cardiac arrest: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Resuscitation 83:32–39 Mentzelopoulos SD, Zakynthinos SG, Siempos I, Malachias S, Ulmer H, Wenzel V (2012) Vasopressin for cardiac arrest: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Resuscitation 83:32–39
248.
Zurück zum Zitat Callaway CW, Hostler D, Doshi AA et al (2006) Usefulness of vasopressin administered with epinephrine during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Am J Cardiol 98:1316–1321 Callaway CW, Hostler D, Doshi AA et al (2006) Usefulness of vasopressin administered with epinephrine during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Am J Cardiol 98:1316–1321
249.
Zurück zum Zitat Gueugniaud PY, David JS, Chanzy E et al (2008) Vasopressin and epinephrine vs. epinephrine alone in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. N Engl J Med 359:21–30 Gueugniaud PY, David JS, Chanzy E et al (2008) Vasopressin and epinephrine vs. epinephrine alone in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. N Engl J Med 359:21–30
250.
Zurück zum Zitat Ducros L, Vicaut E, Soleil C et al (2011) Effect of the addition of vasopressin or vasopressin plus nitroglycerin to epinephrine on arterial blood pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans. J Emerg Med 41:453–459 Ducros L, Vicaut E, Soleil C et al (2011) Effect of the addition of vasopressin or vasopressin plus nitroglycerin to epinephrine on arterial blood pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans. J Emerg Med 41:453–459
251.
Zurück zum Zitat Kudenchuk PJ, Cobb LA, Copass MK et al (1999) Amiodarone for resuscitation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. N Engl J Med 341:871–878 Kudenchuk PJ, Cobb LA, Copass MK et al (1999) Amiodarone for resuscitation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. N Engl J Med 341:871–878
252.
Zurück zum Zitat Dorian P, Cass D, Schwartz B, Cooper R, Gelaznikas R, Barr A (2002) Amiodarone as compared with lidocaine for shock-resistant ventricular fibrillation. N Engl J Med 346:884–890 Dorian P, Cass D, Schwartz B, Cooper R, Gelaznikas R, Barr A (2002) Amiodarone as compared with lidocaine for shock-resistant ventricular fibrillation. N Engl J Med 346:884–890
253.
Zurück zum Zitat Skrifvars MB, Kuisma M, Boyd J et al (2004) The use of undiluted amiodarone in the management of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 48:582–587 Skrifvars MB, Kuisma M, Boyd J et al (2004) The use of undiluted amiodarone in the management of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 48:582–587
254.
Zurück zum Zitat Petrovic T, Adnet F, Lapandry C (1998) Successful resuscitation of ventricular fibrillation after low-dose amiodarone. Ann Emerg Med 32:518–519 Petrovic T, Adnet F, Lapandry C (1998) Successful resuscitation of ventricular fibrillation after low-dose amiodarone. Ann Emerg Med 32:518–519
255.
Zurück zum Zitat Levine JH, Massumi A, Scheinman MM et al (1996) Intravenous amiodarone for recurrent sustained hypotensive ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Intravenous Amiodarone Multicenter Trial Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 27:67–75 Levine JH, Massumi A, Scheinman MM et al (1996) Intravenous amiodarone for recurrent sustained hypotensive ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Intravenous Amiodarone Multicenter Trial Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 27:67–75
256.
Zurück zum Zitat Somberg JC, Bailin SJ, Haffajee CI et al (2002) Intravenous lidocaine versus intravenous amiodarone (in a new aqueous formulation) for incessant ventricular tachycardia. Am J Cardiol 90:853–859 Somberg JC, Bailin SJ, Haffajee CI et al (2002) Intravenous lidocaine versus intravenous amiodarone (in a new aqueous formulation) for incessant ventricular tachycardia. Am J Cardiol 90:853–859
257.
Zurück zum Zitat Somberg JC, Timar S, Bailin SJ et al (2004) Lack of a hypotensive effect with rapid administration of a new aqueous formulation of intravenous amiodarone. Am J Cardiol 93:576–581 Somberg JC, Timar S, Bailin SJ et al (2004) Lack of a hypotensive effect with rapid administration of a new aqueous formulation of intravenous amiodarone. Am J Cardiol 93:576–581
258.
Zurück zum Zitat Böttiger BW, Martin E (2001) Thrombolytic therapy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the role of coagulation activation after cardiac arrest. Curr Opin Crit Care 7:176–183 Böttiger BW, Martin E (2001) Thrombolytic therapy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the role of coagulation activation after cardiac arrest. Curr Opin Crit Care 7:176–183
259.
Zurück zum Zitat Spöhr F, Böttiger BW (2003) Safety of thrombolysis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Drug Saf 26:367–379 Spöhr F, Böttiger BW (2003) Safety of thrombolysis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Drug Saf 26:367–379
260.
Zurück zum Zitat Wu JP, Gu DY, Wang S, Zhang ZJ, Zhou JC, Zhang RF (2014) Good neurological recovery after rescue thrombolysis of presumed pulmonary embolism despite prior 100 min CPR. J Thorac Dis 6:E289–E293 Wu JP, Gu DY, Wang S, Zhang ZJ, Zhou JC, Zhang RF (2014) Good neurological recovery after rescue thrombolysis of presumed pulmonary embolism despite prior 100 min CPR. J Thorac Dis 6:E289–E293
261.
Zurück zum Zitat Langhelle A, Tyvold SS, Lexow K, Hapnes SA, Sunde K, Steen PA (2003) In-hospital factors associated with improved outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A comparison between four regions in Norway. Resuscitation 56:247–263 Langhelle A, Tyvold SS, Lexow K, Hapnes SA, Sunde K, Steen PA (2003) In-hospital factors associated with improved outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A comparison between four regions in Norway. Resuscitation 56:247–263
262.
Zurück zum Zitat Kramer-Johansen J, Myklebust H, Wik L et al (2006) Quality of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation with real time automated feedback: a prospective interventional study. Resuscitation 71:283–292 Kramer-Johansen J, Myklebust H, Wik L et al (2006) Quality of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation with real time automated feedback: a prospective interventional study. Resuscitation 71:283–292
263.
Zurück zum Zitat Sutton RM, Maltese MR, Niles D et al (2009) Quantitative analysis of chest compression interruptions during in-hospital resuscitation of older children and adolescents. Resuscitation 80:1259–1263 Sutton RM, Maltese MR, Niles D et al (2009) Quantitative analysis of chest compression interruptions during in-hospital resuscitation of older children and adolescents. Resuscitation 80:1259–1263
264.
Zurück zum Zitat Sutton RM, Niles D, Nysaether J et al (2009) Quantitative analysis of CPR quality during in-hospital resuscitation of older children and adolescents. Pediatrics 124:494–499 Sutton RM, Niles D, Nysaether J et al (2009) Quantitative analysis of CPR quality during in-hospital resuscitation of older children and adolescents. Pediatrics 124:494–499
265.
Zurück zum Zitat Wik L, Olsen JA, Persse D et al (2014) Manual vs. integrated automatic load-distributing band CPR with equal survival after out of hospital cardiac arrest. The randomized CIRC trial. Resuscitation 85:741–748 Wik L, Olsen JA, Persse D et al (2014) Manual vs. integrated automatic load-distributing band CPR with equal survival after out of hospital cardiac arrest. The randomized CIRC trial. Resuscitation 85:741–748
266.
Zurück zum Zitat Rubertsson S, Lindgren E, Smekal D et al (2014) Mechanical chest compressions and simultaneous defibrillation vs conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the LINC randomized trial. JAMA 311:53–61 Rubertsson S, Lindgren E, Smekal D et al (2014) Mechanical chest compressions and simultaneous defibrillation vs conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the LINC randomized trial. JAMA 311:53–61
267.
Zurück zum Zitat Aufderheide TP, Nichol G, Rea TD et al (2011) A trial of an impedance threshold device in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 365:798–806 Aufderheide TP, Nichol G, Rea TD et al (2011) A trial of an impedance threshold device in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 365:798–806
268.
Zurück zum Zitat Plaisance P, Lurie KG, Payen D (2000) Inspiratory impedance during active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized evaluation in patients in cardiac arrest. Circulation 101:989–994 Plaisance P, Lurie KG, Payen D (2000) Inspiratory impedance during active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized evaluation in patients in cardiac arrest. Circulation 101:989–994
269.
Zurück zum Zitat Plaisance P, Lurie KG, Vicaut E et al (2004) Evaluation of an impedance threshold device in patients receiving active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out of hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 61:265–271 Plaisance P, Lurie KG, Vicaut E et al (2004) Evaluation of an impedance threshold device in patients receiving active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation for out of hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 61:265–271
270.
Zurück zum Zitat Aufderheide TP, Frascone RJ, Wayne MA et al (2011) Standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation versus active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation with augmentation of negative intrathoracic pressure for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomised trial. Lancet 377:301–311 Aufderheide TP, Frascone RJ, Wayne MA et al (2011) Standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation versus active compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation with augmentation of negative intrathoracic pressure for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomised trial. Lancet 377:301–311
271.
Zurück zum Zitat Frascone RJ, Wayne MA, Swor RA et al (2013) Treatment of non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with active compression decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation plus an impedance threshold device. Resuscitation 84:1214–1222 Frascone RJ, Wayne MA, Swor RA et al (2013) Treatment of non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with active compression decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation plus an impedance threshold device. Resuscitation 84:1214–1222
272.
Zurück zum Zitat Wee JH, Park JH, Choi SP, Park KN (2013) Outcomes of patients admitted for hanging injuries with decreased consciousness but without cardiac arrest. Am J Emerg Med 31:1666–1670 Wee JH, Park JH, Choi SP, Park KN (2013) Outcomes of patients admitted for hanging injuries with decreased consciousness but without cardiac arrest. Am J Emerg Med 31:1666–1670
273.
Zurück zum Zitat Penney DJ, Stewart AH, Parr MJ (2002) Prognostic outcome indicators following hanging injuries. Resuscitation 54:27–29 Penney DJ, Stewart AH, Parr MJ (2002) Prognostic outcome indicators following hanging injuries. Resuscitation 54:27–29
274.
Zurück zum Zitat Wood S (1991) Interactions between hypoxia and hypothermia. Annu Rev Physiol 53:71–85 Wood S (1991) Interactions between hypoxia and hypothermia. Annu Rev Physiol 53:71–85
275.
Zurück zum Zitat Schneider SM (1992) Hypothermia: from recognition to rewarming. Emerg Med Rep 13:1–20 Schneider SM (1992) Hypothermia: from recognition to rewarming. Emerg Med Rep 13:1–20
276.
Zurück zum Zitat Gruber E, Beikircher W, Pizzinini R et al (2014) Non-extracorporeal rewarming at a rate of 6.8 degrees C per hour in a deeply hypothermic arrested patient. Resuscitation 85:e119–e120 Gruber E, Beikircher W, Pizzinini R et al (2014) Non-extracorporeal rewarming at a rate of 6.8 degrees C per hour in a deeply hypothermic arrested patient. Resuscitation 85:e119–e120
277.
Zurück zum Zitat Bouchama A, Knochel JP (2002) Heat stroke. N Engl J Med 346:1978–1988 Bouchama A, Knochel JP (2002) Heat stroke. N Engl J Med 346:1978–1988
278.
Zurück zum Zitat Hadad E, Weinbroum AA, Ben-Abraham R (2003) Drug-induced hyperthermia and muscle rigidity: a practical approach. Eur J Emerg Med 10:149–154 Hadad E, Weinbroum AA, Ben-Abraham R (2003) Drug-induced hyperthermia and muscle rigidity: a practical approach. Eur J Emerg Med 10:149–154
279.
Zurück zum Zitat Halloran LL, Bernard DW (2004) Management of drug-induced hyperthermia. Curr Opin Pediatr 16:211–215 Halloran LL, Bernard DW (2004) Management of drug-induced hyperthermia. Curr Opin Pediatr 16:211–215
280.
Zurück zum Zitat Bouchama A, Dehbi M, Chaves-Carballo E (2007) Cooling and hemodynamic management in heatstroke: practical recommendations. Crit Care 11:R54 Bouchama A, Dehbi M, Chaves-Carballo E (2007) Cooling and hemodynamic management in heatstroke: practical recommendations. Crit Care 11:R54
281.
Zurück zum Zitat Brenner ML, Moore LJ, DuBose JJ et al (2013) A clinical series of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta for hemorrhage control and resuscitation. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 75:506–511 Brenner ML, Moore LJ, DuBose JJ et al (2013) A clinical series of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta for hemorrhage control and resuscitation. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 75:506–511
282.
Zurück zum Zitat Soar J, Pumphrey R, Cant A et al (2008) Emergency treatment of anaphylactic reactions – guidelines for healthcare providers. Resuscitation 77:157–169 Soar J, Pumphrey R, Cant A et al (2008) Emergency treatment of anaphylactic reactions – guidelines for healthcare providers. Resuscitation 77:157–169
283.
Zurück zum Zitat Soar J (2009) Emergency treatment of anaphylaxis in adults: concise guidance. Clin Med 9:181–185 Soar J (2009) Emergency treatment of anaphylaxis in adults: concise guidance. Clin Med 9:181–185
284.
Zurück zum Zitat Soar J, Perkins GD, Abbas G et al (2010) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 8. Cardiac arrest in special circumstances: electrolyte abnormalities, poisoning, drowning, accidental hypothermia, hyperthermia, asthma, anaphylaxis, cardiac surgery, trauma, pregnancy, electrocution. Resuscitation 81:1400–1433 Soar J, Perkins GD, Abbas G et al (2010) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 8. Cardiac arrest in special circumstances: electrolyte abnormalities, poisoning, drowning, accidental hypothermia, hyperthermia, asthma, anaphylaxis, cardiac surgery, trauma, pregnancy, electrocution. Resuscitation 81:1400–1433
285.
Zurück zum Zitat Muraro A, Roberts G, Worm M et al (2014) Anaphylaxis: guidelines from the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Allergy 69:1026–1045 Muraro A, Roberts G, Worm M et al (2014) Anaphylaxis: guidelines from the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Allergy 69:1026–1045
286.
Zurück zum Zitat Simpson CR, Sheikh A (2010) Adrenaline is first line treatment for the emergency treatment of anaphylaxis. Resuscitation 81:641–642 Simpson CR, Sheikh A (2010) Adrenaline is first line treatment for the emergency treatment of anaphylaxis. Resuscitation 81:641–642
287.
Zurück zum Zitat Kemp SF, Lockey RF, Simons FE (2008) Epinephrine: the drug of choice for anaphylaxis. A statement of the World Allergy Organization. Allergy 63:1061–1070 Kemp SF, Lockey RF, Simons FE (2008) Epinephrine: the drug of choice for anaphylaxis. A statement of the World Allergy Organization. Allergy 63:1061–1070
288.
Zurück zum Zitat Bautista E, Simons FE, Simons KJ et al (2002) Epinephrine fails to hasten hemodynamic recovery in fully developed canine anaphylactic shock. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 128:151–164 Bautista E, Simons FE, Simons KJ et al (2002) Epinephrine fails to hasten hemodynamic recovery in fully developed canine anaphylactic shock. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 128:151–164
289.
Zurück zum Zitat Zwingmann J, Mehlhorn AT, Hammer T, Bayer J, Sudkamp NP, Strohm PC (2012) Survival and neurologic outcome after traumatic out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest in a pediatric and adult population: a systematic review. Crit Care 16:R117 Zwingmann J, Mehlhorn AT, Hammer T, Bayer J, Sudkamp NP, Strohm PC (2012) Survival and neurologic outcome after traumatic out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest in a pediatric and adult population: a systematic review. Crit Care 16:R117
290.
Zurück zum Zitat Leis CC, Hernandez CC, Blanco MJ, Paterna PC, Hernandez Rde E, Torres EC (2013) Traumatic cardiac arrest: should advanced life support be initiated? J Trauma Acute Care Surg 74:634–638 Leis CC, Hernandez CC, Blanco MJ, Paterna PC, Hernandez Rde E, Torres EC (2013) Traumatic cardiac arrest: should advanced life support be initiated? J Trauma Acute Care Surg 74:634–638
291.
Zurück zum Zitat Lockey D, Crewdson K, Davies G (2006) Traumatic cardiac arrest: who are the survivors? Ann Emerg Med 48:240–244 Lockey D, Crewdson K, Davies G (2006) Traumatic cardiac arrest: who are the survivors? Ann Emerg Med 48:240–244
292.
Zurück zum Zitat Crewdson K, Lockey D, Davies G (2007) Outcome from paediatric cardiac arrest associated with trauma. Resuscitation 75:29–34 Crewdson K, Lockey D, Davies G (2007) Outcome from paediatric cardiac arrest associated with trauma. Resuscitation 75:29–34
293.
Zurück zum Zitat Kleber C, Giesecke MT, Lindner T, Haas NP, Buschmann CT (2014) Requirement for a structured algorithm in cardiac arrest following major trauma: epidemiology, management errors, and preventability of traumatic deaths in Berlin. Resuscitation 85:405–410 Kleber C, Giesecke MT, Lindner T, Haas NP, Buschmann CT (2014) Requirement for a structured algorithm in cardiac arrest following major trauma: epidemiology, management errors, and preventability of traumatic deaths in Berlin. Resuscitation 85:405–410
294.
Zurück zum Zitat Leigh-Smith S, Harris T (2005) Tension pneumothorax – time for a re-think? Emerg Med J 22:8–16 Leigh-Smith S, Harris T (2005) Tension pneumothorax – time for a re-think? Emerg Med J 22:8–16
295.
Zurück zum Zitat Chen KY, Jerng JS, Liao WY et al (2002) Pneumothorax in the ICU: patient outcomes and prognostic factors. Chest 122:678–683 Chen KY, Jerng JS, Liao WY et al (2002) Pneumothorax in the ICU: patient outcomes and prognostic factors. Chest 122:678–683
296.
Zurück zum Zitat Warner KJ, Copass MK, Bulger EM (2008) Paramedic use of needle thoracostomy in the prehospital environment. Prehosp Emerg Care 12:162–168 Warner KJ, Copass MK, Bulger EM (2008) Paramedic use of needle thoracostomy in the prehospital environment. Prehosp Emerg Care 12:162–168
297.
Zurück zum Zitat Mistry N, Bleetman A, Roberts KJ (2009) Chest decompression during the resuscitation of patients in prehospital traumatic cardiac arrest. Emerg Med J 26:738–740 Mistry N, Bleetman A, Roberts KJ (2009) Chest decompression during the resuscitation of patients in prehospital traumatic cardiac arrest. Emerg Med J 26:738–740
298.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakin CD, Davies G, Wilson A (1995) Simple thoracostomy avoids chest drain insertion in prehospital trauma. J Trauma 39:373–374 Deakin CD, Davies G, Wilson A (1995) Simple thoracostomy avoids chest drain insertion in prehospital trauma. J Trauma 39:373–374
299.
Zurück zum Zitat Massarutti D, Trillo G, Berlot G et al (2006) Simple thoracostomy in prehospital trauma management is safe and effective: a 2-year experience by helicopter emergency medical crews. Eur J Emerg Med 13:276–280 Massarutti D, Trillo G, Berlot G et al (2006) Simple thoracostomy in prehospital trauma management is safe and effective: a 2-year experience by helicopter emergency medical crews. Eur J Emerg Med 13:276–280
300.
Zurück zum Zitat Konstantinides SV, Torbicki A, Agnelli G et al (2014) 2014 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism. Eur Heart J 35:3033–3069, 69a-69k Konstantinides SV, Torbicki A, Agnelli G et al (2014) 2014 ESC guidelines on the diagnosis and management of acute pulmonary embolism. Eur Heart J 35:3033–3069, 69a-69k
301.
Zurück zum Zitat Kurkciyan I, Meron G, Behringer W et al (1998) Accuracy and impact of presumed cause in patients with cardiac arrest. Circulation 98:766–771 Kurkciyan I, Meron G, Behringer W et al (1998) Accuracy and impact of presumed cause in patients with cardiac arrest. Circulation 98:766–771
302.
Zurück zum Zitat Kurkciyan I, Meron G, Sterz F et al (2000) Pulmonary embolism as a cause of cardiac arrest: presentation and outcome. Arch Intern Med 160:1529–1535 Kurkciyan I, Meron G, Sterz F et al (2000) Pulmonary embolism as a cause of cardiac arrest: presentation and outcome. Arch Intern Med 160:1529–1535
303.
Zurück zum Zitat Pokorna M, Necas E, Skripsky R, Kratochvil J, Andrlik M, Franek O (2011) How accurately can the aetiology of cardiac arrest be established in an out-of-hospital setting? Analysis by „concordance in diagnosis crosscheck tables“. Resuscitation 82:391–397 Pokorna M, Necas E, Skripsky R, Kratochvil J, Andrlik M, Franek O (2011) How accurately can the aetiology of cardiac arrest be established in an out-of-hospital setting? Analysis by „concordance in diagnosis crosscheck tables“. Resuscitation 82:391–397
304.
Zurück zum Zitat Wallmuller C, Meron G, Kurkciyan I, Schober A, Stratil P, Sterz F (2012) Causes of in-hospital cardiac arrest and influence on outcome. Resuscitation 83:1206–1211 Wallmuller C, Meron G, Kurkciyan I, Schober A, Stratil P, Sterz F (2012) Causes of in-hospital cardiac arrest and influence on outcome. Resuscitation 83:1206–1211
305.
Zurück zum Zitat Bergum D, Nordseth T, Mjolstad OC, Skogvoll E, Haugen BO (2015) Causes of in-hospital cardiac arrest – incidences and rate of recognition. Resuscitation 87:63–68 Bergum D, Nordseth T, Mjolstad OC, Skogvoll E, Haugen BO (2015) Causes of in-hospital cardiac arrest – incidences and rate of recognition. Resuscitation 87:63–68
306.
Zurück zum Zitat Stub D, Nehme Z, Bernard S, Lijovic M, Kaye DM, Smith K (2014) Exploring which patients without return of spontaneous circulation following ventricular fibrillation out-of-hospital cardiac arrest should be transported to hospital? Resuscitation 85:326–331 Stub D, Nehme Z, Bernard S, Lijovic M, Kaye DM, Smith K (2014) Exploring which patients without return of spontaneous circulation following ventricular fibrillation out-of-hospital cardiac arrest should be transported to hospital? Resuscitation 85:326–331
307.
Zurück zum Zitat Mowry JB, Spyker DA, Cantilena LR Jr, McMillan N, Ford M (2014) 2013 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 31st Annual Report. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 52:1032–1283 Mowry JB, Spyker DA, Cantilena LR Jr, McMillan N, Ford M (2014) 2013 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS): 31st Annual Report. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 52:1032–1283
308.
Zurück zum Zitat Proudfoot AT, Krenzelok EP, Vale JA (2004) Position Paper on urine alkalinization. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42:1–26 Proudfoot AT, Krenzelok EP, Vale JA (2004) Position Paper on urine alkalinization. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42:1–26
309.
Zurück zum Zitat Greene S, Harris C, Singer J (2008) Gastrointestinal decontamination of the poisoned patient. Pediatr Emerg Care 24:176–186 (quiz 87–9) Greene S, Harris C, Singer J (2008) Gastrointestinal decontamination of the poisoned patient. Pediatr Emerg Care 24:176–186 (quiz 87–9)
310.
Zurück zum Zitat Benson BE, Hoppu K, Troutman WG et al (2013) Position paper update: gastric lavage for gastrointestinal decontamination. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 51:140–146 Benson BE, Hoppu K, Troutman WG et al (2013) Position paper update: gastric lavage for gastrointestinal decontamination. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 51:140–146
311.
Zurück zum Zitat Chyka PA, Seger D, Krenzelok EP, Vale JA (2005) Position paper: single-dose activated charcoal. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 43:61–87 Chyka PA, Seger D, Krenzelok EP, Vale JA (2005) Position paper: single-dose activated charcoal. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 43:61–87
312.
Zurück zum Zitat Ellis SJ, Newland MC, Simonson JA et al (2014) Anesthesia-related cardiac arrest. Anesthesiology 120:829–838 Ellis SJ, Newland MC, Simonson JA et al (2014) Anesthesia-related cardiac arrest. Anesthesiology 120:829–838
313.
Zurück zum Zitat Gonzalez LP, Braz JR, Modolo MP, de Carvalho LR, Modolo NS, Braz LG (2014) Pediatric perioperative cardiac arrest and mortality: a study from a tertiary teaching hospital. Pediatr Crit Care Med 15:878–884 Gonzalez LP, Braz JR, Modolo MP, de Carvalho LR, Modolo NS, Braz LG (2014) Pediatric perioperative cardiac arrest and mortality: a study from a tertiary teaching hospital. Pediatr Crit Care Med 15:878–884
314.
Zurück zum Zitat Sprung J, Warner ME, Contreras MG et al (2003) Predictors of survival following cardiac arrest in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a study of 518,294 patients at a tertiary referral center. Anesthesiology 99:259–269 Sprung J, Warner ME, Contreras MG et al (2003) Predictors of survival following cardiac arrest in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a study of 518,294 patients at a tertiary referral center. Anesthesiology 99:259–269
315.
Zurück zum Zitat Charalambous CP, Zipitis CS, Keenan DJ (2006) Chest reexploration in the intensive care unit after cardiac surgery: a safe alternative to returning to the operating theater. Ann Thorac Surg 81:191–194 Charalambous CP, Zipitis CS, Keenan DJ (2006) Chest reexploration in the intensive care unit after cardiac surgery: a safe alternative to returning to the operating theater. Ann Thorac Surg 81:191–194
316.
Zurück zum Zitat LaPar DJ, Ghanta RK, Kern JA et al (2014) Hospital variation in mortality from cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery: an opportunity for improvement? Ann Thorac Surg 98:534–539 (discussion 9–40) LaPar DJ, Ghanta RK, Kern JA et al (2014) Hospital variation in mortality from cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery: an opportunity for improvement? Ann Thorac Surg 98:534–539 (discussion 9–40)
317.
Zurück zum Zitat Wagner H, Terkelsen CJ, Friberg H et al (2010) Cardiac arrest in the catheterisation laboratory: a 5-year experience of using mechanical chest compressions to facilitate PCI during prolonged resuscitation efforts. Resuscitation 81:383–387 Wagner H, Terkelsen CJ, Friberg H et al (2010) Cardiac arrest in the catheterisation laboratory: a 5-year experience of using mechanical chest compressions to facilitate PCI during prolonged resuscitation efforts. Resuscitation 81:383–387
318.
Zurück zum Zitat Larsen AI, Hjornevik AS, Ellingsen CL, Nilsen DW (2007) Cardiac arrest with continuous mechanical chest compression during percutaneous coronary intervention. A report on the use of the LUCAS device. Resuscitation 75:454–459 Larsen AI, Hjornevik AS, Ellingsen CL, Nilsen DW (2007) Cardiac arrest with continuous mechanical chest compression during percutaneous coronary intervention. A report on the use of the LUCAS device. Resuscitation 75:454–459
319.
Zurück zum Zitat Tsao NW, Shih CM, Yeh JS et al (2012) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-assisted primary percutaneous coronary intervention may improve survival of patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by profound cardiogenic shock. J Crit Care 27:530 e1–e11 Tsao NW, Shih CM, Yeh JS et al (2012) Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-assisted primary percutaneous coronary intervention may improve survival of patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by profound cardiogenic shock. J Crit Care 27:530 e1–e11
320.
Zurück zum Zitat Alpert MA (2011) Sudden cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death on dialysis: epidemiology, evaluation, treatment, and prevention. Hemodial Int 15(Suppl 1):S22–S29 Alpert MA (2011) Sudden cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death on dialysis: epidemiology, evaluation, treatment, and prevention. Hemodial Int 15(Suppl 1):S22–S29
321.
Zurück zum Zitat Sacchetti A, Stuccio N, Panebianco P, Torres M (1999) ED hemodialysis for treatment of renal failure emergencies. Am J Emerg Med 17:305–307 Sacchetti A, Stuccio N, Panebianco P, Torres M (1999) ED hemodialysis for treatment of renal failure emergencies. Am J Emerg Med 17:305–307
322.
Zurück zum Zitat Davis TR, Young BA, Eisenberg MS, Rea TD, Copass MK, Cobb LA (2008) Outcome of cardiac arrests attended by emergency medical services staff at community outpatient dialysis centers. Kidney Int 73:933–939 Davis TR, Young BA, Eisenberg MS, Rea TD, Copass MK, Cobb LA (2008) Outcome of cardiac arrests attended by emergency medical services staff at community outpatient dialysis centers. Kidney Int 73:933–939
323.
Zurück zum Zitat Lafrance JP, Nolin L, Senecal L, Leblanc M (2006) Predictors and outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) calls in a large haemodialysis unit over a seven-year period. Nephrol Dial Transplant 21:1006–1012 Lafrance JP, Nolin L, Senecal L, Leblanc M (2006) Predictors and outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) calls in a large haemodialysis unit over a seven-year period. Nephrol Dial Transplant 21:1006–1012
324.
Zurück zum Zitat Bird S, Petley GW, Deakin CD, Clewlow F (2007) Defibrillation during renal dialysis: a survey of UK practice and procedural recommendations. Resuscitation 73:347–353 Bird S, Petley GW, Deakin CD, Clewlow F (2007) Defibrillation during renal dialysis: a survey of UK practice and procedural recommendations. Resuscitation 73:347–353
325.
Zurück zum Zitat O’Rourke MF, Donaldson E, Geddes JS (1997) An airline cardiac arrest program. Circulation 96:2849–2853 O’Rourke MF, Donaldson E, Geddes JS (1997) An airline cardiac arrest program. Circulation 96:2849–2853
326.
Zurück zum Zitat Page RL, Joglar JA, Kowal RC et al (2000) Use of automated external defibrillators by a U.S. airline. N Engl J Med 343:1210–1216 Page RL, Joglar JA, Kowal RC et al (2000) Use of automated external defibrillators by a U.S. airline. N Engl J Med 343:1210–1216
327.
Zurück zum Zitat Graf J, Stuben U, Pump S (2012) In-flight medical emergencies. Dtsch Arztebl Int 109:591–601 quiz 2 Graf J, Stuben U, Pump S (2012) In-flight medical emergencies. Dtsch Arztebl Int 109:591–601 quiz 2
328.
Zurück zum Zitat Brown AM, Rittenberger JC, Ammon CM, Harrington S, Guyette FX (2010) In-flight automated external defibrillator use and consultation patterns. Prehosp Emerg Care 14:235–239 Brown AM, Rittenberger JC, Ammon CM, Harrington S, Guyette FX (2010) In-flight automated external defibrillator use and consultation patterns. Prehosp Emerg Care 14:235–239
329.
Zurück zum Zitat Bertrand C, Rodriguez Redington P, Lecarpentier E et al (2004) Preliminary report on AED deployment on the entire Air France commercial fleet: a joint venture with Paris XII University Training Programme. Resuscitation 63:175–181 Bertrand C, Rodriguez Redington P, Lecarpentier E et al (2004) Preliminary report on AED deployment on the entire Air France commercial fleet: a joint venture with Paris XII University Training Programme. Resuscitation 63:175–181
330.
Zurück zum Zitat Skogvoll E, Bjelland E, Thorarinsson B (2000) Helicopter emergency medical service in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest – a 10-year population-based study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 44:972–979 Skogvoll E, Bjelland E, Thorarinsson B (2000) Helicopter emergency medical service in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest – a 10-year population-based study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 44:972–979
331.
Zurück zum Zitat Lyon RM, Nelson MJ (2013) Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) response to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 21:1 Lyon RM, Nelson MJ (2013) Helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) response to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 21:1
332.
Zurück zum Zitat Forti A, Zilio G, Zanatta P et al (2014) Full recovery after prolonged cardiac arrest and resuscitation with mechanical chest compression device during helicopter transportation and percutaneous coronary intervention. J Emerg Med 47:632–634 Forti A, Zilio G, Zanatta P et al (2014) Full recovery after prolonged cardiac arrest and resuscitation with mechanical chest compression device during helicopter transportation and percutaneous coronary intervention. J Emerg Med 47:632–634
333.
Zurück zum Zitat Pietsch U, Lischke V, Pietsch C (2014) Benefit of mechanical chest compression devices in mountain HEMS: lessons learned from 1 year of experience and evaluation. Air Med J 33:299–301 Pietsch U, Lischke V, Pietsch C (2014) Benefit of mechanical chest compression devices in mountain HEMS: lessons learned from 1 year of experience and evaluation. Air Med J 33:299–301
334.
Zurück zum Zitat Omori K, Sato S, Sumi Y et al (2013) The analysis of efficacy for AutoPulse system in flying helicopter. Resuscitation 84:1045–1050 Omori K, Sato S, Sumi Y et al (2013) The analysis of efficacy for AutoPulse system in flying helicopter. Resuscitation 84:1045–1050
335.
Zurück zum Zitat Putzer G, Braun P, Zimmermann A et al (2013) LUCAS compared to manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation is more effective during helicopter rescue-a prospective, randomized, cross-over manikin study. Am J Emerg Med 31:384–389 Putzer G, Braun P, Zimmermann A et al (2013) LUCAS compared to manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation is more effective during helicopter rescue-a prospective, randomized, cross-over manikin study. Am J Emerg Med 31:384–389
336.
Zurück zum Zitat Lin CY, Wang YF, Lu TH, Kawach I (2015) Unintentional drowning mortality, by age and body of water: an analysis of 60 countries. Inj Prev 21:e43–e50 Lin CY, Wang YF, Lu TH, Kawach I (2015) Unintentional drowning mortality, by age and body of water: an analysis of 60 countries. Inj Prev 21:e43–e50
337.
Zurück zum Zitat Szpilman D, Webber J, Quan L et al (2014) Creating a drowning chain of survival. Resuscitation 85:1149–1152 Szpilman D, Webber J, Quan L et al (2014) Creating a drowning chain of survival. Resuscitation 85:1149–1152
338.
Zurück zum Zitat Vahatalo R, Lunetta P, Olkkola KT, Suominen PK (2014) Drowning in children: utstein style reporting and outcome. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 58:604–610 Vahatalo R, Lunetta P, Olkkola KT, Suominen PK (2014) Drowning in children: utstein style reporting and outcome. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 58:604–610
339.
Zurück zum Zitat Claesson A, Lindqvist J, Herlitz J (2014) Cardiac arrest due to drowning – changes over time and factors of importance for survival. Resuscitation 85:644–648 Claesson A, Lindqvist J, Herlitz J (2014) Cardiac arrest due to drowning – changes over time and factors of importance for survival. Resuscitation 85:644–648
340.
Zurück zum Zitat Dyson K, Morgans A, Bray J, Matthews B, Smith K (2013) Drowning related out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: characteristics and outcomes. Resuscitation 84:1114–1118 Dyson K, Morgans A, Bray J, Matthews B, Smith K (2013) Drowning related out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: characteristics and outcomes. Resuscitation 84:1114–1118
341.
Zurück zum Zitat Tipton MJ, Golden FS (2011) A proposed decision-making guide for the search, rescue and resuscitation of submersion (head under) victims based on expert opinion. Resuscitation 82:819–824 Tipton MJ, Golden FS (2011) A proposed decision-making guide for the search, rescue and resuscitation of submersion (head under) victims based on expert opinion. Resuscitation 82:819–824
342.
Zurück zum Zitat Wanscher M, Agersnap L, Ravn J et al (2012) Outcome of accidental hypothermia with or without circulatory arrest: experience from the Danish Praesto Fjord boating accident. Resuscitation 83:1078–1084 Wanscher M, Agersnap L, Ravn J et al (2012) Outcome of accidental hypothermia with or without circulatory arrest: experience from the Danish Praesto Fjord boating accident. Resuscitation 83:1078–1084
343.
Zurück zum Zitat Kieboom JK, Verkade HJ, Burgerhof JG et al (2015) Outcome after resuscitation beyond 30 min in drowned children with cardiac arrest and hypothermia: dutch nationwide retrospective cohort study. BMJ 350:h418 Kieboom JK, Verkade HJ, Burgerhof JG et al (2015) Outcome after resuscitation beyond 30 min in drowned children with cardiac arrest and hypothermia: dutch nationwide retrospective cohort study. BMJ 350:h418
344.
Zurück zum Zitat Tomazin I, Ellerton J, Reisten O, Soteras I, Avbelj M, International Commission for Mountain Emergency M (2011) Medical standards for mountain rescue operations using helicopters: official consensus recommendations of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM). High Alt Med Biol 12:335–341 Tomazin I, Ellerton J, Reisten O, Soteras I, Avbelj M, International Commission for Mountain Emergency M (2011) Medical standards for mountain rescue operations using helicopters: official consensus recommendations of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR MEDCOM). High Alt Med Biol 12:335–341
345.
Zurück zum Zitat Pietsch U, Lischke V, Pietsch C, Kopp KH (2014) Mechanical chest compressions in an avalanche victim with cardiac arrest: an option for extreme mountain rescue operations. Wilderness Environ Med 25:190–193 Pietsch U, Lischke V, Pietsch C, Kopp KH (2014) Mechanical chest compressions in an avalanche victim with cardiac arrest: an option for extreme mountain rescue operations. Wilderness Environ Med 25:190–193
346.
Zurück zum Zitat Ellerton J, Gilbert H (2012) Should helicopters have a hoist or ‚long-line‘ capability to perform mountain rescue in the UK? Emerg Med J 29:56–59 Ellerton J, Gilbert H (2012) Should helicopters have a hoist or ‚long-line‘ capability to perform mountain rescue in the UK? Emerg Med J 29:56–59
347.
Zurück zum Zitat Klemenc-Ketis Z, Tomazin I, Kersnik J (2012) HEMS in Slovenia: one country, four models, different quality outcomes. Air Med J 31:298–304 Klemenc-Ketis Z, Tomazin I, Kersnik J (2012) HEMS in Slovenia: one country, four models, different quality outcomes. Air Med J 31:298–304
348.
Zurück zum Zitat Tomazin I, Vegnuti M, Ellerton J, Reisten O, Sumann G, Kersnik J (2012) Factors impacting on the activation and approach times of helicopter emergency medical services in four Alpine countries. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 20:56 Tomazin I, Vegnuti M, Ellerton J, Reisten O, Sumann G, Kersnik J (2012) Factors impacting on the activation and approach times of helicopter emergency medical services in four Alpine countries. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 20:56
349.
Zurück zum Zitat Wang JC, Tsai SH, Chen YL et al (2014) The physiological effects and quality of chest compressions during CPR at sea level and high altitude. Am J Emerg Med 32:1183–1188 Wang JC, Tsai SH, Chen YL et al (2014) The physiological effects and quality of chest compressions during CPR at sea level and high altitude. Am J Emerg Med 32:1183–1188
350.
Zurück zum Zitat Suto T, Saito S (2014) Considerations for resuscitation at high altitude in elderly and untrained populations and rescuers. Am J Emerg Med 32:270–276 Suto T, Saito S (2014) Considerations for resuscitation at high altitude in elderly and untrained populations and rescuers. Am J Emerg Med 32:270–276
351.
Zurück zum Zitat Narahara H, Kimura M, Suto T et al (2012) Effects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation at high altitudes on the physical condition of untrained and unacclimatized rescuers. Wilderness Environ Med 23:161–164 Narahara H, Kimura M, Suto T et al (2012) Effects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation at high altitudes on the physical condition of untrained and unacclimatized rescuers. Wilderness Environ Med 23:161–164
352.
Zurück zum Zitat Boyd J, Brugger H, Shuster M (2010) Prognostic factors in avalanche resuscitation: a systematic review. Resuscitation 81:645–652 Boyd J, Brugger H, Shuster M (2010) Prognostic factors in avalanche resuscitation: a systematic review. Resuscitation 81:645–652
353.
Zurück zum Zitat Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (1998) Lightning-associated deaths – United States (1980–1995). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 47:391–394 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (1998) Lightning-associated deaths – United States (1980–1995). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 47:391–394
354.
Zurück zum Zitat Zafren K, Durrer B, Herry JP, Brugger H (2005) Lightning injuries: prevention and on-site treatment in mountains and remote areas. Official guidelines of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine and the Medical Commission of the International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation (ICAR and UIAA MEDCOM). Resuscitation 65:369–372 Zafren K, Durrer B, Herry JP, Brugger H (2005) Lightning injuries: prevention and on-site treatment in mountains and remote areas. Official guidelines of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine and the Medical Commission of the International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation (ICAR and UIAA MEDCOM). Resuscitation 65:369–372
356.
Zurück zum Zitat Hubner P, Meron G, Kurkciyan I et al (2014) Neurologic causes of cardiac arrest and outcomes. J Emerg Med 47:660–667 Hubner P, Meron G, Kurkciyan I et al (2014) Neurologic causes of cardiac arrest and outcomes. J Emerg Med 47:660–667
357.
Zurück zum Zitat Skrifvars MB, Parr MJ (2012) Incidence, predisposing factors, management and survival following cardiac arrest due to subarachnoid haemorrhage: a review of the literature. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 20:75 Skrifvars MB, Parr MJ (2012) Incidence, predisposing factors, management and survival following cardiac arrest due to subarachnoid haemorrhage: a review of the literature. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 20:75
358.
Zurück zum Zitat Arnaout M, Mongardon N, Deye N et al (2015) Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from brain cause: epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome in a multicenter cohort*. Crit Care Med 43:453–460 Arnaout M, Mongardon N, Deye N et al (2015) Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest from brain cause: epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome in a multicenter cohort*. Crit Care Med 43:453–460
359.
Zurück zum Zitat Adabag S, Huxley RR, Lopez FL et al (2015) Obesity related risk of sudden cardiac death in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Heart 101:215–221 Adabag S, Huxley RR, Lopez FL et al (2015) Obesity related risk of sudden cardiac death in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Heart 101:215–221
360.
Zurück zum Zitat Lipman S, Cohen S, Einav S et al (2014) The Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology consensus statement on the management of cardiac arrest in pregnancy. Anesth Analg 118:1003–1016 Lipman S, Cohen S, Einav S et al (2014) The Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology consensus statement on the management of cardiac arrest in pregnancy. Anesth Analg 118:1003–1016
361.
Zurück zum Zitat Boyd R, Teece S (2002) Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Perimortem caesarean section. Emerg Med J 19:324–5 Boyd R, Teece S (2002) Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Perimortem caesarean section. Emerg Med J 19:324–5
362.
Zurück zum Zitat McNally B, Robb R, Mehta M et al (2011) Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Surveillance – Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES), United States, October 1, 2005–December 31, 2010. MMWR Surveill Summ 60:1–19 McNally B, Robb R, Mehta M et al (2011) Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Surveillance – Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES), United States, October 1, 2005–December 31, 2010. MMWR Surveill Summ 60:1–19
363.
Zurück zum Zitat Black CJ, Busuttil A, Robertson C (2004) Chest wall injuries following cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 63:339–343 Black CJ, Busuttil A, Robertson C (2004) Chest wall injuries following cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 63:339–343
364.
Zurück zum Zitat Krischer JP, Fine EG, Davis JH, Nagel EL (1987) Complications of cardiac resuscitation. Chest 92:287–291 Krischer JP, Fine EG, Davis JH, Nagel EL (1987) Complications of cardiac resuscitation. Chest 92:287–291
365.
Zurück zum Zitat Kashiwagi Y, Sasakawa T, Tampo A et al (2015) Computed tomography findings of complications resulting from cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 88:86–91 Kashiwagi Y, Sasakawa T, Tampo A et al (2015) Computed tomography findings of complications resulting from cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 88:86–91
366.
Zurück zum Zitat Nolan JP, Neumar RW, Adrie C et al (2008) Post-cardiac arrest syndrome: epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognostication. A Scientific Statement from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation; the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee; the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Perioperative, and Critical Care; the Council on Clinical Cardiology; the Council on Stroke. Resuscitation 79:350–379 Nolan JP, Neumar RW, Adrie C et al (2008) Post-cardiac arrest syndrome: epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognostication. A Scientific Statement from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation; the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee; the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Perioperative, and Critical Care; the Council on Clinical Cardiology; the Council on Stroke. Resuscitation 79:350–379
367.
Zurück zum Zitat Spaite DW, Bobrow BJ, Stolz U et al (2014) Statewide regionalization of postarrest care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: association with survival and neurologic outcome. Ann Emerg Med 64:496–506 e1 Spaite DW, Bobrow BJ, Stolz U et al (2014) Statewide regionalization of postarrest care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: association with survival and neurologic outcome. Ann Emerg Med 64:496–506 e1
368.
Zurück zum Zitat Soholm H, Wachtell K, Nielsen SL et al (2013) Tertiary centres have improved survival compared to other hospitals in the Copenhagen area after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 84:162–167 Soholm H, Wachtell K, Nielsen SL et al (2013) Tertiary centres have improved survival compared to other hospitals in the Copenhagen area after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 84:162–167
369.
Zurück zum Zitat Sunde K, Pytte M, Jacobsen D et al (2007) Implementation of a standardised treatment protocol for post resuscitation care after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 73:29–39 Sunde K, Pytte M, Jacobsen D et al (2007) Implementation of a standardised treatment protocol for post resuscitation care after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 73:29–39
370.
Zurück zum Zitat Gaieski DF, Band RA, Abella BS et al (2009) Early goal-directed hemodynamic optimization combined with therapeutic hypothermia in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 80:418–424 Gaieski DF, Band RA, Abella BS et al (2009) Early goal-directed hemodynamic optimization combined with therapeutic hypothermia in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 80:418–424
371.
Zurück zum Zitat Carr BG, Goyal M, Band RA et al (2009) A national analysis of the relationship between hospital factors and post-cardiac arrest mortality. Intensive Care Med 35:505–511 Carr BG, Goyal M, Band RA et al (2009) A national analysis of the relationship between hospital factors and post-cardiac arrest mortality. Intensive Care Med 35:505–511
372.
Zurück zum Zitat Oddo M, Schaller MD, Feihl F, Ribordy V, Liaudet L (2006) From evidence to clinical practice: effective implementation of therapeutic hypothermia to improve patient outcome after cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 34:1865–1873 Oddo M, Schaller MD, Feihl F, Ribordy V, Liaudet L (2006) From evidence to clinical practice: effective implementation of therapeutic hypothermia to improve patient outcome after cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 34:1865–1873
373.
Zurück zum Zitat Knafelj R, Radsel P, Ploj T, Noc M (2007) Primary percutaneous coronary intervention and mild induced hypothermia in comatose survivors of ventricular fibrillation with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. Resuscitation 74:227–234 Knafelj R, Radsel P, Ploj T, Noc M (2007) Primary percutaneous coronary intervention and mild induced hypothermia in comatose survivors of ventricular fibrillation with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. Resuscitation 74:227–234
374.
Zurück zum Zitat Mongardon N, Dumas F, Ricome S et al (2011) Postcardiac arrest syndrome: from immediate resuscitation to long-term outcome. Ann Intensive Care 1:45 Mongardon N, Dumas F, Ricome S et al (2011) Postcardiac arrest syndrome: from immediate resuscitation to long-term outcome. Ann Intensive Care 1:45
375.
Zurück zum Zitat Stub D, Bernard S, Duffy SJ, Kaye DM (2011) Post cardiac arrest syndrome: a review of therapeutic strategies. Circulation 123:1428–1435 Stub D, Bernard S, Duffy SJ, Kaye DM (2011) Post cardiac arrest syndrome: a review of therapeutic strategies. Circulation 123:1428–1435
376.
Zurück zum Zitat Nielsen N, Wetterslev J, Cronberg T et al (2013) Targeted temperature management at 33 degrees C versus 36 degrees C after cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 369:2197–2206 Nielsen N, Wetterslev J, Cronberg T et al (2013) Targeted temperature management at 33 degrees C versus 36 degrees C after cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 369:2197–2206
377.
Zurück zum Zitat Lemiale V, Dumas F, Mongardon N et al (2013) Intensive care unit mortality after cardiac arrest: the relative contribution of shock and brain injury in a large cohort. Intensive Care Med 39:1972–1980 Lemiale V, Dumas F, Mongardon N et al (2013) Intensive care unit mortality after cardiac arrest: the relative contribution of shock and brain injury in a large cohort. Intensive Care Med 39:1972–1980
378.
Zurück zum Zitat Dragancea I, Rundgren M, Englund E, Friberg H, Cronberg T (2013) The influence of induced hypothermia and delayed prognostication on the mode of death after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 84:337–342 Dragancea I, Rundgren M, Englund E, Friberg H, Cronberg T (2013) The influence of induced hypothermia and delayed prognostication on the mode of death after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 84:337–342
379.
Zurück zum Zitat Tomte O, Andersen GO, Jacobsen D, Draegni T, Auestad B, Sunde K (2011) Strong and weak aspects of an established post-resuscitation treatment protocol-a five-year observational study. Resuscitation 82:1186–1193 Tomte O, Andersen GO, Jacobsen D, Draegni T, Auestad B, Sunde K (2011) Strong and weak aspects of an established post-resuscitation treatment protocol-a five-year observational study. Resuscitation 82:1186–1193
380.
Zurück zum Zitat Laurent I, Monchi M, Chiche JD et al (2002) Reversible myocardial dysfunction in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. J Am Coll Cardiol 40:2110–2116 Laurent I, Monchi M, Chiche JD et al (2002) Reversible myocardial dysfunction in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. J Am Coll Cardiol 40:2110–2116
381.
Zurück zum Zitat Ruiz-Bailen M, Aguayo de Hoyos E, Ruiz-Navarro S et al (2005) Reversible myocardial dysfunction after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 66:175–181 Ruiz-Bailen M, Aguayo de Hoyos E, Ruiz-Navarro S et al (2005) Reversible myocardial dysfunction after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 66:175–181
382.
Zurück zum Zitat Chalkias A, Xanthos T (2012) Pathophysiology and pathogenesis of post-resuscitation myocardial stunning. Heart Fail Rev 17:117–128 Chalkias A, Xanthos T (2012) Pathophysiology and pathogenesis of post-resuscitation myocardial stunning. Heart Fail Rev 17:117–128
383.
Zurück zum Zitat Adrie C, Monchi M, Laurent I et al (2005) Coagulopathy after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation following cardiac arrest: implication of the protein C anticoagulant pathway. J Am Coll Cardiol 46:21–28 Adrie C, Monchi M, Laurent I et al (2005) Coagulopathy after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation following cardiac arrest: implication of the protein C anticoagulant pathway. J Am Coll Cardiol 46:21–28
384.
Zurück zum Zitat Adrie C, Adib-Conquy M, Laurent I et al (2002) Successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation after cardiac arrest as a „sepsis-like“ syndrome. Circulation 106:562–568 Adrie C, Adib-Conquy M, Laurent I et al (2002) Successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation after cardiac arrest as a „sepsis-like“ syndrome. Circulation 106:562–568
385.
Zurück zum Zitat Adrie C, Laurent I, Monchi M, Cariou A, Dhainaou JF, Spaulding C (2004) Postresuscitation disease after cardiac arrest: a sepsis-like syndrome? Curr Opin Crit Care 10:208–212 Adrie C, Laurent I, Monchi M, Cariou A, Dhainaou JF, Spaulding C (2004) Postresuscitation disease after cardiac arrest: a sepsis-like syndrome? Curr Opin Crit Care 10:208–212
386.
Zurück zum Zitat Huet O, Dupic L, Batteux F et al (2011) Postresuscitation syndrome: potential role of hydroxyl radical-induced endothelial cell damage. Crit Care Med 39:1712–1720 Huet O, Dupic L, Batteux F et al (2011) Postresuscitation syndrome: potential role of hydroxyl radical-induced endothelial cell damage. Crit Care Med 39:1712–1720
387.
Zurück zum Zitat Fink K, Schwarz M, Feldbrugge L et al (2010) Severe endothelial injury and subsequent repair in patients after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Crit Care 14:R104 Fink K, Schwarz M, Feldbrugge L et al (2010) Severe endothelial injury and subsequent repair in patients after successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Crit Care 14:R104
388.
Zurück zum Zitat van Genderen ME, Lima A, Akkerhuis M, Bakker J, van Bommel J (2012) Persistent peripheral and microcirculatory perfusion alterations after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are associated with poor survival. Crit Care Med 40:2287–2294 van Genderen ME, Lima A, Akkerhuis M, Bakker J, van Bommel J (2012) Persistent peripheral and microcirculatory perfusion alterations after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are associated with poor survival. Crit Care Med 40:2287–2294
389.
Zurück zum Zitat Bro-Jeppesen J, Kjaergaard J, Wanscher M et al (2015) Systemic inflammatory response and potential prognostic implications after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a substudy of the target temperature management trial. Crit Care Med 43:1223–1232 Bro-Jeppesen J, Kjaergaard J, Wanscher M et al (2015) Systemic inflammatory response and potential prognostic implications after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a substudy of the target temperature management trial. Crit Care Med 43:1223–1232
390.
Zurück zum Zitat Sutherasan Y, Penuelas O, Muriel A et al (2015) Management and outcome of mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac arrest. Crit Care 19:215 Sutherasan Y, Penuelas O, Muriel A et al (2015) Management and outcome of mechanically ventilated patients after cardiac arrest. Crit Care 19:215
391.
Zurück zum Zitat Pilcher J, Weatherall M, Shirtcliffe P, Bellomo R, Young P, Beasley R (2012) The effect of hyperoxia following cardiac arrest – a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal trials. Resuscitation 83:417–422 Pilcher J, Weatherall M, Shirtcliffe P, Bellomo R, Young P, Beasley R (2012) The effect of hyperoxia following cardiac arrest – a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal trials. Resuscitation 83:417–422
392.
Zurück zum Zitat Wang CH, Chang WT, Huang CH et al (2014) The effect of hyperoxia on survival following adult cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Resuscitation 85:1142–1148 Wang CH, Chang WT, Huang CH et al (2014) The effect of hyperoxia on survival following adult cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Resuscitation 85:1142–1148
393.
Zurück zum Zitat Stub D, Smith K, Bernard S et al (2015) Air versus oxygen in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Circulation Stub D, Smith K, Bernard S et al (2015) Air versus oxygen in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Circulation
394.
Zurück zum Zitat Bouzat P, Suys T, Sala N, Oddo M (2013) Effect of moderate hyperventilation and induced hypertension on cerebral tissue oxygenation after cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation 84:1540–1545 Bouzat P, Suys T, Sala N, Oddo M (2013) Effect of moderate hyperventilation and induced hypertension on cerebral tissue oxygenation after cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation 84:1540–1545
395.
Zurück zum Zitat Buunk G, van der Hoeven JG, Meinders AE (1997) Cerebrovascular reactivity in comatose patients resuscitated from a cardiac arrest. Stroke 28:1569–1573 Buunk G, van der Hoeven JG, Meinders AE (1997) Cerebrovascular reactivity in comatose patients resuscitated from a cardiac arrest. Stroke 28:1569–1573
396.
Zurück zum Zitat Buunk G, van der Hoeven JG, Meinders AE (1998) A comparison of near-infrared spectroscopy and jugular bulb oximetry in comatose patients resuscitated from a cardiac arrest. Anaesthesia 53:13–19 Buunk G, van der Hoeven JG, Meinders AE (1998) A comparison of near-infrared spectroscopy and jugular bulb oximetry in comatose patients resuscitated from a cardiac arrest. Anaesthesia 53:13–19
397.
Zurück zum Zitat Roberts BW, Kilgannon JH, Chansky ME, Mittal N, Wooden J, Trzeciak S (2013) Association between postresuscitation partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide and neurological outcome in patients with post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Circulation 127:2107–2113 Roberts BW, Kilgannon JH, Chansky ME, Mittal N, Wooden J, Trzeciak S (2013) Association between postresuscitation partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide and neurological outcome in patients with post-cardiac arrest syndrome. Circulation 127:2107–2113
398.
Zurück zum Zitat Schneider AG, Eastwood GM, Bellomo R et al (2013) Arterial carbon dioxide tension and outcome in patients admitted to the intensive care unit after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 84:927–934 Schneider AG, Eastwood GM, Bellomo R et al (2013) Arterial carbon dioxide tension and outcome in patients admitted to the intensive care unit after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 84:927–934
399.
Zurück zum Zitat Larsen JM, Ravkilde J (2012) Acute coronary angiography in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest – a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation 83:1427–1433 Larsen JM, Ravkilde J (2012) Acute coronary angiography in patients resuscitated from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest – a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation 83:1427–1433
400.
Zurück zum Zitat Camuglia AC, Randhawa VK, Lavi S, Walters DL (2014) Cardiac catheterization is associated with superior outcomes for survivors of out of hospital cardiac arrest: review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation 85:1533–1540 Camuglia AC, Randhawa VK, Lavi S, Walters DL (2014) Cardiac catheterization is associated with superior outcomes for survivors of out of hospital cardiac arrest: review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation 85:1533–1540
401.
Zurück zum Zitat Grasner JT, Meybohm P, Caliebe A et al (2011) Postresuscitation care with mild therapeutic hypothermia and coronary intervention after out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a prospective registry analysis. Crit Care 15:R61 Grasner JT, Meybohm P, Caliebe A et al (2011) Postresuscitation care with mild therapeutic hypothermia and coronary intervention after out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a prospective registry analysis. Crit Care 15:R61
402.
Zurück zum Zitat Callaway CW, Schmicker RH, Brown SP et al (2014) Early coronary angiography and induced hypothermia are associated with survival and functional recovery after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 85:657–663 Callaway CW, Schmicker RH, Brown SP et al (2014) Early coronary angiography and induced hypothermia are associated with survival and functional recovery after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 85:657–663
403.
Zurück zum Zitat Dumas F, White L, Stubbs BA, Cariou A, Rea TD (2012) Long-term prognosis following resuscitation from out of hospital cardiac arrest: role of percutaneous coronary intervention and therapeutic hypothermia. J Am Coll Cardiol 60:21–27 Dumas F, White L, Stubbs BA, Cariou A, Rea TD (2012) Long-term prognosis following resuscitation from out of hospital cardiac arrest: role of percutaneous coronary intervention and therapeutic hypothermia. J Am Coll Cardiol 60:21–27
404.
Zurück zum Zitat Zanuttini D, Armellini I, Nucifora G et al (2013) Predictive value of electrocardiogram in diagnosing acute coronary artery lesions among patients with out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest. Resuscitation 84:1250–1254 Zanuttini D, Armellini I, Nucifora G et al (2013) Predictive value of electrocardiogram in diagnosing acute coronary artery lesions among patients with out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest. Resuscitation 84:1250–1254
405.
Zurück zum Zitat Dumas F, Manzo-Silberman S, Fichet J et al (2012) Can early cardiac troponin I measurement help to predict recent coronary occlusion in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors? Crit Care Med 40:1777–1784 Dumas F, Manzo-Silberman S, Fichet J et al (2012) Can early cardiac troponin I measurement help to predict recent coronary occlusion in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors? Crit Care Med 40:1777–1784
406.
Zurück zum Zitat Sideris G, Voicu S, Dillinger JG et al (2011) Value of post-resuscitation electrocardiogram in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. Resuscitation 82:1148–1153 Sideris G, Voicu S, Dillinger JG et al (2011) Value of post-resuscitation electrocardiogram in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. Resuscitation 82:1148–1153
407.
Zurück zum Zitat Muller D, Schnitzer L, Brandt J, Arntz HR (2008) The accuracy of an out-of-hospital 12-lead ECG for the detection of ST-elevation myocardial infarction immediately after resuscitation. Ann Emerg Med 52:658–664 Muller D, Schnitzer L, Brandt J, Arntz HR (2008) The accuracy of an out-of-hospital 12-lead ECG for the detection of ST-elevation myocardial infarction immediately after resuscitation. Ann Emerg Med 52:658–664
408.
Zurück zum Zitat Dumas F, Cariou A, Manzo-Silberman S et al (2010) Immediate percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with better survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: insights from the PROCAT (Parisian Region Out of hospital Cardiac ArresT) registry. Circ Cardiovasc Interv 3:200–207 Dumas F, Cariou A, Manzo-Silberman S et al (2010) Immediate percutaneous coronary intervention is associated with better survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: insights from the PROCAT (Parisian Region Out of hospital Cardiac ArresT) registry. Circ Cardiovasc Interv 3:200–207
409.
Zurück zum Zitat Radsel P, Knafelj R, Kocjancic S, Noc M (2011) Angiographic characteristics of coronary disease and postresuscitation electrocardiograms in patients with aborted cardiac arrest outside a hospital. Am J Cardiol 108:634–638 Radsel P, Knafelj R, Kocjancic S, Noc M (2011) Angiographic characteristics of coronary disease and postresuscitation electrocardiograms in patients with aborted cardiac arrest outside a hospital. Am J Cardiol 108:634–638
410.
Zurück zum Zitat Hollenbeck RD, McPherson JA, Mooney MR et al (2014) Early cardiac catheterization is associated with improved survival in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest without STEMI. Resuscitation 85:88–95 Hollenbeck RD, McPherson JA, Mooney MR et al (2014) Early cardiac catheterization is associated with improved survival in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest without STEMI. Resuscitation 85:88–95
411.
Zurück zum Zitat Redfors B, Ramunddal T, Angeras O et al (2015) Angiographic findings and survival in patients undergoing coronary angiography due to sudden cardiac arrest in Western Sweden. Resuscitation 90:13–20 Redfors B, Ramunddal T, Angeras O et al (2015) Angiographic findings and survival in patients undergoing coronary angiography due to sudden cardiac arrest in Western Sweden. Resuscitation 90:13–20
412.
Zurück zum Zitat Bro-Jeppesen J, Kjaergaard J, Wanscher M et al (2012) Emergency coronary angiography in comatose cardiac arrest patients: do real-life experiences support the guidelines? Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 1:291–301 Bro-Jeppesen J, Kjaergaard J, Wanscher M et al (2012) Emergency coronary angiography in comatose cardiac arrest patients: do real-life experiences support the guidelines? Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 1:291–301
413.
Zurück zum Zitat Dankiewicz J, Nielsen N, Annborn M et al (2015) Survival in patients without acute ST elevation after cardiac arrest and association with early coronary angiography: a post hoc analysis from the TTM trial. Intensive Care Med 41:856–864 Dankiewicz J, Nielsen N, Annborn M et al (2015) Survival in patients without acute ST elevation after cardiac arrest and association with early coronary angiography: a post hoc analysis from the TTM trial. Intensive Care Med 41:856–864
414.
Zurück zum Zitat Chelly J, Mongardon N, Dumas F et al (2012) Benefit of an early and systematic imaging procedure after cardiac arrest: insights from the PROCAT (Parisian Region Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest) registry. Resuscitation 83:1444–1450 Chelly J, Mongardon N, Dumas F et al (2012) Benefit of an early and systematic imaging procedure after cardiac arrest: insights from the PROCAT (Parisian Region Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest) registry. Resuscitation 83:1444–1450
415.
Zurück zum Zitat Bro-Jeppesen J, Annborn M, Hassager C et al (2015) Hemodynamics and vasopressor support during targeted temperature management at 33 degrees C Versus 36 degrees C after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a post hoc study of the target temperature management trial*. Crit Care Med 43:318–327 Bro-Jeppesen J, Annborn M, Hassager C et al (2015) Hemodynamics and vasopressor support during targeted temperature management at 33 degrees C Versus 36 degrees C after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a post hoc study of the target temperature management trial*. Crit Care Med 43:318–327
416.
Zurück zum Zitat Chang WT, Ma MH, Chien KL et al (2007) Postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction: correlated factors and prognostic implications. Intensive Care Med 33:88–95 Chang WT, Ma MH, Chien KL et al (2007) Postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction: correlated factors and prognostic implications. Intensive Care Med 33:88–95
417.
Zurück zum Zitat Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Rhodes A et al (2013) Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012. Crit Care Med 41:580–637 Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Rhodes A et al (2013) Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012. Crit Care Med 41:580–637
418.
Zurück zum Zitat Pro CI, Yealy DM, Kellum JA et al (2014) A randomized trial of protocol-based care for early septic shock. N Engl J Med 370:1683–1693 Pro CI, Yealy DM, Kellum JA et al (2014) A randomized trial of protocol-based care for early septic shock. N Engl J Med 370:1683–1693
419.
Zurück zum Zitat Investigators A, Group ACT, Peake SL et al (2014) Goal-directed resuscitation for patients with early septic shock. N Engl J Med 371:1496–1506 Investigators A, Group ACT, Peake SL et al (2014) Goal-directed resuscitation for patients with early septic shock. N Engl J Med 371:1496–1506
420.
Zurück zum Zitat Mouncey PR, Osborn TM, Power GS et al (2015) Trial of early, goal-directed resuscitation for septic shock. N Engl J Med 372:1301–1311 Mouncey PR, Osborn TM, Power GS et al (2015) Trial of early, goal-directed resuscitation for septic shock. N Engl J Med 372:1301–1311
421.
Zurück zum Zitat Zeiner A, Sunder-Plassmann G, Sterz F et al (2004) The effect of mild therapeutic hypothermia on renal function after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in men. Resuscitation 60:253–261 Zeiner A, Sunder-Plassmann G, Sterz F et al (2004) The effect of mild therapeutic hypothermia on renal function after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in men. Resuscitation 60:253–261
422.
Zurück zum Zitat Lee DS, Green LD, Liu PP et al (2003) Effectiveness of implantable defibrillators for preventing arrhythmic events and death: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 41:1573–1582 Lee DS, Green LD, Liu PP et al (2003) Effectiveness of implantable defibrillators for preventing arrhythmic events and death: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 41:1573–1582
423.
Zurück zum Zitat Vardas PE, Auricchio A, Blanc JJ et al (2007) Guidelines for cardiac pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy: the Task Force for Cardiac Pacing and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association. Eur Heart J 28:2256–2295 Vardas PE, Auricchio A, Blanc JJ et al (2007) Guidelines for cardiac pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy: the Task Force for Cardiac Pacing and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association. Eur Heart J 28:2256–2295
424.
Zurück zum Zitat Task Force on the management of STseamiotESoC, Steg PG, James SK et al (2012) ESC Guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation. Eur Heart J 33:2569–2619 Task Force on the management of STseamiotESoC, Steg PG, James SK et al (2012) ESC Guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation. Eur Heart J 33:2569–2619
425.
Zurück zum Zitat Buunk G, van der Hoeven JG, Meinders AE (2000) Cerebral blood flow after cardiac arrest. Neth J Med 57:106–112 Buunk G, van der Hoeven JG, Meinders AE (2000) Cerebral blood flow after cardiac arrest. Neth J Med 57:106–112
426.
Zurück zum Zitat Angelos MG, Ward KR, Hobson J, Beckley PD (1994) Organ blood flow following cardiac arrest in a swine low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass model. Resuscitation 27:245–254 Angelos MG, Ward KR, Hobson J, Beckley PD (1994) Organ blood flow following cardiac arrest in a swine low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass model. Resuscitation 27:245–254
427.
Zurück zum Zitat Fischer M, Bottiger BW, Popov-Cenic S, Hossmann KA (1996) Thrombolysis using plasminogen activator and heparin reduces cerebral no-reflow after resuscitation from cardiac arrest: an experimental study in the cat. Intensive Care Med 22:1214–1223 Fischer M, Bottiger BW, Popov-Cenic S, Hossmann KA (1996) Thrombolysis using plasminogen activator and heparin reduces cerebral no-reflow after resuscitation from cardiac arrest: an experimental study in the cat. Intensive Care Med 22:1214–1223
428.
Zurück zum Zitat Sakabe T, Tateishi A, Miyauchi Y et al (1987) Intracranial pressure following cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Intensive Care Med 13:256–259 Sakabe T, Tateishi A, Miyauchi Y et al (1987) Intracranial pressure following cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Intensive Care Med 13:256–259
429.
Zurück zum Zitat Morimoto Y, Kemmotsu O, Kitami K, Matsubara I, Tedo I (1993) Acute brain swelling after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: pathogenesis and outcome. Crit Care Med 21:104–110 Morimoto Y, Kemmotsu O, Kitami K, Matsubara I, Tedo I (1993) Acute brain swelling after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: pathogenesis and outcome. Crit Care Med 21:104–110
430.
Zurück zum Zitat Nishizawa H, Kudoh I (1996) Cerebral autoregulation is impaired in patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 40:1149–1153 Nishizawa H, Kudoh I (1996) Cerebral autoregulation is impaired in patients resuscitated after cardiac arrest. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 40:1149–1153
431.
Zurück zum Zitat Sundgreen C, Larsen FS, Herzog TM, Knudsen GM, Boesgaard S, Aldershvile J (2001) Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Stroke 32:128–132 Sundgreen C, Larsen FS, Herzog TM, Knudsen GM, Boesgaard S, Aldershvile J (2001) Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Stroke 32:128–132
432.
Zurück zum Zitat Snyder BD, Hauser WA, Loewenson RB, Leppik IE, Ramirez-Lassepas M, Gumnit RJ (1980) Neurologic prognosis after cardiopulmonary arrest, III: seizure activity. Neurology 30:1292–1297 Snyder BD, Hauser WA, Loewenson RB, Leppik IE, Ramirez-Lassepas M, Gumnit RJ (1980) Neurologic prognosis after cardiopulmonary arrest, III: seizure activity. Neurology 30:1292–1297
433.
Zurück zum Zitat Bouwes A, van Poppelen D, Koelman JH et al (2012) Acute posthypoxic myoclonus after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. BMC Neurol 12:63 Bouwes A, van Poppelen D, Koelman JH et al (2012) Acute posthypoxic myoclonus after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. BMC Neurol 12:63
434.
Zurück zum Zitat Seder DB, Sunde K, Rubertsson S et al (2015) Neurologic outcomes and postresuscitation care of patients with myoclonus following cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 43:965–972 Seder DB, Sunde K, Rubertsson S et al (2015) Neurologic outcomes and postresuscitation care of patients with myoclonus following cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 43:965–972
435.
Zurück zum Zitat Benbadis SR, Chen S, Melo M (2010) What’s shaking in the ICU? The differential diagnosis of seizures in the intensive care setting. Epilepsia 51:2338–2340 Benbadis SR, Chen S, Melo M (2010) What’s shaking in the ICU? The differential diagnosis of seizures in the intensive care setting. Epilepsia 51:2338–2340
436.
Zurück zum Zitat Caviness JN, Brown P (2004) Myoclonus: current concepts and recent advances. Lancet Neurol 3:598–607 Caviness JN, Brown P (2004) Myoclonus: current concepts and recent advances. Lancet Neurol 3:598–607
437.
Zurück zum Zitat Ingvar M (1986) Cerebral blood flow and metabolic rate during seizures. Relationship to epileptic brain damage. Ann N Y Acad Sci 462:194–206 Ingvar M (1986) Cerebral blood flow and metabolic rate during seizures. Relationship to epileptic brain damage. Ann N Y Acad Sci 462:194–206
438.
Zurück zum Zitat Thomke F, Weilemann SL (2010) Poor prognosis despite successful treatment of postanoxic generalized myoclonus. Neurology 74:1392–1394 Thomke F, Weilemann SL (2010) Poor prognosis despite successful treatment of postanoxic generalized myoclonus. Neurology 74:1392–1394
439.
Zurück zum Zitat Mullner M, Sterz F, Binder M, Schreiber W, Deimel A, Laggner AN (1997) Blood glucose concentration after cardiopulmonary resuscitation influences functional neurological recovery in human cardiac arrest survivors. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 17:430–436 Mullner M, Sterz F, Binder M, Schreiber W, Deimel A, Laggner AN (1997) Blood glucose concentration after cardiopulmonary resuscitation influences functional neurological recovery in human cardiac arrest survivors. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 17:430–436
440.
Zurück zum Zitat Nielsen N, Hovdenes J, Nilsson F et al (2009) Outcome, timing and adverse events in therapeutic hypothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 53:926–934 Nielsen N, Hovdenes J, Nilsson F et al (2009) Outcome, timing and adverse events in therapeutic hypothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 53:926–934
441.
Zurück zum Zitat Padkin A (2009) Glucose control after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 80:611–612 Padkin A (2009) Glucose control after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 80:611–612
442.
Zurück zum Zitat Takino M, Okada Y (1991) Hyperthermia following cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Intensive Care Med 17:419–420 Takino M, Okada Y (1991) Hyperthermia following cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Intensive Care Med 17:419–420
443.
Zurück zum Zitat Hickey RW, Kochanek PM, Ferimer H, Alexander HL, Garman RH, Graham SH (2003) Induced hyperthermia exacerbates neurologic neuronal histologic damage after asphyxial cardiac arrest in rats. Crit Care Med 31:531–535 Hickey RW, Kochanek PM, Ferimer H, Alexander HL, Garman RH, Graham SH (2003) Induced hyperthermia exacerbates neurologic neuronal histologic damage after asphyxial cardiac arrest in rats. Crit Care Med 31:531–535
444.
Zurück zum Zitat Takasu A, Saitoh D, Kaneko N, Sakamoto T, Okada Y (2001) Hyperthermia: is it an ominous sign after cardiac arrest? Resuscitation 49:273–277 Takasu A, Saitoh D, Kaneko N, Sakamoto T, Okada Y (2001) Hyperthermia: is it an ominous sign after cardiac arrest? Resuscitation 49:273–277
445.
Zurück zum Zitat Zeiner A, Holzer M, Sterz F et al (2001) Hyperthermia after cardiac arrest is associated with an unfavorable neurologic outcome. Arch Intern Med 161:2007–2012 Zeiner A, Holzer M, Sterz F et al (2001) Hyperthermia after cardiac arrest is associated with an unfavorable neurologic outcome. Arch Intern Med 161:2007–2012
446.
Zurück zum Zitat Hickey RW, Kochanek PM, Ferimer H, Graham SH, Safar P (2000) Hypothermia and hyperthermia in children after resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Pediatrics 106(pt 1):118–122 Hickey RW, Kochanek PM, Ferimer H, Graham SH, Safar P (2000) Hypothermia and hyperthermia in children after resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Pediatrics 106(pt 1):118–122
447.
Zurück zum Zitat Diringer MN, Reaven NL, Funk SE, Uman GC (2004) Elevated body temperature independently contributes to increased length of stay in neurologic intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med 32:1489–1495 Diringer MN, Reaven NL, Funk SE, Uman GC (2004) Elevated body temperature independently contributes to increased length of stay in neurologic intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med 32:1489–1495
448.
Zurück zum Zitat Gunn AJ, Thoresen M (2006) Hypothermic neuroprotection. NeuroRx 3:154–169 Gunn AJ, Thoresen M (2006) Hypothermic neuroprotection. NeuroRx 3:154–169
449.
Zurück zum Zitat Froehler MT, Geocadin RG (2007) Hypothermia for neuroprotection after cardiac arrest: mechanisms, clinical trials and patient care. J Neurol Sci 261:118–126 Froehler MT, Geocadin RG (2007) Hypothermia for neuroprotection after cardiac arrest: mechanisms, clinical trials and patient care. J Neurol Sci 261:118–126
450.
Zurück zum Zitat Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest Study Group (2002) Mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 346:549–556 Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest Study Group (2002) Mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 346:549–556
451.
Zurück zum Zitat Bernard SA, Gray TW, Buist MD et al (2002) Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia. N Engl J Med 346:557–563 Bernard SA, Gray TW, Buist MD et al (2002) Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia. N Engl J Med 346:557–563
452.
Zurück zum Zitat Cronberg T, Lilja G, Horn J et al (2015) Neurologic Function and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Following Targeted Temperature Management at 33 degrees C vs 36 degrees C After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Neurol Cronberg T, Lilja G, Horn J et al (2015) Neurologic Function and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients Following Targeted Temperature Management at 33 degrees C vs 36 degrees C After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Neurol
453.
Zurück zum Zitat Lilja G, Nielsen N, Friberg H et al (2015) Cognitive function in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest after target temperature management at 33 degrees C Versus 36 degrees C. Circulation 131:1340–1349 Lilja G, Nielsen N, Friberg H et al (2015) Cognitive function in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest after target temperature management at 33 degrees C Versus 36 degrees C. Circulation 131:1340–1349
454.
Zurück zum Zitat Nolan JP, Morley PT, Vanden Hoek TL, Hickey RW (2003) Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. An advisory statement by the Advancement Life support Task Force of the International Liaison committee on Resuscitation. Resuscitation 57:231–235 Nolan JP, Morley PT, Vanden Hoek TL, Hickey RW (2003) Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. An advisory statement by the Advancement Life support Task Force of the International Liaison committee on Resuscitation. Resuscitation 57:231–235
455.
Zurück zum Zitat Kuboyama K, Safar P, Radovsky A et al (1993) Delay in cooling negates the beneficial effect of mild resuscitative cerebral hypothermia after cardia arrest in dogs: a prospective, randomized study. Crit Care Med 21:1348–1358 Kuboyama K, Safar P, Radovsky A et al (1993) Delay in cooling negates the beneficial effect of mild resuscitative cerebral hypothermia after cardia arrest in dogs: a prospective, randomized study. Crit Care Med 21:1348–1358
456.
Zurück zum Zitat Colbourne F, Corbett D (1995) Delayed postischemic hypothermia: a six month survival study using behavioral and histological assessments of neuroprotection. J Neurosci 15:7250–7260 Colbourne F, Corbett D (1995) Delayed postischemic hypothermia: a six month survival study using behavioral and histological assessments of neuroprotection. J Neurosci 15:7250–7260
457.
Zurück zum Zitat Haugk M, Testori C, Sterz F et al (2011) Relationship between time to target temperature and outcome in patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Crit Care 15:R101 Haugk M, Testori C, Sterz F et al (2011) Relationship between time to target temperature and outcome in patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Crit Care 15:R101
458.
Zurück zum Zitat Benz-Woerner J, Delodder F, Benz R et al (2012) Body temperature regulation and outcome after cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation 83:338–342 Benz-Woerner J, Delodder F, Benz R et al (2012) Body temperature regulation and outcome after cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation 83:338–342
459.
Zurück zum Zitat Perman SM, Ellenberg JH, Grossestreuer AV et al (2015) Shorter time to target temperature is associated with poor neurologic outcome in post-arrest patients treated with targeted temperature management. Resuscitation 88:114–119 Perman SM, Ellenberg JH, Grossestreuer AV et al (2015) Shorter time to target temperature is associated with poor neurologic outcome in post-arrest patients treated with targeted temperature management. Resuscitation 88:114–119
460.
Zurück zum Zitat Kim F, Nichol G, Maynard C et al (2014) Effect of prehospital induction of mild hypothermia on survival and neurological status among adults with cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 311:45–52 Kim F, Nichol G, Maynard C et al (2014) Effect of prehospital induction of mild hypothermia on survival and neurological status among adults with cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 311:45–52
461.
Zurück zum Zitat Hoedemaekers CW, Ezzahti M, Gerritsen A, van der Hoeven JG (2007) Comparison of cooling methods to induce and maintain normo- and hypothermia in intensive care unit patients: a prospective intervention study. Crit Care 11:R91 Hoedemaekers CW, Ezzahti M, Gerritsen A, van der Hoeven JG (2007) Comparison of cooling methods to induce and maintain normo- and hypothermia in intensive care unit patients: a prospective intervention study. Crit Care 11:R91
462.
Zurück zum Zitat Gillies MA, Pratt R, Whiteley C, Borg J, Beale RJ, Tibby SM (2010) Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest: a retrospective comparison of surface and endovascular cooling techniques. Resuscitation 81:1117–1122 Gillies MA, Pratt R, Whiteley C, Borg J, Beale RJ, Tibby SM (2010) Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest: a retrospective comparison of surface and endovascular cooling techniques. Resuscitation 81:1117–1122
463.
Zurück zum Zitat Bro-Jeppesen J, Hassager C, Wanscher M et al (2013) Post-hypothermia fever is associated with increased mortality after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 84:1734–1740 Bro-Jeppesen J, Hassager C, Wanscher M et al (2013) Post-hypothermia fever is associated with increased mortality after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 84:1734–1740
464.
Zurück zum Zitat Winters SA, Wolf KH, Kettinger SA, Seif EK, Jones JS, Bacon-Baguley T (2013) Assessment of risk factors for post-rewarming „rebound hyperthermia“ in cardiac arrest patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation 84:1245–1249 Winters SA, Wolf KH, Kettinger SA, Seif EK, Jones JS, Bacon-Baguley T (2013) Assessment of risk factors for post-rewarming „rebound hyperthermia“ in cardiac arrest patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation 84:1245–1249
465.
Zurück zum Zitat Arrich J (2007) Clinical application of mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 35:1041–1047 Arrich J (2007) Clinical application of mild therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 35:1041–1047
466.
Zurück zum Zitat Sandroni C, Cariou A, Cavallaro F et al (2014) Prognostication in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest: an advisory statement from the European Resuscitation Council and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Resuscitation 85:1779–1789 Sandroni C, Cariou A, Cavallaro F et al (2014) Prognostication in comatose survivors of cardiac arrest: an advisory statement from the European Resuscitation Council and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Resuscitation 85:1779–1789
467.
Zurück zum Zitat Stiell IG, Nichol G, Leroux BG et al (2011) Early versus later rhythm analysis in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 365:787–797 Stiell IG, Nichol G, Leroux BG et al (2011) Early versus later rhythm analysis in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 365:787–797
468.
Zurück zum Zitat Laver S, Farrow C, Turner D, Nolan J (2004) Mode of death after admission to an intensive care unit following cardiac arrest. Intensive Care Med 30:2126–2128 Laver S, Farrow C, Turner D, Nolan J (2004) Mode of death after admission to an intensive care unit following cardiac arrest. Intensive Care Med 30:2126–2128
469.
Zurück zum Zitat Sandroni C, Cavallaro F, Callaway CW et al (2013) Predictors of poor neurological outcome in adult comatose survivors of cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 2: patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation 84:1324–1338 Sandroni C, Cavallaro F, Callaway CW et al (2013) Predictors of poor neurological outcome in adult comatose survivors of cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 2: patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation 84:1324–1338
470.
Zurück zum Zitat Sandroni C, Cavallaro F, Callaway CW et al (2013) Predictors of poor neurological outcome in adult comatose survivors of cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 1: patients not treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation 84:1310–1323 Sandroni C, Cavallaro F, Callaway CW et al (2013) Predictors of poor neurological outcome in adult comatose survivors of cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 1: patients not treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation 84:1310–1323
471.
Zurück zum Zitat Geocadin RG, Peberdy MA, Lazar RM (2012) Poor survival after cardiac arrest resuscitation: a self-fulfilling prophecy or biologic destiny? Crit Care Med 40:979–980 Geocadin RG, Peberdy MA, Lazar RM (2012) Poor survival after cardiac arrest resuscitation: a self-fulfilling prophecy or biologic destiny? Crit Care Med 40:979–980
472.
Zurück zum Zitat Samaniego EA, Mlynash M, Caulfield AF, Eyngorn I, Wijman CA (2011) Sedation confounds outcome prediction in cardiac arrest survivors treated with hypothermia. Neurocrit Care 15:113–119 Samaniego EA, Mlynash M, Caulfield AF, Eyngorn I, Wijman CA (2011) Sedation confounds outcome prediction in cardiac arrest survivors treated with hypothermia. Neurocrit Care 15:113–119
473.
Zurück zum Zitat Sharshar T, Citerio G, Andrews PJ et al (2014) Neurological examination of critically ill patients: a pragmatic approach. Report of an ESICM expert panel. Intensive Care Med 40:484–495 Sharshar T, Citerio G, Andrews PJ et al (2014) Neurological examination of critically ill patients: a pragmatic approach. Report of an ESICM expert panel. Intensive Care Med 40:484–495
474.
Zurück zum Zitat Jorgensen EO, Holm S (1998) The natural course of neurological recovery following cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 36:111–122 Jorgensen EO, Holm S (1998) The natural course of neurological recovery following cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 36:111–122
475.
Zurück zum Zitat Wijdicks EF, Young GB (1994) Myoclonus status in comatose patients after cardiac arrest. Lancet 343:1642–1643 Wijdicks EF, Young GB (1994) Myoclonus status in comatose patients after cardiac arrest. Lancet 343:1642–1643
476.
Zurück zum Zitat Cronberg T, Brizzi M, Liedholm LJ et al (2013) Neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest – recommendations from the Swedish Resuscitation Council. Resuscitation 84:867–872 Cronberg T, Brizzi M, Liedholm LJ et al (2013) Neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest – recommendations from the Swedish Resuscitation Council. Resuscitation 84:867–872
477.
Zurück zum Zitat Taccone FS, Cronberg T, Friberg H et al (2014) How to assess prognosis after cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Crit Care 18:202 Taccone FS, Cronberg T, Friberg H et al (2014) How to assess prognosis after cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Crit Care 18:202
478.
Zurück zum Zitat Greer DM, Yang J, Scripko PD et al (2013) Clinical examination for prognostication in comatose cardiac arrest patients. Resuscitation 84:1546–1551 Greer DM, Yang J, Scripko PD et al (2013) Clinical examination for prognostication in comatose cardiac arrest patients. Resuscitation 84:1546–1551
479.
Zurück zum Zitat Dragancea I, Horn J, Kuiper M et al (2015) Neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest and targeted temperature management 33 degrees C versus 36 degrees C: Results from a randomised controlled clinical trial. Resuscitation Dragancea I, Horn J, Kuiper M et al (2015) Neurological prognostication after cardiac arrest and targeted temperature management 33 degrees C versus 36 degrees C: Results from a randomised controlled clinical trial. Resuscitation
480.
Zurück zum Zitat Stammet P, Collignon O, Hassager C et al (2015) Neuron-Specific Enolase as a Predictor of Death or Poor Neurological Outcome After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Targeted Temperature Management at 33 degrees C and 36 degrees C. J Am Coll Cardiol 65:2104–2114 Stammet P, Collignon O, Hassager C et al (2015) Neuron-Specific Enolase as a Predictor of Death or Poor Neurological Outcome After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Targeted Temperature Management at 33 degrees C and 36 degrees C. J Am Coll Cardiol 65:2104–2114
481.
Zurück zum Zitat Rossetti AO, Oddo M, Logroscino G, Kaplan PW (2010) Prognostication after cardiac arrest and hypothermia: a prospective study. Ann Neurol 67:301–307 Rossetti AO, Oddo M, Logroscino G, Kaplan PW (2010) Prognostication after cardiac arrest and hypothermia: a prospective study. Ann Neurol 67:301–307
482.
Zurück zum Zitat Stammet P, Wagner DR, Gilson G, Devaux Y (2013) Modeling serum level of s100beta and bispectral index to predict outcome after cardiac arrest. J Am Coll Cardiol 62:851–858 Stammet P, Wagner DR, Gilson G, Devaux Y (2013) Modeling serum level of s100beta and bispectral index to predict outcome after cardiac arrest. J Am Coll Cardiol 62:851–858
483.
Zurück zum Zitat Oddo M, Rossetti AO (2014) Early multimodal outcome prediction after cardiac arrest in patients treated with hypothermia. Crit Care Med 42:1340–1347 Oddo M, Rossetti AO (2014) Early multimodal outcome prediction after cardiac arrest in patients treated with hypothermia. Crit Care Med 42:1340–1347
484.
Zurück zum Zitat Lee BK, Jeung KW, Lee HY, Jung YH, Lee DH (2013) Combining brain computed tomography and serum neuron specific enolase improves the prognostic performance compared to either alone in comatose cardiac arrest survivors treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation 84:1387–1392 Lee BK, Jeung KW, Lee HY, Jung YH, Lee DH (2013) Combining brain computed tomography and serum neuron specific enolase improves the prognostic performance compared to either alone in comatose cardiac arrest survivors treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation 84:1387–1392
485.
Zurück zum Zitat Rittenberger JC, Popescu A, Brenner RP, Guyette FX, Callaway CW (2012) Frequency and timing of nonconvulsive status epilepticus in comatose post-cardiac arrest subjects treated with hypothermia. Neurocrit Care 16:114–122 Rittenberger JC, Popescu A, Brenner RP, Guyette FX, Callaway CW (2012) Frequency and timing of nonconvulsive status epilepticus in comatose post-cardiac arrest subjects treated with hypothermia. Neurocrit Care 16:114–122
486.
Zurück zum Zitat Greer DM (2013) Unexpected good recovery in a comatose post-cardiac arrest patient with poor prognostic features. Resuscitation 84:e81–e82 Greer DM (2013) Unexpected good recovery in a comatose post-cardiac arrest patient with poor prognostic features. Resuscitation 84:e81–e82
487.
Zurück zum Zitat Thenayan E A, Savard M, Sharpe M, Norton L, Young B (2008) Predictors of poor neurologic outcome after induced mild hypothermia following cardiac arrest. Neurology 71:1535–1537 Thenayan E A, Savard M, Sharpe M, Norton L, Young B (2008) Predictors of poor neurologic outcome after induced mild hypothermia following cardiac arrest. Neurology 71:1535–1537
488.
Zurück zum Zitat Cronberg T, Rundgren M, Westhall E et al (2011) Neuron-specific enolase correlates with other prognostic markers after cardiac arrest. Neurology 77:623–630 Cronberg T, Rundgren M, Westhall E et al (2011) Neuron-specific enolase correlates with other prognostic markers after cardiac arrest. Neurology 77:623–630
489.
Zurück zum Zitat Grossestreuer AV, Abella BS, Leary M et al (2013) Time to awakening and neurologic outcome in therapeutic hypothermia-treated cardiac arrest patients. Resuscitation 84:1741–1746 Grossestreuer AV, Abella BS, Leary M et al (2013) Time to awakening and neurologic outcome in therapeutic hypothermia-treated cardiac arrest patients. Resuscitation 84:1741–1746
490.
Zurück zum Zitat Gold B, Puertas L, Davis SP et al (2014) Awakening after cardiac arrest and post resuscitation hypothermia: are we pulling the plug too early? Resuscitation 85:211–214 Gold B, Puertas L, Davis SP et al (2014) Awakening after cardiac arrest and post resuscitation hypothermia: are we pulling the plug too early? Resuscitation 85:211–214
491.
Zurück zum Zitat Krumnikl JJ, Bottiger BW, Strittmatter HJ, Motsch J (2002) Complete recovery after 2 h of cardiopulmonary resuscitation following high-dose prostaglandin treatment for atonic uterine haemorrhage. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 46:1168–1170 Krumnikl JJ, Bottiger BW, Strittmatter HJ, Motsch J (2002) Complete recovery after 2 h of cardiopulmonary resuscitation following high-dose prostaglandin treatment for atonic uterine haemorrhage. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 46:1168–1170
492.
Zurück zum Zitat Moulaert VRMP, Verbunt JA, van Heugten CM, Wade DT (2009) Cognitive impairments in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 80:297–305 Moulaert VRMP, Verbunt JA, van Heugten CM, Wade DT (2009) Cognitive impairments in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 80:297–305
493.
Zurück zum Zitat Wilder Schaaf KP, Artman LK, Peberdy MA et al (2013) Anxiety, depression, and PTSD following cardiac arrest: a systematic review of the literature. Resuscitation 84:873–877 Wilder Schaaf KP, Artman LK, Peberdy MA et al (2013) Anxiety, depression, and PTSD following cardiac arrest: a systematic review of the literature. Resuscitation 84:873–877
494.
Zurück zum Zitat Wachelder EM, Moulaert VR, van Heugten C, Verbunt JA, Bekkers SC, Wade DT (2009) Life after survival: long-term daily functioning and quality of life after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 80:517–522 Wachelder EM, Moulaert VR, van Heugten C, Verbunt JA, Bekkers SC, Wade DT (2009) Life after survival: long-term daily functioning and quality of life after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 80:517–522
495.
Zurück zum Zitat Cronberg T, Lilja G, Rundgren M, Friberg H, Widner H (2009) Long-term neurological outcome after cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation 80:1119–1123 Cronberg T, Lilja G, Rundgren M, Friberg H, Widner H (2009) Long-term neurological outcome after cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Resuscitation 80:1119–1123
496.
Zurück zum Zitat Torgersen J, Strand K, Bjelland TW et al (2010) Cognitive dysfunction and health-related quality of life after a cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 54:721–728 Torgersen J, Strand K, Bjelland TW et al (2010) Cognitive dysfunction and health-related quality of life after a cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 54:721–728
497.
Zurück zum Zitat Cobbe SM, Dalziel K, Ford I, Marsden AK (1996) Survival of 1476 patients initially resuscitated from out of hospital cardiac arrest. BMJ 312:1633–1637 Cobbe SM, Dalziel K, Ford I, Marsden AK (1996) Survival of 1476 patients initially resuscitated from out of hospital cardiac arrest. BMJ 312:1633–1637
498.
Zurück zum Zitat Lundgren-Nilsson A, Rosen H, Hofgren C, Sunnerhagen KS (2005) The first year after successful cardiac resuscitation: function, activity, participation and quality of life. Resuscitation 66:285–289 Lundgren-Nilsson A, Rosen H, Hofgren C, Sunnerhagen KS (2005) The first year after successful cardiac resuscitation: function, activity, participation and quality of life. Resuscitation 66:285–289
499.
Zurück zum Zitat Moulaert VR, Wachelder EM, Verbunt JA, Wade DT, van Heugten CM (2010) Determinants of quality of life in survivors of cardiac arrest. J Rehabil Med 42:553–558 Moulaert VR, Wachelder EM, Verbunt JA, Wade DT, van Heugten CM (2010) Determinants of quality of life in survivors of cardiac arrest. J Rehabil Med 42:553–558
500.
Zurück zum Zitat Sandroni C, Adrie C, Cavallaro F et al (2010) Are patients brain-dead after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest suitable as organ donors? A systematic review. Resuscitation 81:1609–1614 Sandroni C, Adrie C, Cavallaro F et al (2010) Are patients brain-dead after successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest suitable as organ donors? A systematic review. Resuscitation 81:1609–1614
501.
Zurück zum Zitat Ranthe MF, Winkel BG, Andersen EW et al (2013) Risk of cardiovascular disease in family members of young sudden cardiac death victims. Eur Heart J 34:503–511 Ranthe MF, Winkel BG, Andersen EW et al (2013) Risk of cardiovascular disease in family members of young sudden cardiac death victims. Eur Heart J 34:503–511
502.
Zurück zum Zitat Engdahl J, Abrahamsson P, Bang A, Lindqvist J, Karlsson T, Herlitz J (2000) Is hospital care of major importance for outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest? Experience acquired from patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitated by the same Emergency Medical Service and admitted to one of two hospitals over a 16-year period in the municipality of Goteborg. Resuscitation 43:201–211 Engdahl J, Abrahamsson P, Bang A, Lindqvist J, Karlsson T, Herlitz J (2000) Is hospital care of major importance for outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest? Experience acquired from patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitated by the same Emergency Medical Service and admitted to one of two hospitals over a 16-year period in the municipality of Goteborg. Resuscitation 43:201–211
503.
Zurück zum Zitat Liu JM, Yang Q, Pirrallo RG, Klein JP, Aufderheide TP (2008) Hospital variability of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival. Prehosp Emerg Care 12:339–346 Liu JM, Yang Q, Pirrallo RG, Klein JP, Aufderheide TP (2008) Hospital variability of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival. Prehosp Emerg Care 12:339–346
504.
Zurück zum Zitat Carr BG, Kahn JM, Merchant RM, Kramer AA, Neumar RW (2009) Inter-hospital variability in post-cardiac arrest mortality. Resuscitation 80:30–34 Carr BG, Kahn JM, Merchant RM, Kramer AA, Neumar RW (2009) Inter-hospital variability in post-cardiac arrest mortality. Resuscitation 80:30–34
505.
Zurück zum Zitat Herlitz J, Engdahl J, Svensson L, Angquist KA, Silfverstolpe J, Holmberg S (2006) Major differences in 1-month survival between hospitals in Sweden among initial survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 70:404–409 Herlitz J, Engdahl J, Svensson L, Angquist KA, Silfverstolpe J, Holmberg S (2006) Major differences in 1-month survival between hospitals in Sweden among initial survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 70:404–409
506.
Zurück zum Zitat Keenan SP, Dodek P, Martin C, Priestap F, Norena M, Wong H (2007) Variation in length of intensive care unit stay after cardiac arrest: where you are is as important as who you are. Crit Care Med 35:836–841 Keenan SP, Dodek P, Martin C, Priestap F, Norena M, Wong H (2007) Variation in length of intensive care unit stay after cardiac arrest: where you are is as important as who you are. Crit Care Med 35:836–841
507.
Zurück zum Zitat Callaway CW, Schmicker R, Kampmeyer M et al (2010) Receiving hospital characteristics associated with survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 81:524–529 Callaway CW, Schmicker R, Kampmeyer M et al (2010) Receiving hospital characteristics associated with survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 81:524–529
508.
Zurück zum Zitat Stub D, Smith K, Bray JE, Bernard S, Duffy SJ, Kaye DM (2011) Hospital characteristics are associated with patient outcomes following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Heart 97:1489–1494 Stub D, Smith K, Bray JE, Bernard S, Duffy SJ, Kaye DM (2011) Hospital characteristics are associated with patient outcomes following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Heart 97:1489–1494
509.
Zurück zum Zitat Marsch S, Tschan F, Semmer NK, Zobrist R, Hunziker PR, Hunziker S (2013) ABC versus CAB for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a prospective, randomized simulator-based trial. Swiss Med Wkly 143:w13856 Marsch S, Tschan F, Semmer NK, Zobrist R, Hunziker PR, Hunziker S (2013) ABC versus CAB for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a prospective, randomized simulator-based trial. Swiss Med Wkly 143:w13856
510.
Zurück zum Zitat Lubrano R, Cecchetti C, Bellelli E et al (2012) Comparison of times of intervention during pediatric CPR maneuvers using ABC and CAB sequences: a randomized trial. Resuscitation 83:1473–1477 Lubrano R, Cecchetti C, Bellelli E et al (2012) Comparison of times of intervention during pediatric CPR maneuvers using ABC and CAB sequences: a randomized trial. Resuscitation 83:1473–1477
511.
Zurück zum Zitat Sekiguchi H, Kondo Y, Kukita I (2013) Verification of changes in the time taken to initiate chest compressions according to modified basic life support guidelines. Am J Emerg Med 31:1248–1250 Sekiguchi H, Kondo Y, Kukita I (2013) Verification of changes in the time taken to initiate chest compressions according to modified basic life support guidelines. Am J Emerg Med 31:1248–1250
512.
Zurück zum Zitat Maconochie I, de Caen A, Aickin R et al (2015) Part 6: pediatric basic life support and pediatric advanced life support 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 95:e149–e170 Maconochie I, de Caen A, Aickin R et al (2015) Part 6: pediatric basic life support and pediatric advanced life support 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 95:e149–e170
513.
Zurück zum Zitat Sutton RM, French B, Niles DE et al (2014) 2010 American Heart Association recommended compression depths during pediatric in-hospital resuscitations are associated with survival. Resuscitation 85:1179–1184 Sutton RM, French B, Niles DE et al (2014) 2010 American Heart Association recommended compression depths during pediatric in-hospital resuscitations are associated with survival. Resuscitation 85:1179–1184
514.
Zurück zum Zitat Biarent D, Bingham R, Richmond S et al (2005) European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation 2005. Section 6. Paediatric life support. Resuscitation 67(Suppl 1):S97–S133 Biarent D, Bingham R, Richmond S et al (2005) European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation 2005. Section 6. Paediatric life support. Resuscitation 67(Suppl 1):S97–S133
515.
Zurück zum Zitat Kuisma M, Suominen P, Korpela R (1995) Paediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: epidemiology and outcome. Resuscitation 30:141–150 Kuisma M, Suominen P, Korpela R (1995) Paediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: epidemiology and outcome. Resuscitation 30:141–150
516.
Zurück zum Zitat Sirbaugh PE, Pepe PE, Shook JE et al (1999) A prospective, population-based study of the demographics, epidemiology, management, and outcome of out-of-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest. Ann Emerg Med 33:174–184 Sirbaugh PE, Pepe PE, Shook JE et al (1999) A prospective, population-based study of the demographics, epidemiology, management, and outcome of out-of-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest. Ann Emerg Med 33:174–184
517.
Zurück zum Zitat Hickey RW, Cohen DM, Strausbaugh S, Dietrich AM (1995) Pediatric patients requiring CPR in the prehospital setting. Ann Emerg Med 25:495–501 Hickey RW, Cohen DM, Strausbaugh S, Dietrich AM (1995) Pediatric patients requiring CPR in the prehospital setting. Ann Emerg Med 25:495–501
518.
Zurück zum Zitat Young KD, Seidel JS (1999) Pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a collective review. Ann Emerg Med 33:195–205 Young KD, Seidel JS (1999) Pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a collective review. Ann Emerg Med 33:195–205
519.
Zurück zum Zitat Reis AG, Nadkarni V, Perondi MB, Grisi S, Berg RA (2002) A prospective investigation into the epidemiology of in-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation using the international Utstein reporting style. Pediatrics 109:200–209 Reis AG, Nadkarni V, Perondi MB, Grisi S, Berg RA (2002) A prospective investigation into the epidemiology of in-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation using the international Utstein reporting style. Pediatrics 109:200–209
520.
Zurück zum Zitat Young KD, Gausche-Hill M, McClung CD, Lewis RJ (2004) A prospective, population-based study of the epidemiology and outcome of out-of-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest. Pediatrics 114:157–164 Young KD, Gausche-Hill M, McClung CD, Lewis RJ (2004) A prospective, population-based study of the epidemiology and outcome of out-of-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest. Pediatrics 114:157–164
521.
Zurück zum Zitat Rajan S, Wissenberg M, Folke F et al (2015) Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in children and adolescents: incidences, outcomes, and household socioeconomic status. Resuscitation 88:12–19 Rajan S, Wissenberg M, Folke F et al (2015) Out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in children and adolescents: incidences, outcomes, and household socioeconomic status. Resuscitation 88:12–19
522.
Zurück zum Zitat Gupta P, Tang X, Gall CM, Lauer C, Rice TB, Wetzel RC (2014) Epidemiology and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest in critically ill children across hospitals of varied center volume: a multi-center analysis. Resuscitation 85:1473–1479 Gupta P, Tang X, Gall CM, Lauer C, Rice TB, Wetzel RC (2014) Epidemiology and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest in critically ill children across hospitals of varied center volume: a multi-center analysis. Resuscitation 85:1473–1479
523.
Zurück zum Zitat Nishiuchi T, Hayashino Y, Iwami T et al (2014) Epidemiological characteristics of sudden cardiac arrest in schools. Resuscitation 85:1001–1006 Nishiuchi T, Hayashino Y, Iwami T et al (2014) Epidemiological characteristics of sudden cardiac arrest in schools. Resuscitation 85:1001–1006
524.
Zurück zum Zitat Pilmer CM, Kirsh JA, Hildebrandt D, Krahn AD, Gow RM (2014) Sudden cardiac death in children and adolescents between 1 and 19 years of age. Heart Rhythm 11:239–245 Pilmer CM, Kirsh JA, Hildebrandt D, Krahn AD, Gow RM (2014) Sudden cardiac death in children and adolescents between 1 and 19 years of age. Heart Rhythm 11:239–245
525.
Zurück zum Zitat Moler FW, Donaldson AE, Meert K et al (2011) Multicenter cohort study of out-of-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 39:141–149 Moler FW, Donaldson AE, Meert K et al (2011) Multicenter cohort study of out-of-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 39:141–149
526.
Zurück zum Zitat Tibballs J, Kinney S (2009) Reduction of hospital mortality and of preventable cardiac arrest and death on introduction of a pediatric medical emergency team. Pediatr Crit Care Med 10:306–312 Tibballs J, Kinney S (2009) Reduction of hospital mortality and of preventable cardiac arrest and death on introduction of a pediatric medical emergency team. Pediatr Crit Care Med 10:306–312
527.
Zurück zum Zitat Chan PS, Jain R, Nallmothu BK, Berg RA, Sasson C (2010) Rapid Response Teams: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 170:18–26 Chan PS, Jain R, Nallmothu BK, Berg RA, Sasson C (2010) Rapid Response Teams: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 170:18–26
528.
Zurück zum Zitat Bonafide CP, Localio AR, Song L et al (2014) Cost-benefit analysis of a medical emergency team in a children’s hospital. Pediatrics 134:235–241 Bonafide CP, Localio AR, Song L et al (2014) Cost-benefit analysis of a medical emergency team in a children’s hospital. Pediatrics 134:235–241
529.
Zurück zum Zitat Hayes LW, Dobyns EL, DiGiovine B et al (2012) A multicenter collaborative approach to reducing pediatric codes outside the ICU. Pediatrics 129:e785–e791 Hayes LW, Dobyns EL, DiGiovine B et al (2012) A multicenter collaborative approach to reducing pediatric codes outside the ICU. Pediatrics 129:e785–e791
530.
Zurück zum Zitat Chaiyakulsil C, Pandee U (2015) Validation of pediatric early warning score in pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Int Chaiyakulsil C, Pandee U (2015) Validation of pediatric early warning score in pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Int
531.
Zurück zum Zitat Randhawa S, Roberts-Turner R, Woronick K, DuVal J (2011) Implementing and sustaining evidence-based nursing practice to reduce pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest. West J Nurs Res 33:443–456 Randhawa S, Roberts-Turner R, Woronick K, DuVal J (2011) Implementing and sustaining evidence-based nursing practice to reduce pediatric cardiopulmonary arrest. West J Nurs Res 33:443–456
532.
Zurück zum Zitat Fleming S, Thompson M, Stevens R et al (2011) Normal ranges of heart rate and respiratory rate in children from birth to 18 years of age: a systematic review of observational studies. Lancet 377:1011–1018 Fleming S, Thompson M, Stevens R et al (2011) Normal ranges of heart rate and respiratory rate in children from birth to 18 years of age: a systematic review of observational studies. Lancet 377:1011–1018
533.
Zurück zum Zitat Carcillo JA (2003) Pediatric septic shock and multiple organ failure. Crit Care Clin 19:413–440, viii Carcillo JA (2003) Pediatric septic shock and multiple organ failure. Crit Care Clin 19:413–440, viii
534.
Zurück zum Zitat Tsung JW, Blaivas M (2008) Feasibility of correlating the pulse check with focused point-of-care echocardiography during pediatric cardiac arrest: a case series. Resuscitation 77:264–269 Tsung JW, Blaivas M (2008) Feasibility of correlating the pulse check with focused point-of-care echocardiography during pediatric cardiac arrest: a case series. Resuscitation 77:264–269
535.
Zurück zum Zitat Inagawa G, Morimura N, Miwa T, Okuda K, Hirata M, Hiroki K (2003) A comparison of five techniques for detecting cardiac activity in infants. Paediatr Anaesth 13:141–146 Inagawa G, Morimura N, Miwa T, Okuda K, Hirata M, Hiroki K (2003) A comparison of five techniques for detecting cardiac activity in infants. Paediatr Anaesth 13:141–146
536.
Zurück zum Zitat Frederick K, Bixby E, Orzel MN, Stewart-Brown S, Willett K (2002) Will changing the emphasis from ‚pulseless‘ to ‚no signs of circulation‘ improve the recall scores for effective life support skills in children? Resuscitation 55:255–261 Frederick K, Bixby E, Orzel MN, Stewart-Brown S, Willett K (2002) Will changing the emphasis from ‚pulseless‘ to ‚no signs of circulation‘ improve the recall scores for effective life support skills in children? Resuscitation 55:255–261
537.
Zurück zum Zitat Maitland K, Kiguli S, Opoka RO et al (2011) Mortality after fluid bolus in African children with severe infection. N Engl J Med 364:2483–2495 Maitland K, Kiguli S, Opoka RO et al (2011) Mortality after fluid bolus in African children with severe infection. N Engl J Med 364:2483–2495
538.
Zurück zum Zitat Maitland K, George EC, Evans JA et al (2013) Exploring mechanisms of excess mortality with early fluid resuscitation: insights from the FEAST trial. BMC Med 11:68 Maitland K, George EC, Evans JA et al (2013) Exploring mechanisms of excess mortality with early fluid resuscitation: insights from the FEAST trial. BMC Med 11:68
539.
Zurück zum Zitat Kelm DJ, Perrin JT, Cartin-Ceba R, Gajic O, Schenck L, Kennedy CC (2015) Fluid overload in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock treated with early goal-directed therapy is associated with increased acute need for fluid-related medical interventions and hospital death. Shock 43:68–73 Kelm DJ, Perrin JT, Cartin-Ceba R, Gajic O, Schenck L, Kennedy CC (2015) Fluid overload in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock treated with early goal-directed therapy is associated with increased acute need for fluid-related medical interventions and hospital death. Shock 43:68–73
540.
Zurück zum Zitat Dung NM, Day NP, Tam DT et al (1999) Fluid replacement in dengue shock syndrome: a randomized, double-blind comparison of four intravenous-fluid regimens. Clin Infect Dis 29:787–794 Dung NM, Day NP, Tam DT et al (1999) Fluid replacement in dengue shock syndrome: a randomized, double-blind comparison of four intravenous-fluid regimens. Clin Infect Dis 29:787–794
541.
Zurück zum Zitat Ngo NT, Cao XT, Kneen R et al (2001) Acute management of dengue shock syndrome: a randomized double-blind comparison of 4 intravenous fluid regimens in the first hour. Clin Infectious Dis 32:204–13 Ngo NT, Cao XT, Kneen R et al (2001) Acute management of dengue shock syndrome: a randomized double-blind comparison of 4 intravenous fluid regimens in the first hour. Clin Infectious Dis 32:204–13
542.
Zurück zum Zitat Wills BA, Nguyen MD, Ha TL et al (2005) Comparison of three fluid solutions for resuscitation in dengue shock syndrome. N Engl J Med 353:877–889 Wills BA, Nguyen MD, Ha TL et al (2005) Comparison of three fluid solutions for resuscitation in dengue shock syndrome. N Engl J Med 353:877–889
543.
Zurück zum Zitat Upadhyay M, Singhi S, Murlidharan J, Kaur N, Majumdar S (2005) Randomized evaluation of fluid resuscitation with crystalloid (saline) and colloid (polymer from degraded gelatin in saline) in pediatric septic shock. Indian Pediatr 42:223–231 Upadhyay M, Singhi S, Murlidharan J, Kaur N, Majumdar S (2005) Randomized evaluation of fluid resuscitation with crystalloid (saline) and colloid (polymer from degraded gelatin in saline) in pediatric septic shock. Indian Pediatr 42:223–231
544.
Zurück zum Zitat Santhanam I, Sangareddi S, Venkataraman S, Kissoon N, Thiruvengadamudayan V, Kasthuri RK (2008) A prospective randomized controlled study of two fluid regimens in the initial management of septic shock in the emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care 24:647–655 Santhanam I, Sangareddi S, Venkataraman S, Kissoon N, Thiruvengadamudayan V, Kasthuri RK (2008) A prospective randomized controlled study of two fluid regimens in the initial management of septic shock in the emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care 24:647–655
545.
Zurück zum Zitat Carcillo JA, Davis AL, Zaritsky A (1991) Role of early fluid resuscitation in pediatric septic shock. JAMA 266:1242–1245 Carcillo JA, Davis AL, Zaritsky A (1991) Role of early fluid resuscitation in pediatric septic shock. JAMA 266:1242–1245
546.
Zurück zum Zitat Rechner JA, Loach VJ, Ali MT, Barber VS, Young JD, Mason DG (2007) A comparison of the laryngeal mask airway with facemask and oropharyngeal airway for manual ventilation by critical care nurses in children. Anaesthesia 62:790–795 Rechner JA, Loach VJ, Ali MT, Barber VS, Young JD, Mason DG (2007) A comparison of the laryngeal mask airway with facemask and oropharyngeal airway for manual ventilation by critical care nurses in children. Anaesthesia 62:790–795
547.
Zurück zum Zitat Blevin AE, McDouall SF, Rechner JA et al (2009) A comparison of the laryngeal mask airway with the facemask and oropharyngeal airway for manual ventilation by first responders in children. Anaesthesia 64:1312–1316 Blevin AE, McDouall SF, Rechner JA et al (2009) A comparison of the laryngeal mask airway with the facemask and oropharyngeal airway for manual ventilation by first responders in children. Anaesthesia 64:1312–1316
548.
Zurück zum Zitat Hedges JR, Mann NC, Meischke H, Robbins M, Goldberg R, Zapka J (1998) Assessment of chest pain onset and out-of-hospital delay using standardized interview questions: the REACT Pilot Study. Rapid Early Action for Coronary Treatment (REACT) Study Group. Acad Emerg Med 5:773–780 Hedges JR, Mann NC, Meischke H, Robbins M, Goldberg R, Zapka J (1998) Assessment of chest pain onset and out-of-hospital delay using standardized interview questions: the REACT Pilot Study. Rapid Early Action for Coronary Treatment (REACT) Study Group. Acad Emerg Med 5:773–780
549.
Zurück zum Zitat Wang HE, Kupas DF, Paris PM, Bates RR, Costantino JP, Yealy DM (2003) Multivariate predictors of failed prehospital endotracheal intubation. Acad Emerg Med 10:717–724 Wang HE, Kupas DF, Paris PM, Bates RR, Costantino JP, Yealy DM (2003) Multivariate predictors of failed prehospital endotracheal intubation. Acad Emerg Med 10:717–724
550.
Zurück zum Zitat Pepe P, Zachariah B, Chandra N (1991) Invasive airway technique in resuscitation. Ann Emerg Med 22:393–403 Pepe P, Zachariah B, Chandra N (1991) Invasive airway technique in resuscitation. Ann Emerg Med 22:393–403
551.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakers TW, Reynolds G, Stretton M, Newth CJ (1994) Cuffed endotracheal tubes in pediatric intensive care. J Pediatr 125:57–62 Deakers TW, Reynolds G, Stretton M, Newth CJ (1994) Cuffed endotracheal tubes in pediatric intensive care. J Pediatr 125:57–62
552.
Zurück zum Zitat Newth CJ, Rachman B, Patel N, Hammer J (2004) The use of cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes in pediatric intensive care. J Pediatr 144:333–337 Newth CJ, Rachman B, Patel N, Hammer J (2004) The use of cuffed versus uncuffed endotracheal tubes in pediatric intensive care. J Pediatr 144:333–337
553.
Zurück zum Zitat Mhanna MJ, Zamel YB, Tichy CM, Super DM (2002) The „air leak“ test around the endotracheal tube, as a predictor of postextubation stridor, is age dependent in children. Crit Care Med 30:2639–2643 Mhanna MJ, Zamel YB, Tichy CM, Super DM (2002) The „air leak“ test around the endotracheal tube, as a predictor of postextubation stridor, is age dependent in children. Crit Care Med 30:2639–2643
554.
Zurück zum Zitat Katz SH, Falk JL (2001) Misplaced endotracheal tubes by paramedics in an urban emergency medical services system. Ann Emerg Med 37:32–37 Katz SH, Falk JL (2001) Misplaced endotracheal tubes by paramedics in an urban emergency medical services system. Ann Emerg Med 37:32–37
555.
Zurück zum Zitat Gausche M, Lewis RJ, Stratton SJ et al (2000) Effect of out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation on survival and neurological outcome: a controlled clinical trial. JAMA 283:783–790 Gausche M, Lewis RJ, Stratton SJ et al (2000) Effect of out-of-hospital pediatric endotracheal intubation on survival and neurological outcome: a controlled clinical trial. JAMA 283:783–790
556.
Zurück zum Zitat Hartrey R, Kestin IG (1995) Movement of oral and nasal tracheal tubes as a result of changes in head and neck position. Anaesthesia 50:682–687 Hartrey R, Kestin IG (1995) Movement of oral and nasal tracheal tubes as a result of changes in head and neck position. Anaesthesia 50:682–687
557.
Zurück zum Zitat Van de Louw A, Cracco C, Cerf C et al (2001) Accuracy of pulse oximetry in the intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med 27:1606–1613 Van de Louw A, Cracco C, Cerf C et al (2001) Accuracy of pulse oximetry in the intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med 27:1606–1613
558.
Zurück zum Zitat Seguin P, Rouzo A L, Tanguy M, Guillou YM, Feuillu A, Malledant Y (2000) Evidence for the need of bedside accuracy of pulse oximetry in an intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 28:703–706 Seguin P, Rouzo A L, Tanguy M, Guillou YM, Feuillu A, Malledant Y (2000) Evidence for the need of bedside accuracy of pulse oximetry in an intensive care unit. Crit Care Med 28:703–706
559.
Zurück zum Zitat Del Castillo J, Lopez-Herce J, Matamoros M et al (2012) Hyperoxia, hypocapnia and hypercapnia as outcome factors after cardiac arrest in children. Resuscitation 83:1456–1461 Del Castillo J, Lopez-Herce J, Matamoros M et al (2012) Hyperoxia, hypocapnia and hypercapnia as outcome factors after cardiac arrest in children. Resuscitation 83:1456–1461
560.
Zurück zum Zitat Stockinger ZT, McSwain NE Jr (2004) Prehospital endotracheal intubation for trauma does not improve survival over bag-valve-mask ventilation. J Trauma 56:531–536 Stockinger ZT, McSwain NE Jr (2004) Prehospital endotracheal intubation for trauma does not improve survival over bag-valve-mask ventilation. J Trauma 56:531–536
561.
Zurück zum Zitat Pitetti R, Glustein JZ, Bhende MS (2002) Prehospital care and outcome of pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Prehosp Emerg Care 6:283–290 Pitetti R, Glustein JZ, Bhende MS (2002) Prehospital care and outcome of pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Prehosp Emerg Care 6:283–290
562.
Zurück zum Zitat Bhende MS, Thompson AE, Orr RA (1992) Utility of an end-tidal carbon dioxide detector during stabilization and transport of critically ill children. Pediatrics 89(pt 1):1042–1044 Bhende MS, Thompson AE, Orr RA (1992) Utility of an end-tidal carbon dioxide detector during stabilization and transport of critically ill children. Pediatrics 89(pt 1):1042–1044
563.
Zurück zum Zitat Bhende MS, LaCovey DC (2001) End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring in the prehospital setting. Prehosp Emerg Care 5:208–213 Bhende MS, LaCovey DC (2001) End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring in the prehospital setting. Prehosp Emerg Care 5:208–213
564.
Zurück zum Zitat Ornato JP, Shipley JB, Racht EM et al (1992) Multicenter study of a portable, hand-size, colorimetric end-tidal carbon dioxide detection device. Ann Emerg Med 21:518–523 Ornato JP, Shipley JB, Racht EM et al (1992) Multicenter study of a portable, hand-size, colorimetric end-tidal carbon dioxide detection device. Ann Emerg Med 21:518–523
565.
Zurück zum Zitat Gonzalez del Rey JA, Poirier MP, Digiulio GA (2000) Evaluation of an ambu-bag valve with a self-contained, colorimetric end-tidal CO2 system in the detection of airway mishaps: an animal trial. Pediatr Emerg Care 16:121–123 Gonzalez del Rey JA, Poirier MP, Digiulio GA (2000) Evaluation of an ambu-bag valve with a self-contained, colorimetric end-tidal CO2 system in the detection of airway mishaps: an animal trial. Pediatr Emerg Care 16:121–123
566.
Zurück zum Zitat Bhende MS, Karasic DG, Karasic RB (1996) End-tidal carbon dioxide changes during cardiopulmonary resuscitation after experimental asphyxial cardiac arrest. Am J Emerg Med 14:349–350 Bhende MS, Karasic DG, Karasic RB (1996) End-tidal carbon dioxide changes during cardiopulmonary resuscitation after experimental asphyxial cardiac arrest. Am J Emerg Med 14:349–350
567.
Zurück zum Zitat DeBehnke DJ, Hilander SJ, Dobler DW, Wickman LL, Swart GL (1995) The hemodynamic and arterial blood gas response to asphyxiation: a canine model of pulseless electrical activity. Resuscitation 30:169–175 DeBehnke DJ, Hilander SJ, Dobler DW, Wickman LL, Swart GL (1995) The hemodynamic and arterial blood gas response to asphyxiation: a canine model of pulseless electrical activity. Resuscitation 30:169–175
568.
Zurück zum Zitat Ornato JP, Garnett AR, Glauser FL (1990) Relationship between cardiac output and the end-tidal carbon dioxide tension. Ann Emerg Med 19:1104–1106 Ornato JP, Garnett AR, Glauser FL (1990) Relationship between cardiac output and the end-tidal carbon dioxide tension. Ann Emerg Med 19:1104–1106
569.
Zurück zum Zitat Kanter RK, Zimmerman JJ, Strauss RH, Stoeckel KA (1986) Pediatric emergency intravenous access. Evaluation of a protocol. Am J Dis Child 140:132–134 Kanter RK, Zimmerman JJ, Strauss RH, Stoeckel KA (1986) Pediatric emergency intravenous access. Evaluation of a protocol. Am J Dis Child 140:132–134
570.
Zurück zum Zitat Anson JA (2014) Vascular access in resuscitation: is there a role for the intraosseous route? Anesthesiology 120:1015–1031 Anson JA (2014) Vascular access in resuscitation: is there a role for the intraosseous route? Anesthesiology 120:1015–1031
571.
Zurück zum Zitat Neuhaus D, Weiss M, Engelhardt T et al (2010) Semi-elective intraosseous infusion after failed intravenous access in pediatric anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth 20:168–171 Neuhaus D, Weiss M, Engelhardt T et al (2010) Semi-elective intraosseous infusion after failed intravenous access in pediatric anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth 20:168–171
572.
Zurück zum Zitat Cameron JL, Fontanarosa PB, Passalaqua AM (1989) A comparative study of peripheral to central circulation delivery times between intraosseous and intravenous injection using a radionuclide technique in normovolemic and hypovolemic canines. J Emerg Med 7:123–127 Cameron JL, Fontanarosa PB, Passalaqua AM (1989) A comparative study of peripheral to central circulation delivery times between intraosseous and intravenous injection using a radionuclide technique in normovolemic and hypovolemic canines. J Emerg Med 7:123–127
573.
Zurück zum Zitat Warren DW, Kissoon N, Sommerauer JF, Rieder MJ (1993) Comparison of fluid infusion rates among peripheral intravenous and humerus, femur, malleolus, and tibial intraosseous sites in normovolemic and hypovolemic piglets. Ann Emerg Med 22:183–186 Warren DW, Kissoon N, Sommerauer JF, Rieder MJ (1993) Comparison of fluid infusion rates among peripheral intravenous and humerus, femur, malleolus, and tibial intraosseous sites in normovolemic and hypovolemic piglets. Ann Emerg Med 22:183–186
574.
Zurück zum Zitat Buck ML, Wiggins BS, Sesler JM (2007) Intraosseous drug administration in children and adults during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ann Pharmacother 41:1679–1686 Buck ML, Wiggins BS, Sesler JM (2007) Intraosseous drug administration in children and adults during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ann Pharmacother 41:1679–1686
575.
Zurück zum Zitat Brickman KR, Krupp K, Rega P, Alexander J, Guinness M (1992) Typing and screening of blood from intraosseous access. Ann Emerg Med 21:414–417 Brickman KR, Krupp K, Rega P, Alexander J, Guinness M (1992) Typing and screening of blood from intraosseous access. Ann Emerg Med 21:414–417
576.
Zurück zum Zitat Johnson L, Kissoon N, Fiallos M, Abdelmoneim T, Murphy S (1999) Use of intraosseous blood to assess blood chemistries and hemoglobin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation with drug infusions. Crit Care Med 27:1147–1152 Johnson L, Kissoon N, Fiallos M, Abdelmoneim T, Murphy S (1999) Use of intraosseous blood to assess blood chemistries and hemoglobin during cardiopulmonary resuscitation with drug infusions. Crit Care Med 27:1147–1152
577.
Zurück zum Zitat Ummenhofer W, Frei FJ, Urwyler A, Drewe J (1994) Are laboratory values in bone marrow aspirate predictable for venous blood in paediatric patients? Resuscitation 27:123–128 Ummenhofer W, Frei FJ, Urwyler A, Drewe J (1994) Are laboratory values in bone marrow aspirate predictable for venous blood in paediatric patients? Resuscitation 27:123–128
578.
Zurück zum Zitat Ong ME, Chan YH, Oh JJ, Ngo AS (2009) An observational, prospective study comparing tibial and humeral intraosseous access using the EZ-IO. Am J Emerg Med 27:8–15 Ong ME, Chan YH, Oh JJ, Ngo AS (2009) An observational, prospective study comparing tibial and humeral intraosseous access using the EZ-IO. Am J Emerg Med 27:8–15
579.
Zurück zum Zitat Kleinman ME, Oh W, Stonestreet BS (1999) Comparison of intravenous and endotracheal epinephrine during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in newborn piglets. Crit Care Med 27:2748–2754 Kleinman ME, Oh W, Stonestreet BS (1999) Comparison of intravenous and endotracheal epinephrine during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in newborn piglets. Crit Care Med 27:2748–2754
580.
Zurück zum Zitat Perel P, Roberts I, Ker K (2013) Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD000567 Perel P, Roberts I, Ker K (2013) Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD000567
581.
Zurück zum Zitat Myburgh J, Cooper DJ, Finfer S et al (2007) Saline or albumin for fluid resuscitation in patients with traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med 357:874–884 Myburgh J, Cooper DJ, Finfer S et al (2007) Saline or albumin for fluid resuscitation in patients with traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med 357:874–884
582.
Zurück zum Zitat Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Rhodes A et al (2013) Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012. Intensive Care Med 39:165–228 Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Rhodes A et al (2013) Surviving Sepsis Campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock, 2012. Intensive Care Med 39:165–228
583.
Zurück zum Zitat Levy B, Perez P, Perny J, Thivilier C, Gerard A (2011) Comparison of norepinephrine-dobutamine to epinephrine for hemodynamics, lactate metabolism, and organ function variables in cardiogenic shock. A prospective, randomized pilot study. Crit Care Med 39:450–455 Levy B, Perez P, Perny J, Thivilier C, Gerard A (2011) Comparison of norepinephrine-dobutamine to epinephrine for hemodynamics, lactate metabolism, and organ function variables in cardiogenic shock. A prospective, randomized pilot study. Crit Care Med 39:450–455
584.
Zurück zum Zitat Burdett E, Dushianthan A, Bennett-Guerrero E et al (2012) Perioperative buffered versus non-buffered fluid administration for surgery in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12:CD004089 Burdett E, Dushianthan A, Bennett-Guerrero E et al (2012) Perioperative buffered versus non-buffered fluid administration for surgery in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 12:CD004089
585.
Zurück zum Zitat Shaw AD, Raghunathan K, Peyerl FW, Munson SH, Paluszkiewicz SM, Schermer CR (2014) Association between intravenous chloride load during resuscitation and in-hospital mortality among patients with SIRS. Intensive Care Med 40:1897–1905 Shaw AD, Raghunathan K, Peyerl FW, Munson SH, Paluszkiewicz SM, Schermer CR (2014) Association between intravenous chloride load during resuscitation and in-hospital mortality among patients with SIRS. Intensive Care Med 40:1897–1905
586.
Zurück zum Zitat Yunos NM, Bellomo R, Bailey M (2013) Chloride-restrictive fluid administration and incidence of acute kidney injury – reply. JAMA 309:543–544 Yunos NM, Bellomo R, Bailey M (2013) Chloride-restrictive fluid administration and incidence of acute kidney injury – reply. JAMA 309:543–544
587.
Zurück zum Zitat Yunos NM, Bellomo R, Hegarty C, Story D, Ho L, Bailey M (2012) Association between a chloride-liberal vs chloride-restrictive intravenous fluid administration strategy and kidney injury in critically ill adults. JAMA 308:1566–1572 Yunos NM, Bellomo R, Hegarty C, Story D, Ho L, Bailey M (2012) Association between a chloride-liberal vs chloride-restrictive intravenous fluid administration strategy and kidney injury in critically ill adults. JAMA 308:1566–1572
588.
Zurück zum Zitat Elmer J, Wilcox SR, Raja AS (2013) Massive transfusion in traumatic shock. J Emerg Med 44:829–838 Elmer J, Wilcox SR, Raja AS (2013) Massive transfusion in traumatic shock. J Emerg Med 44:829–838
589.
Zurück zum Zitat Kua JP, Ong GY, Ng KC (2014) Physiologically-guided Balanced Resuscitation: an Evidence-based Approach for Acute Fluid Management in Paediatric Major Trauma. Ann Acad Med Singapore 43:595–604 Kua JP, Ong GY, Ng KC (2014) Physiologically-guided Balanced Resuscitation: an Evidence-based Approach for Acute Fluid Management in Paediatric Major Trauma. Ann Acad Med Singapore 43:595–604
590.
Zurück zum Zitat Patterson MD, Boenning DA, Klein BL et al (2005) The use of high-dose epinephrine for patients with out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest refractory to prehospital interventions. Pediatr Emerg Care 21:227–237 Patterson MD, Boenning DA, Klein BL et al (2005) The use of high-dose epinephrine for patients with out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest refractory to prehospital interventions. Pediatr Emerg Care 21:227–237
591.
Zurück zum Zitat Perondi MB, Reis AG, Paiva EF, Nadkarni VM, Berg RA (2004) A comparison of high-dose and standard-dose epinephrine in children with cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 350:1722–1730 Perondi MB, Reis AG, Paiva EF, Nadkarni VM, Berg RA (2004) A comparison of high-dose and standard-dose epinephrine in children with cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 350:1722–1730
592.
Zurück zum Zitat Carpenter TC, Stenmark KR (1997) High-dose epinephrine is not superior to standard-dose epinephrine in pediatric in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. Pediatrics 99:403–408 Carpenter TC, Stenmark KR (1997) High-dose epinephrine is not superior to standard-dose epinephrine in pediatric in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. Pediatrics 99:403–408
593.
Zurück zum Zitat Dieckmann RA, Vardis R (1995) High-dose epinephrine in pediatric out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. Pediatrics 95:901–913 Dieckmann RA, Vardis R (1995) High-dose epinephrine in pediatric out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest. Pediatrics 95:901–913
594.
Zurück zum Zitat Enright K, Turner C, Roberts P, Cheng N, Browne G (2012) Primary cardiac arrest following sport or exertion in children presenting to an emergency department: chest compressions and early defibrillation can save lives, but is intravenous epinephrine always appropriate? Pediatr Emerg Care 28:336–339 Enright K, Turner C, Roberts P, Cheng N, Browne G (2012) Primary cardiac arrest following sport or exertion in children presenting to an emergency department: chest compressions and early defibrillation can save lives, but is intravenous epinephrine always appropriate? Pediatr Emerg Care 28:336–339
595.
Zurück zum Zitat Saharan S, Balaji S (2015) Cardiovascular collapse during amiodarone infusion in a hemodynamically compromised child with refractory supraventricular tachycardia. Ann Pediatr Cardiol 8:50–52 Saharan S, Balaji S (2015) Cardiovascular collapse during amiodarone infusion in a hemodynamically compromised child with refractory supraventricular tachycardia. Ann Pediatr Cardiol 8:50–52
596.
Zurück zum Zitat Brady WJ, Swart G, DeBehnke DJ, Ma OJ, Aufderheide TP (1999) The efficacy of atropine in the treatment of hemodynamically unstable bradycardia and atrioventricular block: prehospital and emergency department considerations. Resuscitation 41:47–55 Brady WJ, Swart G, DeBehnke DJ, Ma OJ, Aufderheide TP (1999) The efficacy of atropine in the treatment of hemodynamically unstable bradycardia and atrioventricular block: prehospital and emergency department considerations. Resuscitation 41:47–55
597.
Zurück zum Zitat Smith I, Monk TG, White PF (1994) Comparison of transesophageal atrial pacing with anticholinergic drugs for the treatment of intraoperative bradycardia. Anesth Analg 78:245–252 Smith I, Monk TG, White PF (1994) Comparison of transesophageal atrial pacing with anticholinergic drugs for the treatment of intraoperative bradycardia. Anesth Analg 78:245–252
598.
Zurück zum Zitat Chadda KD, Lichstein E, Gupta PK, Kourtesis P (1977) Effects of atropine in patients with bradyarrhythmia complicating myocardial infarction: usefulness of an optimum dose for overdrive. Am J Med 63:503–510 Chadda KD, Lichstein E, Gupta PK, Kourtesis P (1977) Effects of atropine in patients with bradyarrhythmia complicating myocardial infarction: usefulness of an optimum dose for overdrive. Am J Med 63:503–510
599.
Zurück zum Zitat van Walraven C, Stiell IG, Wells GA, Hebert PC, Vandemheen K (1998) Do advanced cardiac life support drugs increase resuscitation rates from in-hospital cardiac arrest? The OTAC Study Group. Ann Emerg Med 32:544–553 van Walraven C, Stiell IG, Wells GA, Hebert PC, Vandemheen K (1998) Do advanced cardiac life support drugs increase resuscitation rates from in-hospital cardiac arrest? The OTAC Study Group. Ann Emerg Med 32:544–553
600.
Zurück zum Zitat Gupta P, Tomar M, Radhakrishnan S, Shrivastava S (2011) Hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy presenting as cardiogenic shock. Ann Pediatr Cardiol 4:152–155 Gupta P, Tomar M, Radhakrishnan S, Shrivastava S (2011) Hypocalcemic cardiomyopathy presenting as cardiogenic shock. Ann Pediatr Cardiol 4:152–155
601.
Zurück zum Zitat Kette F, Ghuman J, Parr M (2013) Calcium administration during cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Eur J Emerg Med 20:72–78 Kette F, Ghuman J, Parr M (2013) Calcium administration during cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Eur J Emerg Med 20:72–78
602.
Zurück zum Zitat Dias CR, Leite HP, Nogueira PC, Brunow de Carvalho W (2013) Ionized hypocalcemia is an early event and is associated with organ dysfunction in children admitted to the intensive care unit. J Crit Care 28:810–815 Dias CR, Leite HP, Nogueira PC, Brunow de Carvalho W (2013) Ionized hypocalcemia is an early event and is associated with organ dysfunction in children admitted to the intensive care unit. J Crit Care 28:810–815
603.
Zurück zum Zitat Krinsley JS (2004) Effect of an intensive glucose management protocol on the mortality of critically ill adult patients. Mayo Clin Proc 79:992–1000 Krinsley JS (2004) Effect of an intensive glucose management protocol on the mortality of critically ill adult patients. Mayo Clin Proc 79:992–1000
604.
Zurück zum Zitat Salter N, Quin G, Tracy E (2010) Cardiac arrest in infancy: don’t forget glucose! Emerg Med J 27:720–721 Salter N, Quin G, Tracy E (2010) Cardiac arrest in infancy: don’t forget glucose! Emerg Med J 27:720–721
605.
Zurück zum Zitat Topjian AA, Berg RA, Bierens JJ et al (2012) Brain resuscitation in the drowning victim. Neurocrit Care 17:441–467 Topjian AA, Berg RA, Bierens JJ et al (2012) Brain resuscitation in the drowning victim. Neurocrit Care 17:441–467
606.
Zurück zum Zitat Allegra J, Lavery R, Cody R et al (2001) Magnesium sulfate in the treatment of refractory ventricular fibrillation in the prehospital setting. Resuscitation 49:245–249 Allegra J, Lavery R, Cody R et al (2001) Magnesium sulfate in the treatment of refractory ventricular fibrillation in the prehospital setting. Resuscitation 49:245–249
607.
Zurück zum Zitat Reis AG, Ferreira de Paiva E, Schvartsman C, Zaritsky AL (2008) Magnesium in cardiopulmonary resuscitation: critical review. Resuscitation 77:21–25 Reis AG, Ferreira de Paiva E, Schvartsman C, Zaritsky AL (2008) Magnesium in cardiopulmonary resuscitation: critical review. Resuscitation 77:21–25
608.
Zurück zum Zitat Tzivoni D, Banai S, Schuger C et al (1988) Treatment of torsade de pointes with magnesium sulfate. Circulation 77:392–397 Tzivoni D, Banai S, Schuger C et al (1988) Treatment of torsade de pointes with magnesium sulfate. Circulation 77:392–397
609.
Zurück zum Zitat Bar-Joseph G, Abramson NS, Kelsey SF, Mashiach T, Craig MT, Safar P (2005) Improved resuscitation outcome in emergency medical systems with increased usage of sodium bicarbonate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 49:6–15 Bar-Joseph G, Abramson NS, Kelsey SF, Mashiach T, Craig MT, Safar P (2005) Improved resuscitation outcome in emergency medical systems with increased usage of sodium bicarbonate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 49:6–15
610.
Zurück zum Zitat Weng YM, Wu SH, Li WC, Kuo CW, Chen SY, Chen JC (2013) The effects of sodium bicarbonate during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Am J Emerg Med 31:562–565 Weng YM, Wu SH, Li WC, Kuo CW, Chen SY, Chen JC (2013) The effects of sodium bicarbonate during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Am J Emerg Med 31:562–565
611.
Zurück zum Zitat Raymond TT, Stromberg D, Stigall W, Burton G, Zaritsky A, American Heart Association’s Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation I (2015) Sodium bicarbonate use during in-hospital pediatric pulseless cardiac arrest – a report from the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines(®)-Resuscitation. Resuscitation 89:106–113 Raymond TT, Stromberg D, Stigall W, Burton G, Zaritsky A, American Heart Association’s Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation I (2015) Sodium bicarbonate use during in-hospital pediatric pulseless cardiac arrest – a report from the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines(®)-Resuscitation. Resuscitation 89:106–113
612.
Zurück zum Zitat Duncan JM, Meaney P, Simpson P, Berg RA, Nadkarni V, Schexnayder S (2009) Vasopressin for in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest: results from the American Heart Association National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Pediatr Crit Care Med 10:191–195 Duncan JM, Meaney P, Simpson P, Berg RA, Nadkarni V, Schexnayder S (2009) Vasopressin for in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest: results from the American Heart Association National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Pediatr Crit Care Med 10:191–195
613.
Zurück zum Zitat Mukoyama T, Kinoshita K, Nagao K, Tanjoh K (2009) Reduced effectiveness of vasopressin in repeated doses for patients undergoing prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 80:755–761 Mukoyama T, Kinoshita K, Nagao K, Tanjoh K (2009) Reduced effectiveness of vasopressin in repeated doses for patients undergoing prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 80:755–761
614.
Zurück zum Zitat Matok I, Vardi A, Augarten A et al (2007) Beneficial effects of terlipressin in prolonged pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a case series. Crit Care Med 35:1161–1164 Matok I, Vardi A, Augarten A et al (2007) Beneficial effects of terlipressin in prolonged pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a case series. Crit Care Med 35:1161–1164
615.
Zurück zum Zitat Mentzelopoulos SD, Malachias S, Chamos C et al (2013) Vasopressin, steroids, and epinephrine and neurologically favorable survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 310:270–279 Mentzelopoulos SD, Malachias S, Chamos C et al (2013) Vasopressin, steroids, and epinephrine and neurologically favorable survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 310:270–279
616.
Zurück zum Zitat Daley MJ, Lat I, Mieure KD, Jennings HR, Hall JB, Kress JP (2013) A comparison of initial monotherapy with norepinephrine versus vasopressin for resuscitation in septic shock. Ann Pharmacother 47:301–310 Daley MJ, Lat I, Mieure KD, Jennings HR, Hall JB, Kress JP (2013) A comparison of initial monotherapy with norepinephrine versus vasopressin for resuscitation in septic shock. Ann Pharmacother 47:301–310
617.
Zurück zum Zitat Atkins DL, Sirna S, Kieso R, Charbonnier F, Kerber RE (1988) Pediatric defibrillation: importance of paddle size in determining transthoracic impedance. Pediatrics 82:914–918 Atkins DL, Sirna S, Kieso R, Charbonnier F, Kerber RE (1988) Pediatric defibrillation: importance of paddle size in determining transthoracic impedance. Pediatrics 82:914–918
618.
Zurück zum Zitat Atkins DL, Kerber RE (1994) Pediatric defibrillation: current flow is improved by using „adult“ electrode paddles. Pediatrics 94:90–93 Atkins DL, Kerber RE (1994) Pediatric defibrillation: current flow is improved by using „adult“ electrode paddles. Pediatrics 94:90–93
619.
Zurück zum Zitat Gurnett CA, Atkins DL (2000) Successful use of a biphasic waveform automated external defibrillator in a high-risk child. Am J Cardiol 86:1051–1053 Gurnett CA, Atkins DL (2000) Successful use of a biphasic waveform automated external defibrillator in a high-risk child. Am J Cardiol 86:1051–1053
620.
Zurück zum Zitat Rossano J, Quan L, Schiff M, MA K, DL A (2003) Survival is not correlated with defibrillation dosing in pediatric out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Circulation 108:IV-320–1 Rossano J, Quan L, Schiff M, MA K, DL A (2003) Survival is not correlated with defibrillation dosing in pediatric out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Circulation 108:IV-320–1
621.
Zurück zum Zitat Atkinson E, Mikysa B, Conway JA et al (2003) Specificity and sensitivity of automated external defibrillator rhythm analysis in infants and children. Ann Emerg Med 42:185–196 Atkinson E, Mikysa B, Conway JA et al (2003) Specificity and sensitivity of automated external defibrillator rhythm analysis in infants and children. Ann Emerg Med 42:185–196
622.
Zurück zum Zitat Cecchin F, Jorgenson DB, Berul CI et al (2001) Is arrhythmia detection by automatic external defibrillator accurate for children? Sensitivity and specificity of an automatic external defibrillator algorithm in 696 pediatric arrhythmias. Circulation 103:2483–2488 Cecchin F, Jorgenson DB, Berul CI et al (2001) Is arrhythmia detection by automatic external defibrillator accurate for children? Sensitivity and specificity of an automatic external defibrillator algorithm in 696 pediatric arrhythmias. Circulation 103:2483–2488
623.
Zurück zum Zitat Atkins DL, Hartley LL, York DK (1998) Accurate recognition and effective treatment of ventricular fibrillation by automated external defibrillators in adolescents. Pediatrics 101:393–397 Atkins DL, Hartley LL, York DK (1998) Accurate recognition and effective treatment of ventricular fibrillation by automated external defibrillators in adolescents. Pediatrics 101:393–397
624.
Zurück zum Zitat Samson R, Berg R, Bingham R, ILCoR PAdvancedLSupportTForce (2003) Use of automated external defibrillators for children: an update. An advisory statement from the Pediatric Advanced Life Support Task Force, International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. Resuscitation 57:237–243 Samson R, Berg R, Bingham R, ILCoR PAdvancedLSupportTForce (2003) Use of automated external defibrillators for children: an update. An advisory statement from the Pediatric Advanced Life Support Task Force, International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation. Resuscitation 57:237–243
625.
Zurück zum Zitat Berg RA, Samson RA, Berg MD et al (2005) Better outcome after pediatric defibrillation dosage than adult dosage in a swine model of pediatric ventricular fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 45:786–789 Berg RA, Samson RA, Berg MD et al (2005) Better outcome after pediatric defibrillation dosage than adult dosage in a swine model of pediatric ventricular fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 45:786–789
626.
Zurück zum Zitat Herlitz J, Engdahl J, Svensson L, Young M, Angquist KA, Holmberg S (2005) Characteristics and outcome among children suffering from out of hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden. Resuscitation 64:37–40 Herlitz J, Engdahl J, Svensson L, Young M, Angquist KA, Holmberg S (2005) Characteristics and outcome among children suffering from out of hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden. Resuscitation 64:37–40
627.
Zurück zum Zitat Bray JE, Palma S D, Jacobs I, Straney L, Finn J (2014) Trends in the incidence of presumed cardiac out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Perth, Western Australia, 1997–2010. Resuscitation 85:757–761 Bray JE, Palma S D, Jacobs I, Straney L, Finn J (2014) Trends in the incidence of presumed cardiac out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Perth, Western Australia, 1997–2010. Resuscitation 85:757–761
628.
Zurück zum Zitat Mitani Y, Ohta K, Ichida F et al (2014) Circumstances and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in elementary and middle school students in the era of public-access defibrillation. Circ J 78:701–707 Mitani Y, Ohta K, Ichida F et al (2014) Circumstances and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in elementary and middle school students in the era of public-access defibrillation. Circ J 78:701–707
629.
Zurück zum Zitat Lin YR, Wu HP, Chen WL et al (2013) Predictors of survival and neurologic outcomes in children with traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during the early postresuscitative period. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 75:439–447 Lin YR, Wu HP, Chen WL et al (2013) Predictors of survival and neurologic outcomes in children with traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest during the early postresuscitative period. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 75:439–447
630.
Zurück zum Zitat Zeng J, Qian S, Zheng M, Wang Y, Zhou G, Wang H (2013) The epidemiology and resuscitation effects of cardiopulmonary arrest among hospitalized children and adolescents in Beijing: an observational study. Resuscitation 84:1685–1690 Zeng J, Qian S, Zheng M, Wang Y, Zhou G, Wang H (2013) The epidemiology and resuscitation effects of cardiopulmonary arrest among hospitalized children and adolescents in Beijing: an observational study. Resuscitation 84:1685–1690
631.
Zurück zum Zitat Cheung W, Middleton P, Davies S, Tummala S, Thanakrishnan G, Gullick J (2013) A comparison of survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Sydney, Australia, between 2004–2005 and 2009–2010. Crit Care Resusc 15:241–246 Cheung W, Middleton P, Davies S, Tummala S, Thanakrishnan G, Gullick J (2013) A comparison of survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Sydney, Australia, between 2004–2005 and 2009–2010. Crit Care Resusc 15:241–246
632.
Zurück zum Zitat Nitta M, Kitamura T, Iwami T et al (2013) Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to drowning among children and adults from the Utstein Osaka Project. Resuscitation 84:1568–1573 Nitta M, Kitamura T, Iwami T et al (2013) Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to drowning among children and adults from the Utstein Osaka Project. Resuscitation 84:1568–1573
633.
Zurück zum Zitat De Maio VJ, Osmond MH, Stiell IG et al (2012) Epidemiology of out-of hospital pediatric cardiac arrest due to trauma. Prehosp Emerg Care 16:230–236 De Maio VJ, Osmond MH, Stiell IG et al (2012) Epidemiology of out-of hospital pediatric cardiac arrest due to trauma. Prehosp Emerg Care 16:230–236
634.
Zurück zum Zitat Deasy C, Bray J, Smith K et al (2012) Paediatric traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Melbourne, Australia. Resuscitation 83:471–475 Deasy C, Bray J, Smith K et al (2012) Paediatric traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Melbourne, Australia. Resuscitation 83:471–475
635.
Zurück zum Zitat Samson RA, Nadkarni VM, Meaney PA, Carey SM, Berg MD, Berg RA (2006) Outcomes of in-hospital ventricular fibrillation in children. N Engl J Med 354:2328–2339 Samson RA, Nadkarni VM, Meaney PA, Carey SM, Berg MD, Berg RA (2006) Outcomes of in-hospital ventricular fibrillation in children. N Engl J Med 354:2328–2339
636.
Zurück zum Zitat Cummins RO, Graves JR, Larsen MP et al (1993) Out-of-hospital transcutaneous pacing by emergency medical technicians in patients with asystolic cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 328:1377–1382 Cummins RO, Graves JR, Larsen MP et al (1993) Out-of-hospital transcutaneous pacing by emergency medical technicians in patients with asystolic cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 328:1377–1382
637.
Zurück zum Zitat Benson D Jr, Smith W, Dunnigan A, Sterba R, Gallagher J (1982) Mechanisms of regular wide QRS tachycardia in infants and children. Am J Cardiol 49:1778–1788 Benson D Jr, Smith W, Dunnigan A, Sterba R, Gallagher J (1982) Mechanisms of regular wide QRS tachycardia in infants and children. Am J Cardiol 49:1778–1788
638.
Zurück zum Zitat Lopez-Herce Cid J, Dominguez Sampedro P, Rodriguez Nunez A et al (2006) [Cardiorespiratory arrest in children with trauma]. An Pediatr (Barc) 65:439–447 Lopez-Herce Cid J, Dominguez Sampedro P, Rodriguez Nunez A et al (2006) [Cardiorespiratory arrest in children with trauma]. An Pediatr (Barc) 65:439–447
639.
Zurück zum Zitat Perron AD, Sing RF, Branas CC, Huynh T (2001) Predicting survival in pediatric trauma patients receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the prehospital setting. Prehosp Emerg Care 5:6–9 Perron AD, Sing RF, Branas CC, Huynh T (2001) Predicting survival in pediatric trauma patients receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the prehospital setting. Prehosp Emerg Care 5:6–9
640.
Zurück zum Zitat Brindis SL, Gausche-Hill M, Young KD, Putnam B (2011) Universally poor outcomes of pediatric traumatic arrest: a prospective case series and review of the literature. Pediatr Emerg Care 27:616–621 Brindis SL, Gausche-Hill M, Young KD, Putnam B (2011) Universally poor outcomes of pediatric traumatic arrest: a prospective case series and review of the literature. Pediatr Emerg Care 27:616–621
641.
Zurück zum Zitat Murphy JT, Jaiswal K, Sabella J, Vinson L, Megison S, Maxson RT (2010) Prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the pediatric trauma patient. J Pediatr Surg 45:1413–1419 Murphy JT, Jaiswal K, Sabella J, Vinson L, Megison S, Maxson RT (2010) Prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the pediatric trauma patient. J Pediatr Surg 45:1413–1419
642.
Zurück zum Zitat Widdel L, Winston KR (2010) Prognosis for children in cardiac arrest shortly after blunt cranial trauma. J Trauma 69:783–788 Widdel L, Winston KR (2010) Prognosis for children in cardiac arrest shortly after blunt cranial trauma. J Trauma 69:783–788
643.
Zurück zum Zitat Duron V, Burke RV, Bliss D, Ford HR, Upperman JS (2014) Survival of pediatric blunt trauma patients presenting with no signs of life in the field. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 77:422–426 Duron V, Burke RV, Bliss D, Ford HR, Upperman JS (2014) Survival of pediatric blunt trauma patients presenting with no signs of life in the field. J Trauma Acute Care Surg 77:422–426
644.
Zurück zum Zitat Easter JS, Vinton DT, Haukoos JS (2012) Emergent pediatric thoracotomy following traumatic arrest. Resuscitation 83:1521–1524 Easter JS, Vinton DT, Haukoos JS (2012) Emergent pediatric thoracotomy following traumatic arrest. Resuscitation 83:1521–1524
645.
Zurück zum Zitat Hofbauer M, Hupfl M, Figl M, Hochtl-Lee L, Kdolsky R (2011) Retrospective analysis of emergency room thoracotomy in pediatric severe trauma patients. Resuscitation 82:185–189 Hofbauer M, Hupfl M, Figl M, Hochtl-Lee L, Kdolsky R (2011) Retrospective analysis of emergency room thoracotomy in pediatric severe trauma patients. Resuscitation 82:185–189
646.
Zurück zum Zitat Polderman FN, Cohen J, Blom NA et al (2004) Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder. Int J Cardiol 95:171–176 Polderman FN, Cohen J, Blom NA et al (2004) Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder. Int J Cardiol 95:171–176
647.
Zurück zum Zitat Sanatani S, Wilson G, Smith CR, Hamilton RM, Williams WG, Adatia I (2006) Sudden unexpected death in children with heart disease. Congenit Heart Dis 1:89–97 Sanatani S, Wilson G, Smith CR, Hamilton RM, Williams WG, Adatia I (2006) Sudden unexpected death in children with heart disease. Congenit Heart Dis 1:89–97
648.
Zurück zum Zitat Morris K, Beghetti M, Petros A, Adatia I, Bohn D (2000) Comparison of hyperventilation and inhaled nitric oxide for pulmonary hypertension after repair of congenital heart disease. Crit Care Med 28:2974–2978 Morris K, Beghetti M, Petros A, Adatia I, Bohn D (2000) Comparison of hyperventilation and inhaled nitric oxide for pulmonary hypertension after repair of congenital heart disease. Crit Care Med 28:2974–2978
649.
Zurück zum Zitat Hildebrand CA, Hartmann AG, Arcinue EL, Gomez RJ, Bing RJ (1988) Cardiac performance in pediatric near-drowning. Crit Care Med 16:331–335 Hildebrand CA, Hartmann AG, Arcinue EL, Gomez RJ, Bing RJ (1988) Cardiac performance in pediatric near-drowning. Crit Care Med 16:331–335
650.
Zurück zum Zitat Mayr V, Luckner G, Jochberger S et al (2007) Arginine vasopressin in advanced cardiovascular failure during the post-resuscitation phase after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 72:35–44 Mayr V, Luckner G, Jochberger S et al (2007) Arginine vasopressin in advanced cardiovascular failure during the post-resuscitation phase after cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 72:35–44
651.
Zurück zum Zitat Conlon TW, Falkensammer CB, Hammond RS, Nadkarni VM, Berg RA, Topjian AA (2015) Association of left ventricular systolic function and vasopressor support with survival following pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Pediatr Crit Care Med 16:146–154 Conlon TW, Falkensammer CB, Hammond RS, Nadkarni VM, Berg RA, Topjian AA (2015) Association of left ventricular systolic function and vasopressor support with survival following pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Pediatr Crit Care Med 16:146–154
652.
Zurück zum Zitat Bougouin W, Cariou A (2013) Management of postcardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction. Curr Opin Crit Care 19:195–201 Bougouin W, Cariou A (2013) Management of postcardiac arrest myocardial dysfunction. Curr Opin Crit Care 19:195–201
653.
Zurück zum Zitat Guerra-Wallace MM, Casey FL 3rd, Bell MJ, Fink EL, Hickey RW (2013) Hyperoxia and hypoxia in children resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Pediatr Crit Care Med 14:e143–e148 Guerra-Wallace MM, Casey FL 3rd, Bell MJ, Fink EL, Hickey RW (2013) Hyperoxia and hypoxia in children resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Pediatr Crit Care Med 14:e143–e148
654.
Zurück zum Zitat Ferguson LP, Durward A, Tibby SM (2012) Relationship between arterial partial oxygen pressure after resuscitation from cardiac arrest and mortality in children. Circulation 126:335–342 Ferguson LP, Durward A, Tibby SM (2012) Relationship between arterial partial oxygen pressure after resuscitation from cardiac arrest and mortality in children. Circulation 126:335–342
655.
Zurück zum Zitat Bennett KS, Clark AE, Meert KL et al (2013) Early oxygenation and ventilation measurements after pediatric cardiac arrest: lack of association with outcome. Crit Care Med 41:1534–1542 Bennett KS, Clark AE, Meert KL et al (2013) Early oxygenation and ventilation measurements after pediatric cardiac arrest: lack of association with outcome. Crit Care Med 41:1534–1542
656.
Zurück zum Zitat Lopez-Herce J, del Castillo J, Matamoros M et al (2014) Post return of spontaneous circulation factors associated with mortality in pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest: a prospective multicenter multinational observational study. Crit Care 18:607 Lopez-Herce J, del Castillo J, Matamoros M et al (2014) Post return of spontaneous circulation factors associated with mortality in pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrest: a prospective multicenter multinational observational study. Crit Care 18:607
657.
Zurück zum Zitat Gluckman PD, Wyatt JS, Azzopardi D et al (2005) Selective head cooling with mild systemic hypothermia after neonatal encephalopathy: multicentre randomised trial. Lancet 365:663–670 Gluckman PD, Wyatt JS, Azzopardi D et al (2005) Selective head cooling with mild systemic hypothermia after neonatal encephalopathy: multicentre randomised trial. Lancet 365:663–670
658.
Zurück zum Zitat Moler FW, Silverstein FS, Holubkov R et al (2015) Therapeutic hypothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in children. N Engl J Med 372:1898–1908 Moler FW, Silverstein FS, Holubkov R et al (2015) Therapeutic hypothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in children. N Engl J Med 372:1898–1908
659.
Zurück zum Zitat Coimbra C, Drake M, Boris-Moller F, Wieloch T (1996) Long-lasting neuroprotective effect of postischemic hypothermia and treatment with an anti-inflammatory/antipyretic drug. Evidence for chronic encephalopathic processes following ischemia. Stroke 27:1578–1585 Coimbra C, Drake M, Boris-Moller F, Wieloch T (1996) Long-lasting neuroprotective effect of postischemic hypothermia and treatment with an anti-inflammatory/antipyretic drug. Evidence for chronic encephalopathic processes following ischemia. Stroke 27:1578–1585
660.
Zurück zum Zitat van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F et al (2001) Intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 345:1359–1367 van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F et al (2001) Intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 345:1359–1367
661.
Zurück zum Zitat Van den Berghe G, Wilmer A, Hermans G et al (2006) Intensive insulin therapy in the medical ICU. N Engl J Med 354:449–461 Van den Berghe G, Wilmer A, Hermans G et al (2006) Intensive insulin therapy in the medical ICU. N Engl J Med 354:449–461
662.
Zurück zum Zitat Treggiari MM, Karir V, Yanez ND, Weiss NS, Daniel S, Deem SA (2008) Intensive insulin therapy and mortality in critically ill patients. Crit Care 12:R29 Treggiari MM, Karir V, Yanez ND, Weiss NS, Daniel S, Deem SA (2008) Intensive insulin therapy and mortality in critically ill patients. Crit Care 12:R29
663.
Zurück zum Zitat Losert H, Sterz F, Roine RO et al (2008) Strict normoglycaemic blood glucose levels in the therapeutic management of patients within 12 h after cardiac arrest might not be necessary. Resuscitation 76:214–220 Losert H, Sterz F, Roine RO et al (2008) Strict normoglycaemic blood glucose levels in the therapeutic management of patients within 12 h after cardiac arrest might not be necessary. Resuscitation 76:214–220
664.
Zurück zum Zitat Oksanen T, Skrifvars MB, Varpula T et al (2007) Strict versus moderate glucose control after resuscitation from ventricular fibrillation. Intensive Care Med 33:2093–2100 Oksanen T, Skrifvars MB, Varpula T et al (2007) Strict versus moderate glucose control after resuscitation from ventricular fibrillation. Intensive Care Med 33:2093–2100
665.
Zurück zum Zitat Lopez-Herce J, Garcia C, Dominguez P et al (2004) Characteristics and outcome of cardiorespiratory arrest in children. Resuscitation 63:311–320 Lopez-Herce J, Garcia C, Dominguez P et al (2004) Characteristics and outcome of cardiorespiratory arrest in children. Resuscitation 63:311–320
666.
Zurück zum Zitat Idris AH, Berg RA, Bierens J et al (2003) Recommended guidelines for uniform reporting of data from drowning: the „Utstein style“. Resuscitation 59:45–57 Idris AH, Berg RA, Bierens J et al (2003) Recommended guidelines for uniform reporting of data from drowning: the „Utstein style“. Resuscitation 59:45–57
667.
Zurück zum Zitat Eich C, Brauer A, Timmermann A et al (2007) Outcome of 12 drowned children with attempted resuscitation on cardiopulmonary bypass: an analysis of variables based on the „Utstein Style for Drowning“. Resuscitation 75:42–52 Eich C, Brauer A, Timmermann A et al (2007) Outcome of 12 drowned children with attempted resuscitation on cardiopulmonary bypass: an analysis of variables based on the „Utstein Style for Drowning“. Resuscitation 75:42–52
668.
Zurück zum Zitat Tinsley C, Hill JB, Shah J et al (2008) Experience of families during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a pediatric intensive care unit. Pediatrics 122:e799–e804 Tinsley C, Hill JB, Shah J et al (2008) Experience of families during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a pediatric intensive care unit. Pediatrics 122:e799–e804
669.
Zurück zum Zitat Vavarouta A, Xanthos T, Papadimitriou L, Kouskouni E, Iacovidou N (2011) Family presence during resuscitation and invasive procedures: physicians’ and nurses’ attitudes working in pediatric departments in Greece. Resuscitation 82:713–716 Vavarouta A, Xanthos T, Papadimitriou L, Kouskouni E, Iacovidou N (2011) Family presence during resuscitation and invasive procedures: physicians’ and nurses’ attitudes working in pediatric departments in Greece. Resuscitation 82:713–716
670.
Zurück zum Zitat Corniero P, Gamell A, Parra Cotanda C, Trenchs V, Cubells CL (2011) Family presence during invasive procedures at the emergency department: what is the opinion of Spanish medical staff? Pediatr Emerg Care 27:86–91 Corniero P, Gamell A, Parra Cotanda C, Trenchs V, Cubells CL (2011) Family presence during invasive procedures at the emergency department: what is the opinion of Spanish medical staff? Pediatr Emerg Care 27:86–91
671.
Zurück zum Zitat Ersdal HL, Mduma E, Svensen E, Perlman JM (2012) Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions including face mask ventilation may reduce birth asphyxia related mortality in low-income countries: a prospective descriptive observational study. Resuscitation 83:869–873 Ersdal HL, Mduma E, Svensen E, Perlman JM (2012) Early initiation of basic resuscitation interventions including face mask ventilation may reduce birth asphyxia related mortality in low-income countries: a prospective descriptive observational study. Resuscitation 83:869–873
672.
Zurück zum Zitat Perlman JM, Risser R (1995) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the delivery room: associated clinical events. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 149:20–25 Perlman JM, Risser R (1995) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the delivery room: associated clinical events. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 149:20–25
673.
Zurück zum Zitat Barber CA, Wyckoff MH (2006) Use and efficacy of endotracheal versus intravenous epinephrine during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the delivery room. Pediatrics 118:1028–1034 Barber CA, Wyckoff MH (2006) Use and efficacy of endotracheal versus intravenous epinephrine during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the delivery room. Pediatrics 118:1028–1034
674.
Zurück zum Zitat Ghavam S, Batra D, Mercer J et al (2014) Effects of placental transfusion in extremely low birthweight infants: meta-analysis of long- and short-term outcomes. Transfusion 54:1192–1198 Ghavam S, Batra D, Mercer J et al (2014) Effects of placental transfusion in extremely low birthweight infants: meta-analysis of long- and short-term outcomes. Transfusion 54:1192–1198
675.
Zurück zum Zitat Budin P. The Nursling (Hrsg) (1907) The Feeding and Hygiene of Premature and Full-term Infants. Translation by WJ Maloney. The Caxton Publishing Company, London Budin P. The Nursling (Hrsg) (1907) The Feeding and Hygiene of Premature and Full-term Infants. Translation by WJ Maloney. The Caxton Publishing Company, London
676.
Zurück zum Zitat Wyllie J, Perlman JM, Kattwinkel J et al (2015) Part 7: neonatal resuscitation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation Wyllie J, Perlman JM, Kattwinkel J et al (2015) Part 7: neonatal resuscitation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation
677.
Zurück zum Zitat Apgar V (1653) A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. Curr Res Anesth Analg 32 Apgar V (1653) A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. Curr Res Anesth Analg 32
678.
Zurück zum Zitat Chamberlain G, Banks J (1974) Assessment of the Apgar score. Lancet 2:1225–1228 Chamberlain G, Banks J (1974) Assessment of the Apgar score. Lancet 2:1225–1228
679.
Zurück zum Zitat Owen CJ, Wyllie JP (2004) Determination of heart rate in the baby at birth. Resuscitation 60:213–217 Owen CJ, Wyllie JP (2004) Determination of heart rate in the baby at birth. Resuscitation 60:213–217
680.
Zurück zum Zitat Dawson JA, Saraswat A, Simionato L et al (2013) Comparison of heart rate and oxygen saturation measurements from Masimo and Nellcor pulse oximeters in newly born term infants. Acta Paediatr 102:955–960 Dawson JA, Saraswat A, Simionato L et al (2013) Comparison of heart rate and oxygen saturation measurements from Masimo and Nellcor pulse oximeters in newly born term infants. Acta Paediatr 102:955–960
681.
Zurück zum Zitat Kamlin CO, Dawson JA, O’Donnell CP et al (2008) Accuracy of pulse oximetry measurement of heart rate of newborn infants in the delivery room. J Pediatr 152:756–760 Kamlin CO, Dawson JA, O’Donnell CP et al (2008) Accuracy of pulse oximetry measurement of heart rate of newborn infants in the delivery room. J Pediatr 152:756–760
682.
Zurück zum Zitat Katheria A, Rich W, Finer N (2012) Electrocardiogram provides a continuous heart rate faster than oximetry during neonatal resuscitation. Pediatrics 130:e1177–e1181 Katheria A, Rich W, Finer N (2012) Electrocardiogram provides a continuous heart rate faster than oximetry during neonatal resuscitation. Pediatrics 130:e1177–e1181
683.
Zurück zum Zitat Kamlin CO, O’Donnell CP, Everest NJ, Davis PG, Morley CJ (2006) Accuracy of clinical assessment of infant heart rate in the delivery room. Resuscitation 71:319–321 Kamlin CO, O’Donnell CP, Everest NJ, Davis PG, Morley CJ (2006) Accuracy of clinical assessment of infant heart rate in the delivery room. Resuscitation 71:319–321
684.
Zurück zum Zitat Voogdt KG, Morrison AC, Wood FE, van Elburg RM, Wyllie JP (2010) A randomised, simulated study assessing auscultation of heart rate at birth. Resuscitation 81:1000–1003 Voogdt KG, Morrison AC, Wood FE, van Elburg RM, Wyllie JP (2010) A randomised, simulated study assessing auscultation of heart rate at birth. Resuscitation 81:1000–1003
685.
Zurück zum Zitat O’Donnell CP, Kamlin CO, Davis PG, Carlin JB, Morley CJ (2007) Clinical assessment of infant colour at delivery. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 92:F465–F467 O’Donnell CP, Kamlin CO, Davis PG, Carlin JB, Morley CJ (2007) Clinical assessment of infant colour at delivery. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 92:F465–F467
686.
Zurück zum Zitat Konstantelos D, Gurth H, Bergert R, Ifflaender S, Rudiger M (2014) Positioning of term infants during delivery room routine handling – analysis of videos. BMC Pediatr 14:33 Konstantelos D, Gurth H, Bergert R, Ifflaender S, Rudiger M (2014) Positioning of term infants during delivery room routine handling – analysis of videos. BMC Pediatr 14:33
687.
Zurück zum Zitat Kelleher J, Bhat R, Salas AA et al (2013) Oronasopharyngeal suction versus wiping of the mouth and nose at birth: a randomised equivalency trial. Lancet 382:326–330 Kelleher J, Bhat R, Salas AA et al (2013) Oronasopharyngeal suction versus wiping of the mouth and nose at birth: a randomised equivalency trial. Lancet 382:326–330
688.
Zurück zum Zitat Al Takroni AM Parvathi CK, Mendis KB, Hassan S, Reddy I, Kudair HA (1998) Selective tracheal suctioning to prevent meconium aspiration syndrome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 63:259–263 Al Takroni AM Parvathi CK, Mendis KB, Hassan S, Reddy I, Kudair HA (1998) Selective tracheal suctioning to prevent meconium aspiration syndrome. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 63:259–263
689.
Zurück zum Zitat Chettri S, Adhisivam B, Bhat BV (2015) Endotracheal suction for nonvigorous neonates born through meconium stained amniotic Fluid: a randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr 166:1208–1213.e1 Chettri S, Adhisivam B, Bhat BV (2015) Endotracheal suction for nonvigorous neonates born through meconium stained amniotic Fluid: a randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr 166:1208–1213.e1
690.
Zurück zum Zitat Davis RO, Philips JB 3rd, Harris BA Jr, Wilson ER, Huddleston JF (1985) Fatal meconium aspiration syndrome occurring despite airway management considered appropriate. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151:731–736 Davis RO, Philips JB 3rd, Harris BA Jr, Wilson ER, Huddleston JF (1985) Fatal meconium aspiration syndrome occurring despite airway management considered appropriate. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151:731–736
691.
Zurück zum Zitat Manganaro R, Mami C, Palmara A, Paolata A, Gemelli M (2001) Incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome in term meconium-stained babies managed at birth with selective tracheal intubation. J Perinat Med 29:465–468 Manganaro R, Mami C, Palmara A, Paolata A, Gemelli M (2001) Incidence of meconium aspiration syndrome in term meconium-stained babies managed at birth with selective tracheal intubation. J Perinat Med 29:465–468
692.
Zurück zum Zitat Yoder BA (1994) Meconium-stained amniotic fluid and respiratory complications: impact of selective tracheal suction. Obstet Gynecol 83:77–84 Yoder BA (1994) Meconium-stained amniotic fluid and respiratory complications: impact of selective tracheal suction. Obstet Gynecol 83:77–84
693.
Zurück zum Zitat Wyllie J, Perlman JM, Kattwinkel J et al (2010) Part 11: neonatal resuscitation: 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 81(Suppl 1):e260–e287 Wyllie J, Perlman JM, Kattwinkel J et al (2010) Part 11: neonatal resuscitation: 2010 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 81(Suppl 1):e260–e287
694.
Zurück zum Zitat Vyas H, Milner AD, Hopkin IE, Boon AW (1981) Physiologic responses to prolonged and slow-rise inflation in the resuscitation of the asphyxiated newborn infant. J Pediatr 99:635–639 Vyas H, Milner AD, Hopkin IE, Boon AW (1981) Physiologic responses to prolonged and slow-rise inflation in the resuscitation of the asphyxiated newborn infant. J Pediatr 99:635–639
695.
Zurück zum Zitat Boon AW, Milner AD, Hopkin IE (1979) Lung expansion, tidal exchange, and formation of the functional residual capacity during resuscitation of asphyxiated neonates. J Pediatr 95:1031–1036 Boon AW, Milner AD, Hopkin IE (1979) Lung expansion, tidal exchange, and formation of the functional residual capacity during resuscitation of asphyxiated neonates. J Pediatr 95:1031–1036
696.
Zurück zum Zitat Mariani G, Dik PB, Ezquer A et al (2007) Pre-ductal and post-ductal O2 saturation in healthy term neonates after birth. J Pediatr 150:418–421 Mariani G, Dik PB, Ezquer A et al (2007) Pre-ductal and post-ductal O2 saturation in healthy term neonates after birth. J Pediatr 150:418–421
697.
Zurück zum Zitat Dawson JA, Kamlin CO, Vento M et al (2010) Defining the reference range for oxygen saturation for infants after birth. Pediatrics 125:e1340–e1347 Dawson JA, Kamlin CO, Vento M et al (2010) Defining the reference range for oxygen saturation for infants after birth. Pediatrics 125:e1340–e1347
698.
Zurück zum Zitat Davis PG, Tan A, O’Donnell CP, Schulze A (2004) Resuscitation of newborn infants with 100 % oxygen or air: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 364:1329–1333 Davis PG, Tan A, O’Donnell CP, Schulze A (2004) Resuscitation of newborn infants with 100 % oxygen or air: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 364:1329–1333
699.
Zurück zum Zitat Vento M, Moro M, Escrig R et al (2009) Preterm resuscitation with low oxygen causes less oxidative stress, inflammation, and chronic lung disease. Pediatrics 124:e439–e449 Vento M, Moro M, Escrig R et al (2009) Preterm resuscitation with low oxygen causes less oxidative stress, inflammation, and chronic lung disease. Pediatrics 124:e439–e449
700.
Zurück zum Zitat Perlman JM, Wyllie J, Kattwinkel J et al (2015) Part 7: neonatal resuscitation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation (In press) Perlman JM, Wyllie J, Kattwinkel J et al (2015) Part 7: neonatal resuscitation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Circulation (In press)
701.
Zurück zum Zitat Saugstad OD, Aune D, Aguar M, Kapadia V, Finer N, Vento M (2014) Systematic review and meta-analysis of optimal initial fraction of oxygen levels in the delivery room at ≤ 32 weeks. Acta Paediatr 103:744–751 Saugstad OD, Aune D, Aguar M, Kapadia V, Finer N, Vento M (2014) Systematic review and meta-analysis of optimal initial fraction of oxygen levels in the delivery room at ≤ 32 weeks. Acta Paediatr 103:744–751
702.
Zurück zum Zitat O’Donnell CP, Kamlin CO, Davis PG, Morley CJ (2005) Feasibility of and delay in obtaining pulse oximetry during neonatal resuscitation. J Pediatr 147:698–699 O’Donnell CP, Kamlin CO, Davis PG, Morley CJ (2005) Feasibility of and delay in obtaining pulse oximetry during neonatal resuscitation. J Pediatr 147:698–699
703.
Zurück zum Zitat <number>703.</number> Dawson JA, Kamlin CO, Wong C et al (2009) Oxygen saturation and heart rate during delivery room resuscitation of infants < 30 weeks’ gestation with air or 100 % oxygen. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 94:F87–F91 CrossRefPubMed <number>703.</number> Dawson JA, Kamlin CO, Wong C et al (2009) Oxygen saturation and heart rate during delivery room resuscitation of infants < 30 weeks’ gestation with air or 100 % oxygen. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 94:F87–F91 CrossRefPubMed
704.
Zurück zum Zitat Dildy GA, van den Berg PP, Katz M et al (1994) Intrapartum fetal pulse oximetry: fetal oxygen saturation trends during labor and relation to delivery outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 171:679–684 Dildy GA, van den Berg PP, Katz M et al (1994) Intrapartum fetal pulse oximetry: fetal oxygen saturation trends during labor and relation to delivery outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 171:679–684
705.
Zurück zum Zitat Dawson JA, Schmolzer GM, Kamlin CO et al (2011) Oxygenation with T-piece versus self-inflating bag for ventilation of extremely preterm infants at birth: a randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr 158:912–918 e1–e2 Dawson JA, Schmolzer GM, Kamlin CO et al (2011) Oxygenation with T-piece versus self-inflating bag for ventilation of extremely preterm infants at birth: a randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr 158:912–918 e1–e2
706.
Zurück zum Zitat Szyld E, Aguilar A, Musante GA et al (2014) Comparison of devices for newborn ventilation in the delivery room. J Pediatr 165:234–239 e3 Szyld E, Aguilar A, Musante GA et al (2014) Comparison of devices for newborn ventilation in the delivery room. J Pediatr 165:234–239 e3
707.
Zurück zum Zitat Hartung JC, Schmolzer G, Schmalisch G, Roehr CC (2013) Repeated thermo-sterilisation further affects the reliability of positive end-expiratory pressure valves. J Paediatr Child Health 49:741–745 Hartung JC, Schmolzer G, Schmalisch G, Roehr CC (2013) Repeated thermo-sterilisation further affects the reliability of positive end-expiratory pressure valves. J Paediatr Child Health 49:741–745
708.
Zurück zum Zitat Schmolzer GM, Agarwal M, Kamlin CO, Davis PG (2013) Supraglottic airway devices during neonatal resuscitation: an historical perspective, systematic review and meta-analysis of available clinical trials. Resuscitation 84:722–730 Schmolzer GM, Agarwal M, Kamlin CO, Davis PG (2013) Supraglottic airway devices during neonatal resuscitation: an historical perspective, systematic review and meta-analysis of available clinical trials. Resuscitation 84:722–730
709.
Zurück zum Zitat Trevisanuto D, Cavallin F, Nguyen LN et al (2015) Supreme laryngeal mask airway versus face mask during neonatal resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr 167:286–291 Trevisanuto D, Cavallin F, Nguyen LN et al (2015) Supreme laryngeal mask airway versus face mask during neonatal resuscitation: a randomized controlled trial. J Pediatr 167:286–291
710.
Zurück zum Zitat Kempley ST, Moreiras JW, Petrone FL (2008) Endotracheal tube length for neonatal intubation. Resuscitation 77:369–373 Kempley ST, Moreiras JW, Petrone FL (2008) Endotracheal tube length for neonatal intubation. Resuscitation 77:369–373
711.
Zurück zum Zitat Gill I, O’Donnell CP (2014) Vocal cord guides on neonatal endotracheal tubes. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 99:F344 Gill I, O’Donnell CP (2014) Vocal cord guides on neonatal endotracheal tubes. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 99:F344
712.
Zurück zum Zitat Palme-Kilander C, Tunell R (1993) Pulmonary gas exchange during facemask ventilation immediately after birth. Arch Dis Child 68:11–16 Palme-Kilander C, Tunell R (1993) Pulmonary gas exchange during facemask ventilation immediately after birth. Arch Dis Child 68:11–16
713.
Zurück zum Zitat Aziz HF, Martin JB, Moore JJ (1999) The pediatric disposable end-tidal carbon dioxide detector role in endotracheal intubation in newborns. J Perinatol 19:110–113 Aziz HF, Martin JB, Moore JJ (1999) The pediatric disposable end-tidal carbon dioxide detector role in endotracheal intubation in newborns. J Perinatol 19:110–113
714.
Zurück zum Zitat Bhende MS, LaCovey D (1995) A note of caution about the continuous use of colorimetric end-tidal CO 2 detectors in children. Pediatrics 95:800–801 Bhende MS, LaCovey D (1995) A note of caution about the continuous use of colorimetric end-tidal CO 2 detectors in children. Pediatrics 95:800–801
715.
Zurück zum Zitat Repetto JE, Donohue P-CP, Baker SF, Kelly L, Nogee LM (2001) Use of capnography in the delivery room for assessment of endotracheal tube placement. J Perinatol 21:284–287 Repetto JE, Donohue P-CP, Baker SF, Kelly L, Nogee LM (2001) Use of capnography in the delivery room for assessment of endotracheal tube placement. J Perinatol 21:284–287
716.
Zurück zum Zitat Roberts WA, Maniscalco WM, Cohen AR, Litman RS, Chhibber A (1995) The use of capnography for recognition of esophageal intubation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr Pulmonol 19:262–268 Roberts WA, Maniscalco WM, Cohen AR, Litman RS, Chhibber A (1995) The use of capnography for recognition of esophageal intubation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr Pulmonol 19:262–268
717.
Zurück zum Zitat Hosono S, Inami I, Fujita H, Minato M, Takahashi S, Mugishima H (2009) A role of end-tidal CO(2) monitoring for assessment of tracheal intubations in very low birth weight infants during neonatal resuscitation at birth. J Perinat Med 37:79–84 Hosono S, Inami I, Fujita H, Minato M, Takahashi S, Mugishima H (2009) A role of end-tidal CO(2) monitoring for assessment of tracheal intubations in very low birth weight infants during neonatal resuscitation at birth. J Perinat Med 37:79–84
718.
Zurück zum Zitat Garey DM, Ward R, Rich W, Heldt G, Leone T, Finer NN (2008) Tidal volume threshold for colorimetric carbon dioxide detectors available for use in neonates. Pediatrics 121:e1524–e1527 Garey DM, Ward R, Rich W, Heldt G, Leone T, Finer NN (2008) Tidal volume threshold for colorimetric carbon dioxide detectors available for use in neonates. Pediatrics 121:e1524–e1527
719.
Zurück zum Zitat Morley CJ, Davis PG, Doyle LW, Brion LP, Hascoet JM, Carlin JB, Nasal CPAP (2008) or intubation at birth for very preterm infants. N Engl J Med 358:700–708 Morley CJ, Davis PG, Doyle LW, Brion LP, Hascoet JM, Carlin JB, Nasal CPAP (2008) or intubation at birth for very preterm infants. N Engl J Med 358:700–708
720.
Zurück zum Zitat Network SSGotEKSNNR, Finer NN, Carlo WA et al (2010) Early CPAP versus surfactant in extremely preterm infants. N Engl J Med 362:1970–1979 Network SSGotEKSNNR, Finer NN, Carlo WA et al (2010) Early CPAP versus surfactant in extremely preterm infants. N Engl J Med 362:1970–1979
721.
Zurück zum Zitat Dunn MS, Kaempf J, de Klerk A et al (2011) Randomized trial comparing 3 approaches to the initial respiratory management of preterm neonates. Pediatrics 128:e1069–e1076 Dunn MS, Kaempf J, de Klerk A et al (2011) Randomized trial comparing 3 approaches to the initial respiratory management of preterm neonates. Pediatrics 128:e1069–e1076
722.
Zurück zum Zitat Hishikawa K, Goishi K, Fujiwara T, Kaneshige M, Ito Y, Sago H (2015) Pulmonary air leak associated with CPAP at term birth resuscitation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 100:F382–F387 Hishikawa K, Goishi K, Fujiwara T, Kaneshige M, Ito Y, Sago H (2015) Pulmonary air leak associated with CPAP at term birth resuscitation. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 100:F382–F387
723.
Zurück zum Zitat Poets CF, Rudiger M (2015) Mask CPAP during neonatal transition: too much of a good thing for some term infants? Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 100:F378–F379 Poets CF, Rudiger M (2015) Mask CPAP during neonatal transition: too much of a good thing for some term infants? Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 100:F378–F379
724.
Zurück zum Zitat Houri PK, Frank LR, Menegazzi JJ, Taylor R (1997) A randomized, controlled trial of two-thumb vs two-finger chest compression in a swine infant model of cardiac arrest [see comment]. Prehosp Emerg Care 1:65–67 Houri PK, Frank LR, Menegazzi JJ, Taylor R (1997) A randomized, controlled trial of two-thumb vs two-finger chest compression in a swine infant model of cardiac arrest [see comment]. Prehosp Emerg Care 1:65–67
725.
Zurück zum Zitat Dellimore K, Heunis S, Gohier F et al (2013) Development of a diagnostic glove for unobtrusive measurement of chest compression force and depth during neonatal CPR. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2013:350–353 Dellimore K, Heunis S, Gohier F et al (2013) Development of a diagnostic glove for unobtrusive measurement of chest compression force and depth during neonatal CPR. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2013:350–353
726.
Zurück zum Zitat Martin PS, Kemp AM, Theobald PS, Maguire SA, Jones MD (2013) Do chest compressions during simulated infant CPR comply with international recommendations? Arch Dis Child 98:576–581 Martin PS, Kemp AM, Theobald PS, Maguire SA, Jones MD (2013) Do chest compressions during simulated infant CPR comply with international recommendations? Arch Dis Child 98:576–581
727.
Zurück zum Zitat Martin P, Theobald P, Kemp A, Maguire S, Maconochie I, Jones M (2013) Real-time feedback can improve infant manikin cardiopulmonary resuscitation by up to 79 % – a randomised controlled trial. Resuscitation 84:1125–1130 Martin P, Theobald P, Kemp A, Maguire S, Maconochie I, Jones M (2013) Real-time feedback can improve infant manikin cardiopulmonary resuscitation by up to 79 % – a randomised controlled trial. Resuscitation 84:1125–1130
728.
Zurück zum Zitat Park J, Yoon C, Lee JC et al (2014) Manikin-integrated digital measuring system for assessment of infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques. IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 18:1659–1667 Park J, Yoon C, Lee JC et al (2014) Manikin-integrated digital measuring system for assessment of infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques. IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 18:1659–1667
729.
Zurück zum Zitat Saini SS, Gupta N, Kumar P, Bhalla AK, Kaur H (2012) A comparison of two-fingers technique and two-thumbs encircling hands technique of chest compression in neonates. J Perinatol 32:690–694 Saini SS, Gupta N, Kumar P, Bhalla AK, Kaur H (2012) A comparison of two-fingers technique and two-thumbs encircling hands technique of chest compression in neonates. J Perinatol 32:690–694
730.
Zurück zum Zitat You Y (2009) Optimum location for chest compressions during two-rescuer infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 80:1378–1381 You Y (2009) Optimum location for chest compressions during two-rescuer infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 80:1378–1381
731.
Zurück zum Zitat Christman C, Hemway RJ, Wyckoff MH, Perlman JM (2011) The two-thumb is superior to the two-finger method for administering chest compressions in a manikin model of neonatal resuscitation. Arch Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 96:F99–F101 Christman C, Hemway RJ, Wyckoff MH, Perlman JM (2011) The two-thumb is superior to the two-finger method for administering chest compressions in a manikin model of neonatal resuscitation. Arch Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 96:F99–F101
732.
Zurück zum Zitat Meyer A, Nadkarni V, Pollock A et al (2010) Evaluation of the Neonatal Resuscitation Program’s recommended chest compression depth using computerized tomography imaging. Resuscitation 81:544–548 Meyer A, Nadkarni V, Pollock A et al (2010) Evaluation of the Neonatal Resuscitation Program’s recommended chest compression depth using computerized tomography imaging. Resuscitation 81:544–548
733.
Zurück zum Zitat Dannevig I, Solevag AL, Saugstad OD, Nakstad B (2012) Lung injury in asphyxiated newborn pigs resuscitated from cardiac arrest – the impact of supplementary oxygen, longer ventilation intervals and chest compressions at different compression-to-ventilation ratios. Open Respir Med J 6:89–96 Dannevig I, Solevag AL, Saugstad OD, Nakstad B (2012) Lung injury in asphyxiated newborn pigs resuscitated from cardiac arrest – the impact of supplementary oxygen, longer ventilation intervals and chest compressions at different compression-to-ventilation ratios. Open Respir Med J 6:89–96
734.
Zurück zum Zitat Dannevig I, Solevag AL, Sonerud T, Saugstad OD, Nakstad B (2013) Brain inflammation induced by severe asphyxia in newborn pigs and the impact of alternative resuscitation strategies on the newborn central nervous system. Pediatr Res 73:163–170 Dannevig I, Solevag AL, Sonerud T, Saugstad OD, Nakstad B (2013) Brain inflammation induced by severe asphyxia in newborn pigs and the impact of alternative resuscitation strategies on the newborn central nervous system. Pediatr Res 73:163–170
735.
Zurück zum Zitat Hemway RJ, Christman C, Perlman J (2013) The 3:1 is superior to a 15:2 ratio in a newborn manikin model in terms of quality of chest compressions and number of ventilations. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 98:F42–F45 Hemway RJ, Christman C, Perlman J (2013) The 3:1 is superior to a 15:2 ratio in a newborn manikin model in terms of quality of chest compressions and number of ventilations. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 98:F42–F45
736.
Zurück zum Zitat Solevag AL, Dannevig I, Wyckoff M, Saugstad OD, Nakstad B (2010) Extended series of cardiac compressions during CPR in a swine model of perinatal asphyxia. Resuscitation 81:1571–1576 Solevag AL, Dannevig I, Wyckoff M, Saugstad OD, Nakstad B (2010) Extended series of cardiac compressions during CPR in a swine model of perinatal asphyxia. Resuscitation 81:1571–1576
737.
Zurück zum Zitat Solevag AL, Dannevig I, Wyckoff M, Saugstad OD, Nakstad B (2011)Return of spontaneous circulation with a compression:ventilation ratio of 15:2 versus 3:1 in newborn pigs with cardiac arrest due to asphyxia. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 96:F417–F421 Solevag AL, Dannevig I, Wyckoff M, Saugstad OD, Nakstad B (2011)Return of spontaneous circulation with a compression:ventilation ratio of 15:2 versus 3:1 in newborn pigs with cardiac arrest due to asphyxia. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 96:F417–F421
738.
Zurück zum Zitat Solevag AL, Madland JM, Gjaerum E, Nakstad B (2012) Minute ventilation at different compression to ventilation ratios, different ventilation rates, and continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation in a newborn manikin. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 20:73 Solevag AL, Madland JM, Gjaerum E, Nakstad B (2012) Minute ventilation at different compression to ventilation ratios, different ventilation rates, and continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation in a newborn manikin. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 20:73
739.
Zurück zum Zitat Berkowitz ID, Chantarojanasiri T, Koehler RC et al (1989) Blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation with simultaneous compression and ventilation in infant pigs. Pediatr Res 26:558–564 Berkowitz ID, Chantarojanasiri T, Koehler RC et al (1989) Blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation with simultaneous compression and ventilation in infant pigs. Pediatr Res 26:558–564
740.
Zurück zum Zitat Wyckoff MH, Perlman JM, Laptook AR (2005) Use of volume expansion during delivery room resuscitation in near-term and term infants. Pediatrics 115:950–955 Wyckoff MH, Perlman JM, Laptook AR (2005) Use of volume expansion during delivery room resuscitation in near-term and term infants. Pediatrics 115:950–955
741.
Zurück zum Zitat Harrington DJ, Redman CW, Moulden M, Greenwood CE (2007) The long-term outcome in surviving infants with Apgar zero at 10 min: a systematic review of the literature and hospital-based cohort. Am J Obstet Gynecol 196:463 e1–5 Harrington DJ, Redman CW, Moulden M, Greenwood CE (2007) The long-term outcome in surviving infants with Apgar zero at 10 min: a systematic review of the literature and hospital-based cohort. Am J Obstet Gynecol 196:463 e1–5
742.
Zurück zum Zitat Kopelman LM, Irons TG, Kopelman AE (1988) Neonatologists judge the „Baby Doe“ regulations. N Engl J Med 318:677–683 Kopelman LM, Irons TG, Kopelman AE (1988) Neonatologists judge the „Baby Doe“ regulations. N Engl J Med 318:677–683
743.
Zurück zum Zitat Sanders MR, Donohue PK, Oberdorf MA, Rosenkrantz TS, Allen MC (1995) Perceptions of the limit of viability: neonatologists’ attitudes toward extremely preterm infants. J Perinatol 15:494–502 Sanders MR, Donohue PK, Oberdorf MA, Rosenkrantz TS, Allen MC (1995) Perceptions of the limit of viability: neonatologists’ attitudes toward extremely preterm infants. J Perinatol 15:494–502
744.
Zurück zum Zitat Costeloe KL, Hennessy EM, Haider S, Stacey F, Marlow N, Draper ES (2012) Short term outcomes after extreme preterm birth in England: comparison of two birth cohorts in 1995 and 2006 (the EPICure studies). BMJ 345:e7976 Costeloe KL, Hennessy EM, Haider S, Stacey F, Marlow N, Draper ES (2012) Short term outcomes after extreme preterm birth in England: comparison of two birth cohorts in 1995 and 2006 (the EPICure studies). BMJ 345:e7976
745.
Zurück zum Zitat Manktelow BN, Seaton SE, Field DJ, Draper ES (2013) Population-based estimates of in-unit survival for very preterm infants. Pediatrics 131:e425–e432 Manktelow BN, Seaton SE, Field DJ, Draper ES (2013) Population-based estimates of in-unit survival for very preterm infants. Pediatrics 131:e425–e432
746.
Zurück zum Zitat Marlow N, Bennett C, Draper ES, Hennessy EM, Morgan AS, Costeloe KL (2014) Perinatal outcomes for extremely preterm babies in relation to place of birth in England: the EPICure 2 study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 99:F181–F188 Marlow N, Bennett C, Draper ES, Hennessy EM, Morgan AS, Costeloe KL (2014) Perinatal outcomes for extremely preterm babies in relation to place of birth in England: the EPICure 2 study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 99:F181–F188
747.
Zurück zum Zitat Fulbrook P, Latour J, Albarran J et al (2007) The presence of family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: European federation of Critical Care Nursing associations, European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care and European Society of Cardiology Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions Joint Position Statement. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 6:255–258 Fulbrook P, Latour J, Albarran J et al (2007) The presence of family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: European federation of Critical Care Nursing associations, European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care and European Society of Cardiology Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions Joint Position Statement. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs 6:255–258
748.
Zurück zum Zitat Edwards AD, Brocklehurst P, Gunn AJ et al (2010) Neurological outcomes at 18 months of age after moderate hypothermia for perinatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy: synthesis and meta-analysis of trial data. BMJ 340:c363 Edwards AD, Brocklehurst P, Gunn AJ et al (2010) Neurological outcomes at 18 months of age after moderate hypothermia for perinatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy: synthesis and meta-analysis of trial data. BMJ 340:c363
749.
Zurück zum Zitat Azzopardi D, Strohm B, Marlow N et al (2014) Effects of hypothermia for perinatal asphyxia on childhood outcomes. N Engl J Med 371:140–149 Azzopardi D, Strohm B, Marlow N et al (2014) Effects of hypothermia for perinatal asphyxia on childhood outcomes. N Engl J Med 371:140–149
750.
Zurück zum Zitat Iliodromiti S, Mackay DF, Smith GC, Pell JP, Nelson SM (2014) Apgar score and the risk of cause-specific infant mortality: a population-based cohort study. Lancet 384:1749–1755 Iliodromiti S, Mackay DF, Smith GC, Pell JP, Nelson SM (2014) Apgar score and the risk of cause-specific infant mortality: a population-based cohort study. Lancet 384:1749–1755
751.
Zurück zum Zitat Rudiger M, Braun N, Aranda J et al (2015) Neonatal assessment in the delivery room – Trial to Evaluate a Specified Type of Apgar (TEST-Apgar). BMC Pediatr 15:18 Rudiger M, Braun N, Aranda J et al (2015) Neonatal assessment in the delivery room – Trial to Evaluate a Specified Type of Apgar (TEST-Apgar). BMC Pediatr 15:18
752.
Zurück zum Zitat Dalili H, Nili F, Sheikh M, Hardani AK, Shariat M, Nayeri F (2015) Comparison of the four proposed Apgar scoring systems in the assessment of birth asphyxia and adverse early neurologic outcomes. PloS One 10:e0122116 Dalili H, Nili F, Sheikh M, Hardani AK, Shariat M, Nayeri F (2015) Comparison of the four proposed Apgar scoring systems in the assessment of birth asphyxia and adverse early neurologic outcomes. PloS One 10:e0122116
753.
Zurück zum Zitat Thygesen K, Alpert JS, Jaffe AS et al (2012) Third universal definition of myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 60:1581–1598 Thygesen K, Alpert JS, Jaffe AS et al (2012) Third universal definition of myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 60:1581–1598
754.
Zurück zum Zitat Roffi M, Patrono C, Collet JP et al (2015) ESC Guidelines for the management 1–8 of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation: Task Force for the Management of Acute Coro- nary Syndromes in Patients Presenting without Persistent ST-Segment Elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. http://​dx.​doi.​org/​10.​1093/​eurheartj/​ehv320. Roffi M, Patrono C, Collet JP et al (2015) ESC Guidelines for the management 1–8 of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation: Task Force for the Management of Acute Coro- nary Syndromes in Patients Presenting without Persistent ST-Segment Elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J. http://​dx.​doi.​org/​10.​1093/​eurheartj/​ehv320.
755.
Zurück zum Zitat Henrikson CA, Howell EE, Bush DE et al (2003) Chest pain relief by nitroglycerin does not predict active coronary artery disease. Ann Intern Med 139:979–986 Henrikson CA, Howell EE, Bush DE et al (2003) Chest pain relief by nitroglycerin does not predict active coronary artery disease. Ann Intern Med 139:979–986
756.
Zurück zum Zitat American College of Emergency P, Society for Cardiovascular A, Interventions et al (2013) 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 61:e78–e140 American College of Emergency P, Society for Cardiovascular A, Interventions et al (2013) 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 61:e78–e140
757.
Zurück zum Zitat Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG et al (2014) 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 130:2354–2394 Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG et al (2014) 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 130:2354–2394
758.
Zurück zum Zitat Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG et al (2014) 2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients with Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 64:e139–e228 Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG et al (2014) 2014 AHA/ACC Guideline for the Management of Patients with Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 64:e139–e228
759.
Zurück zum Zitat Canto JG, Rogers WJ, Bowlby LJ, French WJ, Pearce DJ, Weaver WD (1997) The prehospital electrocardiogram in acute myocardial infarction: is its full potential being realized? National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 2 Investigators. J Am Coll Cardiol 29:498–505 Canto JG, Rogers WJ, Bowlby LJ, French WJ, Pearce DJ, Weaver WD (1997) The prehospital electrocardiogram in acute myocardial infarction: is its full potential being realized? National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 2 Investigators. J Am Coll Cardiol 29:498–505
760.
Zurück zum Zitat Terkelsen CJ, Lassen JF, Norgaard BL et al (2005) Reduction of treatment delay in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: impact of pre-hospital diagnosis and direct referral to primary percutanous coronary intervention. Eur Heart J 26:770–777 Terkelsen CJ, Lassen JF, Norgaard BL et al (2005) Reduction of treatment delay in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: impact of pre-hospital diagnosis and direct referral to primary percutanous coronary intervention. Eur Heart J 26:770–777
761.
Zurück zum Zitat Carstensen S, Nelson GC, Hansen PS et al (2007) Field triage to primary angioplasty combined with emergency department bypass reduces treatment delays and is associated with improved outcome. Eur Heart J 28:2313–2319 Carstensen S, Nelson GC, Hansen PS et al (2007) Field triage to primary angioplasty combined with emergency department bypass reduces treatment delays and is associated with improved outcome. Eur Heart J 28:2313–2319
762.
Zurück zum Zitat Brown JP, Mahmud E, Dunford JV, Ben-Yehuda O (2008) Effect of prehospital 12-lead electrocardiogram on activation of the cardiac catheterization laboratory and door-to-balloon time in ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 101:158–161 Brown JP, Mahmud E, Dunford JV, Ben-Yehuda O (2008) Effect of prehospital 12-lead electrocardiogram on activation of the cardiac catheterization laboratory and door-to-balloon time in ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 101:158–161
763.
Zurück zum Zitat Martinoni A, De Servi S, Boschetti E et al (2011) Importance and limits of pre-hospital electrocardiogram in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary angioplasty. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 18:526–532 Martinoni A, De Servi S, Boschetti E et al (2011) Importance and limits of pre-hospital electrocardiogram in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary angioplasty. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 18:526–532
764.
Zurück zum Zitat Sorensen JT, Terkelsen CJ, Norgaard BL et al (2011) Urban and rural implementation of pre-hospital diagnosis and direct referral for primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 32:430–436 Sorensen JT, Terkelsen CJ, Norgaard BL et al (2011) Urban and rural implementation of pre-hospital diagnosis and direct referral for primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 32:430–436
765.
Zurück zum Zitat Chan AW, Kornder J, Elliott H et al (2012) Improved survival associated with pre-hospital triage strategy in a large regional ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction program. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 5:1239–1246 Chan AW, Kornder J, Elliott H et al (2012) Improved survival associated with pre-hospital triage strategy in a large regional ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction program. JACC Cardiovasc Interv 5:1239–1246
766.
Zurück zum Zitat Quinn T, Johnsen S, Gale CP et al (2014) Effects of prehospital 12-lead ECG on processes of care and mortality in acute coronary syndrome: a linked cohort study from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project. Heart 100:944–950 Quinn T, Johnsen S, Gale CP et al (2014) Effects of prehospital 12-lead ECG on processes of care and mortality in acute coronary syndrome: a linked cohort study from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project. Heart 100:944–950
767.
Zurück zum Zitat Ong ME, Wong AS, Seet CM et al (2013) Nationwide improvement of door-to-balloon times in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction requiring primary percutaneous coronary intervention with out-of-hospital 12-lead ECG recording and transmission. Ann Emerg Med 61:339–347 Ong ME, Wong AS, Seet CM et al (2013) Nationwide improvement of door-to-balloon times in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction requiring primary percutaneous coronary intervention with out-of-hospital 12-lead ECG recording and transmission. Ann Emerg Med 61:339–347
768.
Zurück zum Zitat Swor R, Hegerberg S, McHugh-McNally A, Goldstein M, McEachin CC (2006) Prehospital 12-lead ECG: efficacy or effectiveness? Prehosp Emerg Care 10:374–377 Swor R, Hegerberg S, McHugh-McNally A, Goldstein M, McEachin CC (2006) Prehospital 12-lead ECG: efficacy or effectiveness? Prehosp Emerg Care 10:374–377
769.
Zurück zum Zitat Masoudi FA, Magid DJ, Vinson DR et al (2006) Implications of the failure to identify high-risk electrocardiogram findings for the quality of care of patients with acute myocardial infarction: results of the Emergency Department Quality in Myocardial Infarction (EDQMI) study. Circulation 114:1565–1571 Masoudi FA, Magid DJ, Vinson DR et al (2006) Implications of the failure to identify high-risk electrocardiogram findings for the quality of care of patients with acute myocardial infarction: results of the Emergency Department Quality in Myocardial Infarction (EDQMI) study. Circulation 114:1565–1571
770.
Zurück zum Zitat Kudenchuk PJ, Ho MT, Weaver WD et al (1991) Accuracy of computer-interpreted electrocardiography in selecting patients for thrombolytic therapy. MITI Project Investigators. J Am Coll Cardiol 17:1486–1491 Kudenchuk PJ, Ho MT, Weaver WD et al (1991) Accuracy of computer-interpreted electrocardiography in selecting patients for thrombolytic therapy. MITI Project Investigators. J Am Coll Cardiol 17:1486–1491
771.
Zurück zum Zitat Dhruva VN, Abdelhadi SI, Anis A et al (2007) ST-Segment Analysis Using Wireless Technology in Acute Myocardial Infarction (STAT-MI) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 50:509–513 Dhruva VN, Abdelhadi SI, Anis A et al (2007) ST-Segment Analysis Using Wireless Technology in Acute Myocardial Infarction (STAT-MI) trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 50:509–513
772.
Zurück zum Zitat Bhalla MC, Mencl F, Gist MA, Wilber S, Zalewski J (2013) Prehospital electrocardiographic computer identification of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Prehosp Emerg Care 17:211–216 Bhalla MC, Mencl F, Gist MA, Wilber S, Zalewski J (2013) Prehospital electrocardiographic computer identification of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Prehosp Emerg Care 17:211–216
773.
Zurück zum Zitat Clark EN, Sejersten M, Clemmensen P, Macfarlane PW (2010) Automated electrocardiogram interpretation programs versus cardiologists’ triage decision making based on teletransmitted data in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Am J Cardiol 106:1696–1702 Clark EN, Sejersten M, Clemmensen P, Macfarlane PW (2010) Automated electrocardiogram interpretation programs versus cardiologists’ triage decision making based on teletransmitted data in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Am J Cardiol 106:1696–1702
774.
Zurück zum Zitat de Champlain F, Boothroyd LJ, Vadeboncoeur A et al (2014) Computerized interpretation of the prehospital electrocardiogram: predictive value for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and impact on on-scene time. CJEM 16:94–105 de Champlain F, Boothroyd LJ, Vadeboncoeur A et al (2014) Computerized interpretation of the prehospital electrocardiogram: predictive value for ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and impact on on-scene time. CJEM 16:94–105
775.
Zurück zum Zitat Squire BT, Tamayo-Sarver JH, Rashi P, Koenig W, Niemann JT (2014) Effect of prehospital cardiac catheterization lab activation on door-to-balloon time, mortality, and false-positive activation. Prehosp Emerg Care 18:1–8 Squire BT, Tamayo-Sarver JH, Rashi P, Koenig W, Niemann JT (2014) Effect of prehospital cardiac catheterization lab activation on door-to-balloon time, mortality, and false-positive activation. Prehosp Emerg Care 18:1–8
776.
Zurück zum Zitat Youngquist ST, Shah AP, Niemann JT, Kaji AH, French WJ (2008) A comparison of door-to-balloon times and false-positive activations between emergency department and out-of-hospital activation of the coronary catheterization team. Acad Emerg Med 15:784–787 Youngquist ST, Shah AP, Niemann JT, Kaji AH, French WJ (2008) A comparison of door-to-balloon times and false-positive activations between emergency department and out-of-hospital activation of the coronary catheterization team. Acad Emerg Med 15:784–787
777.
Zurück zum Zitat van’t Hof AW, Rasoul S, van de Wetering H et al (2006) Feasibility and benefit of prehospital diagnosis, triage, and therapy by paramedics only in patients who are candidates for primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 151:1255 e1–e5 van’t Hof AW, Rasoul S, van de Wetering H et al (2006) Feasibility and benefit of prehospital diagnosis, triage, and therapy by paramedics only in patients who are candidates for primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 151:1255 e1–e5
778.
Zurück zum Zitat Keller T, Zeller T, Peetz D et al (2009) Sensitive troponin I assay in early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 361:868–877 Keller T, Zeller T, Peetz D et al (2009) Sensitive troponin I assay in early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 361:868–877
779.
Zurück zum Zitat Goldstein JA, Gallagher MJ, O’Neill WW, Ross MA, O’Neil BJ, Raff GL (2007) A randomized controlled trial of multi-slice coronary computed tomography for evaluation of acute chest pain. J Am Coll Cardiol 49:863–871 Goldstein JA, Gallagher MJ, O’Neill WW, Ross MA, O’Neil BJ, Raff GL (2007) A randomized controlled trial of multi-slice coronary computed tomography for evaluation of acute chest pain. J Am Coll Cardiol 49:863–871
780.
Zurück zum Zitat Forberg JL, Hilmersson CE, Carlsson M et al (2009) Negative predictive value and potential cost savings of acute nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging in low risk patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome: a prospective single blinded study. BMC Emerg Med 9:12 Forberg JL, Hilmersson CE, Carlsson M et al (2009) Negative predictive value and potential cost savings of acute nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging in low risk patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome: a prospective single blinded study. BMC Emerg Med 9:12
781.
Zurück zum Zitat Nucifora G, Badano LP, Sarraf-Zadegan N et al (2007) Comparison of early dobutamine stress echocardiography and exercise electrocardiographic testing for management of patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain. Am J Cardiol 100:1068–1073 Nucifora G, Badano LP, Sarraf-Zadegan N et al (2007) Comparison of early dobutamine stress echocardiography and exercise electrocardiographic testing for management of patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain. Am J Cardiol 100:1068–1073
782.
Zurück zum Zitat Wei K (2010) Utility contrast echocardiography in the emergency department. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 3:197–203 Wei K (2010) Utility contrast echocardiography in the emergency department. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 3:197–203
783.
Zurück zum Zitat Gaibazzi N, Squeri A, Reverberi C et al (2011) Contrast stress-echocardiography predicts cardiac events in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome but nondiagnostic electrocardiogram and normal 12-hour troponin. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 24:1333–1341 Gaibazzi N, Squeri A, Reverberi C et al (2011) Contrast stress-echocardiography predicts cardiac events in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome but nondiagnostic electrocardiogram and normal 12-hour troponin. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 24:1333–1341
784.
Zurück zum Zitat Douglas PS, Khandheria B, Stainback RF et al (2007) ACCF/ASE/ACEP/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR 2007 appropriateness criteria for transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Quality Strategic Directions Committee Appropriateness Criteria Working Group, American Society of Echocardiography, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance endorsed by the American College of Chest Physicians and the Society of Critical Care Medicine. J Am Coll Cardiol 50:187–204 Douglas PS, Khandheria B, Stainback RF et al (2007) ACCF/ASE/ACEP/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/SCMR 2007 appropriateness criteria for transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Quality Strategic Directions Committee Appropriateness Criteria Working Group, American Society of Echocardiography, American College of Emergency Physicians, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance endorsed by the American College of Chest Physicians and the Society of Critical Care Medicine. J Am Coll Cardiol 50:187–204
785.
Zurück zum Zitat Hamm CW, Bassand JP, Agewall S et al (2011) ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation: the Task Force for the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 32:2999–3054 Hamm CW, Bassand JP, Agewall S et al (2011) ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation: the Task Force for the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 32:2999–3054
786.
Zurück zum Zitat Samad Z, Hakeem A, Mahmood SS et al (2012) A meta-analysis and systematic review of computed tomography angiography as a diagnostic triage tool for patients with chest pain presenting to the emergency department. J Nucl Cardiol 19:364–376 Samad Z, Hakeem A, Mahmood SS et al (2012) A meta-analysis and systematic review of computed tomography angiography as a diagnostic triage tool for patients with chest pain presenting to the emergency department. J Nucl Cardiol 19:364–376
787.
Zurück zum Zitat Kearney PM, Baigent C, Godwin J, Halls H, Emberson JR, Patrono C (2006) Do selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of atherothrombosis? Meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 332:1302–1308 Kearney PM, Baigent C, Godwin J, Halls H, Emberson JR, Patrono C (2006) Do selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of atherothrombosis? Meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 332:1302–1308
788.
Zurück zum Zitat Rawles JM, Kenmure AC (1976) Controlled trial of oxygen in uncomplicated myocardial infarction. Br Med J 1:1121–1123 Rawles JM, Kenmure AC (1976) Controlled trial of oxygen in uncomplicated myocardial infarction. Br Med J 1:1121–1123
789.
Zurück zum Zitat Wijesinghe M, Perrin K, Ranchord A, Simmonds M, Weatherall M, Beasley R (2009) Routine use of oxygen in the treatment of myocardial infarction: systematic review. Heart 95:198–202 Wijesinghe M, Perrin K, Ranchord A, Simmonds M, Weatherall M, Beasley R (2009) Routine use of oxygen in the treatment of myocardial infarction: systematic review. Heart 95:198–202
790.
Zurück zum Zitat Cabello JB, Burls A, Emparanza JI, Bayliss S, Quinn T (2013) Oxygen therapy for acute myocardial infarction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8:CD007160 Cabello JB, Burls A, Emparanza JI, Bayliss S, Quinn T (2013) Oxygen therapy for acute myocardial infarction. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8:CD007160
791.
Zurück zum Zitat O’Gara PT, Kushner FG, Ascheim DD et al (2013) ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 127:e362–e425 O’Gara PT, Kushner FG, Ascheim DD et al (2013) ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation 127:e362–e425
792.
Zurück zum Zitat Mega JL, Braunwald E, Wiviott SD et al (2012) Rivaroxaban in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. N Engl J Med 366:9–19 Mega JL, Braunwald E, Wiviott SD et al (2012) Rivaroxaban in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome. N Engl J Med 366:9–19
793.
Zurück zum Zitat Keeley EC, Boura JA, Grines CL (2003) Primary angioplasty versus intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a quantitative review of 23 randomised trials. Lancet 361:13–20 Keeley EC, Boura JA, Grines CL (2003) Primary angioplasty versus intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a quantitative review of 23 randomised trials. Lancet 361:13–20
794.
Zurück zum Zitat Pinto DS, Kirtane AJ, Nallamothu BK et al (2006) Hospital delays in reperfusion for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: implications when selecting a reperfusion strategy. Circulation 114:2019–2025 Pinto DS, Kirtane AJ, Nallamothu BK et al (2006) Hospital delays in reperfusion for ST-elevation myocardial infarction: implications when selecting a reperfusion strategy. Circulation 114:2019–2025
795.
Zurück zum Zitat May MR L, So DY, Dionne R et al (2008) A citywide protocol for primary PCI in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 358:231–240 May MR L, So DY, Dionne R et al (2008) A citywide protocol for primary PCI in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 358:231–240
796.
Zurück zum Zitat Bradley EH, Herrin J, Wang Y et al (2006) Strategies for reducing the door-to-balloon time in acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 355:2308–2320 Bradley EH, Herrin J, Wang Y et al (2006) Strategies for reducing the door-to-balloon time in acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 355:2308–2320
797.
Zurück zum Zitat Nikolaou N, Welsford M, Beygui F et al (2015) Part 5: acute coronary syndromes: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation Nikolaou N, Welsford M, Beygui F et al (2015) Part 5: acute coronary syndromes: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation
798.
Zurück zum Zitat Bonnefoy E, Lapostolle F, Leizorovicz A et al (2002) Primary angioplasty versus prehospital fibrinolysis in acute myocardial infarction: a randomised study. Lancet 360:825–829 Bonnefoy E, Lapostolle F, Leizorovicz A et al (2002) Primary angioplasty versus prehospital fibrinolysis in acute myocardial infarction: a randomised study. Lancet 360:825–829
799.
Zurück zum Zitat Armstrong PW (2006) A comparison of pharmacologic therapy with/without timely coronary intervention vs. primary percutaneous intervention early after ST-elevation myocardial infarction: the WEST (Which Early ST-elevation myocardial infarction Therapy) study. Eur Heart J 27:1530–1538 Armstrong PW (2006) A comparison of pharmacologic therapy with/without timely coronary intervention vs. primary percutaneous intervention early after ST-elevation myocardial infarction: the WEST (Which Early ST-elevation myocardial infarction Therapy) study. Eur Heart J 27:1530–1538
800.
Zurück zum Zitat Thiele H, Eitel I, Meinberg C et al (2011) Randomized comparison of pre-hospital-initiated facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention versus primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction very early after symptom onset: the LIPSIA-STEMI trial (Leipzig immediate prehospital facilitated angioplasty in ST-segment myocardial infarction). JACC Cardiovasc Interv 4:605–614 Thiele H, Eitel I, Meinberg C et al (2011) Randomized comparison of pre-hospital-initiated facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention versus primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction very early after symptom onset: the LIPSIA-STEMI trial (Leipzig immediate prehospital facilitated angioplasty in ST-segment myocardial infarction). JACC Cardiovasc Interv 4:605–614
801.
Zurück zum Zitat Armstrong PW, Gershlick AH, Goldstein P et al (2013) Fibrinolysis or primary PCI in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 368:1379–1387 Armstrong PW, Gershlick AH, Goldstein P et al (2013) Fibrinolysis or primary PCI in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 368:1379–1387
802.
Zurück zum Zitat Van de Werf F, Barron HV, Armstrong PW et al (2001) Incidence and predictors of bleeding events after fibrinolytic therapy with fibrin-specific agents: a comparison of TNK-tPA and rt-PA. Eur Heart J 22:2253–2261 Van de Werf F, Barron HV, Armstrong PW et al (2001) Incidence and predictors of bleeding events after fibrinolytic therapy with fibrin-specific agents: a comparison of TNK-tPA and rt-PA. Eur Heart J 22:2253–2261
803.
Zurück zum Zitat Ellis SG, Tendera M, de Belder MA et al (2008) Facilitated PCI in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 358:2205–2217 Ellis SG, Tendera M, de Belder MA et al (2008) Facilitated PCI in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 358:2205–2217
804.
Zurück zum Zitat Itoh T, Fukami K, Suzuki T et al (2010) Comparison of long-term prognostic evaluation between pre-intervention thrombolysis and primary coronary intervention: a prospective randomized trial: five-year results of the IMPORTANT study. Circ J 74:1625–1634 Itoh T, Fukami K, Suzuki T et al (2010) Comparison of long-term prognostic evaluation between pre-intervention thrombolysis and primary coronary intervention: a prospective randomized trial: five-year results of the IMPORTANT study. Circ J 74:1625–1634
805.
Zurück zum Zitat Kurihara H, Matsumoto S, Tamura R et al (2004) Clinical outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention with antecedent mutant t-PA administration for acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 147:E14 Kurihara H, Matsumoto S, Tamura R et al (2004) Clinical outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention with antecedent mutant t-PA administration for acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 147:E14
806.
Zurück zum Zitat Thiele H, Scholz M, Engelmann L et al (2006) ST-segment recovery and prognosis in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction reperfused by prehospital combination fibrinolysis, prehospital initiated facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention, or primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Am J Cardiol 98:1132–1139 Thiele H, Scholz M, Engelmann L et al (2006) ST-segment recovery and prognosis in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction reperfused by prehospital combination fibrinolysis, prehospital initiated facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention, or primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Am J Cardiol 98:1132–1139
807.
Zurück zum Zitat Gershlick AH, Stephens-Lloyd A, Hughes S et al (2005) Rescue angioplasty after failed thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 353:2758–2768 Gershlick AH, Stephens-Lloyd A, Hughes S et al (2005) Rescue angioplasty after failed thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 353:2758–2768
808.
Zurück zum Zitat Thiele H, Zeymer U, Neumann FJ et al (2012) Intraaortic balloon support for myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock. N Engl J Med 367:1287–1296 Thiele H, Zeymer U, Neumann FJ et al (2012) Intraaortic balloon support for myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock. N Engl J Med 367:1287–1296
809.
Zurück zum Zitat Hochman JS, Sleeper LA, Webb JG et al (2006) Early revascularization and long-term survival in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. JAMA 295:2511–2515 Hochman JS, Sleeper LA, Webb JG et al (2006) Early revascularization and long-term survival in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction. JAMA 295:2511–2515
810.
Zurück zum Zitat Rab T, Kern KB, Tamis-Holland JE et al (2015) Cardiac Arrest: a Treatment Algorithm for Emergent Invasive Cardiac Procedures in the Resuscitated Comatose Patient. J Am Coll Cardiol 66:62–73 Rab T, Kern KB, Tamis-Holland JE et al (2015) Cardiac Arrest: a Treatment Algorithm for Emergent Invasive Cardiac Procedures in the Resuscitated Comatose Patient. J Am Coll Cardiol 66:62–73
811.
Zurück zum Zitat Zideman D, Singletary EM, De Buck E et al (2015) Part 9: First aid: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation Zideman D, Singletary EM, De Buck E et al (2015) Part 9: First aid: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation
812.
Zurück zum Zitat Adnet F, Borron SW, Finot MA, Minadeo J, Baud FJ (1999) Relation of body position at the time of discovery with suspected aspiration pneumonia in poisoned comatose patients. Crit Care Med 27:745–748 Adnet F, Borron SW, Finot MA, Minadeo J, Baud FJ (1999) Relation of body position at the time of discovery with suspected aspiration pneumonia in poisoned comatose patients. Crit Care Med 27:745–748
813.
Zurück zum Zitat Rathgeber J, Panzer W, Gunther U et al (1996) Influence of different types of recovery positions on perfusion indices of the forearm. Resuscitation 32:13–17 Rathgeber J, Panzer W, Gunther U et al (1996) Influence of different types of recovery positions on perfusion indices of the forearm. Resuscitation 32:13–17
814.
Zurück zum Zitat Del Rossi G, Dubose D, Scott N et al (2014) Motion produced in the unstable cervical spine by the HAINES and lateral recovery positions. Prehosp Emerg Care 18:539–543 Del Rossi G, Dubose D, Scott N et al (2014) Motion produced in the unstable cervical spine by the HAINES and lateral recovery positions. Prehosp Emerg Care 18:539–543
815.
Zurück zum Zitat Wong DH, O’Connor D, Tremper KK, Zaccari J, Thompson P, Hill D (1989) Changes in cardiac output after acute blood loss and position change in man. Crit Care Med 17:979–983 Wong DH, O’Connor D, Tremper KK, Zaccari J, Thompson P, Hill D (1989) Changes in cardiac output after acute blood loss and position change in man. Crit Care Med 17:979–983
816.
Zurück zum Zitat Jabot J, Teboul JL, Richard C, Monnet X (2009) Passive leg raising for predicting fluid responsiveness: importance of the postural change. Intensive Care Med 35:85–90 Jabot J, Teboul JL, Richard C, Monnet X (2009) Passive leg raising for predicting fluid responsiveness: importance of the postural change. Intensive Care Med 35:85–90
817.
Zurück zum Zitat Gaffney FA, Bastian BC, Thal ER, Atkins JM, Blomqvist CG (1982) Passive leg raising does not produce a significant or sustained autotransfusion effect. J Trauma 22:190–193 Gaffney FA, Bastian BC, Thal ER, Atkins JM, Blomqvist CG (1982) Passive leg raising does not produce a significant or sustained autotransfusion effect. J Trauma 22:190–193
818.
Zurück zum Zitat Bruera E, de Stoutz N, Velasco-Leiva A, Schoeller T, Hanson J (1993) Effects of oxygen on dyspnoea in hypoxaemic terminal-cancer patients. Lancet 342:13–14 Bruera E, de Stoutz N, Velasco-Leiva A, Schoeller T, Hanson J (1993) Effects of oxygen on dyspnoea in hypoxaemic terminal-cancer patients. Lancet 342:13–14
819.
Zurück zum Zitat Philip J, Gold M, Milner A, Iulio J D, Miller B, Spruyt O (2006) A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial of the effect of oxygen on dyspnea in patients with advanced cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage 32:541–550 Philip J, Gold M, Milner A, Iulio J D, Miller B, Spruyt O (2006) A randomized, double-blind, crossover trial of the effect of oxygen on dyspnea in patients with advanced cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage 32:541–550
820.
Zurück zum Zitat Longphre JM, Denoble PJ, Moon RE, Vann RD, Freiberger JJ (2007) First aid normobaric oxygen for the treatment of recreational diving injuries. Undersea Hyperb Med 34:43–49 Longphre JM, Denoble PJ, Moon RE, Vann RD, Freiberger JJ (2007) First aid normobaric oxygen for the treatment of recreational diving injuries. Undersea Hyperb Med 34:43–49
821.
Zurück zum Zitat Wijesinghe M, Perrin K, Healy B et al (2011) Pre-hospital oxygen therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Intern Med J 41:618–622 Wijesinghe M, Perrin K, Healy B et al (2011) Pre-hospital oxygen therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Intern Med J 41:618–622
822.
Zurück zum Zitat Bentur L, Canny GJ, Shields MD et al (1992) Controlled trial of nebulized albuterol in children younger than 2 years of age with acute asthma. Pediatrics 89:133–137 Bentur L, Canny GJ, Shields MD et al (1992) Controlled trial of nebulized albuterol in children younger than 2 years of age with acute asthma. Pediatrics 89:133–137
823.
Zurück zum Zitat van der Woude HJ, Postma DS, Politiek MJ, Winter TH, Aalbers R (2004) Relief of dyspnoea by beta2-agonists after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Respir Med 98:816–820 van der Woude HJ, Postma DS, Politiek MJ, Winter TH, Aalbers R (2004) Relief of dyspnoea by beta2-agonists after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. Respir Med 98:816–820
824.
Zurück zum Zitat Lavorini F (2013) The challenge of delivering therapeutic aerosols to asthma patients. ISRN. Allergy 2013:102418 Lavorini F (2013) The challenge of delivering therapeutic aerosols to asthma patients. ISRN. Allergy 2013:102418
825.
Zurück zum Zitat Lavorini F (2014) Inhaled drug delivery in the hands of the patient. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 27:414–418 Lavorini F (2014) Inhaled drug delivery in the hands of the patient. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv 27:414–418
826.
Zurück zum Zitat Conner JB, Buck PO (2013) Improving asthma management: the case for mandatory inclusion of dose counters on all rescue bronchodilators. J Asthma 50:658–663 Conner JB, Buck PO (2013) Improving asthma management: the case for mandatory inclusion of dose counters on all rescue bronchodilators. J Asthma 50:658–663
827.
Zurück zum Zitat Cheung RT (2001) Hong Kong patients’ knowledge of stroke does not influence time-to-hospital presentation. J Clin Neurosci 8:311–314 Cheung RT (2001) Hong Kong patients’ knowledge of stroke does not influence time-to-hospital presentation. J Clin Neurosci 8:311–314
828.
Zurück zum Zitat Fonarow GC, Smith EE, Saver JL et al (2011) Improving door-to-needle times in acute ischemic stroke: the design and rationale for the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association’s Target: stroke initiative. Stroke 42:2983–2989 Fonarow GC, Smith EE, Saver JL et al (2011) Improving door-to-needle times in acute ischemic stroke: the design and rationale for the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association’s Target: stroke initiative. Stroke 42:2983–2989
829.
Zurück zum Zitat Lin CB, Peterson ED, Smith EE et al (2012) Emergency medical service hospital prenotification is associated with improved evaluation and treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 5:514–522 Lin CB, Peterson ED, Smith EE et al (2012) Emergency medical service hospital prenotification is associated with improved evaluation and treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 5:514–522
830.
Zurück zum Zitat Nazliel B, Starkman S, Liebeskind DS et al (2008) A brief prehospital stroke severity scale identifies ischemic stroke patients harboring persisting large arterial occlusions. Stroke 39:2264–2267 Nazliel B, Starkman S, Liebeskind DS et al (2008) A brief prehospital stroke severity scale identifies ischemic stroke patients harboring persisting large arterial occlusions. Stroke 39:2264–2267
831.
Zurück zum Zitat Wojner-Alexandrov AW, Alexandrov AV, Rodriguez D, Persse D, Grotta JC (2005) Houston paramedic and emergency stroke treatment and outcomes study (HoPSTO). Stroke 36:1512–1518 Wojner-Alexandrov AW, Alexandrov AV, Rodriguez D, Persse D, Grotta JC (2005) Houston paramedic and emergency stroke treatment and outcomes study (HoPSTO). Stroke 36:1512–1518
832.
Zurück zum Zitat You JS, Chung SP, Chung HS et al (2013) Predictive value of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale for identifying thrombolytic candidates in acute ischemic stroke. Am J Emerg Med 31:1699–1702 You JS, Chung SP, Chung HS et al (2013) Predictive value of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale for identifying thrombolytic candidates in acute ischemic stroke. Am J Emerg Med 31:1699–1702
833.
Zurück zum Zitat O’Brien W, Crimmins D, Donaldson W et al (2012) FASTER (Face, Arm, Speech, Time, Emergency Response): experience of Central Coast Stroke Services implementation of a pre-hospital notification system for expedient management of acute stroke. J Clin Neurosci 19:241–245 O’Brien W, Crimmins D, Donaldson W et al (2012) FASTER (Face, Arm, Speech, Time, Emergency Response): experience of Central Coast Stroke Services implementation of a pre-hospital notification system for expedient management of acute stroke. J Clin Neurosci 19:241–245
834.
Zurück zum Zitat Barbash IM, Freimark D, Gottlieb S et al (2002) Outcome of myocardial infarction in patients treated with aspirin is enhanced by pre-hospital administration. Cardiology 98:141–147 Barbash IM, Freimark D, Gottlieb S et al (2002) Outcome of myocardial infarction in patients treated with aspirin is enhanced by pre-hospital administration. Cardiology 98:141–147
835.
Zurück zum Zitat Freimark D, Matetzky S, Leor J et al (2002) Timing of aspirin administration as a determinant of survival of patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis. Am J Cardiol 89:381–385 Freimark D, Matetzky S, Leor J et al (2002) Timing of aspirin administration as a determinant of survival of patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis. Am J Cardiol 89:381–385
836.
Zurück zum Zitat Quan D, LoVecchio F, Clark B, Gallagher JV 3rd (2004) Prehospital use of aspirin rarely is associated with adverse events. Prehosp Disaster Med 19:362–365 Quan D, LoVecchio F, Clark B, Gallagher JV 3rd (2004) Prehospital use of aspirin rarely is associated with adverse events. Prehosp Disaster Med 19:362–365
837.
Zurück zum Zitat Randomised trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both (1988) or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2. ISIS-2 (Second International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Lancet 2:349–360 Randomised trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both (1988) or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2. ISIS-2 (Second International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Lancet 2:349–360
838.
Zurück zum Zitat Verheugt FW, van der Laarse A, Funke-Kupper AJ, Sterkman LG, Galema TW, Roos JP (1990) Effects of early intervention with low-dose aspirin (100 mg) on infarct size, reinfarction and mortality in anterior wall acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 66:267–270 Verheugt FW, van der Laarse A, Funke-Kupper AJ, Sterkman LG, Galema TW, Roos JP (1990) Effects of early intervention with low-dose aspirin (100 mg) on infarct size, reinfarction and mortality in anterior wall acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 66:267–270
839.
Zurück zum Zitat Elwood PC, Williams WO (1979) A randomized controlled trial of aspirin in the prevention of early mortality in myocardial infarction. J R Coll Gen Pract 29:413–416 Elwood PC, Williams WO (1979) A randomized controlled trial of aspirin in the prevention of early mortality in myocardial infarction. J R Coll Gen Pract 29:413–416
840.
Zurück zum Zitat Frilling B, Schiele R, Gitt AK et al (2001) Characterization and clinical course of patients not receiving aspirin for acute myocardial infarction: results from the MITRA and MIR studies. Am Heart J 141:200–205 Frilling B, Schiele R, Gitt AK et al (2001) Characterization and clinical course of patients not receiving aspirin for acute myocardial infarction: results from the MITRA and MIR studies. Am Heart J 141:200–205
841.
Zurück zum Zitat Simons FE, Ardusso LR, Bilo MB et al (2011) World allergy organization guidelines for the assessment and management of anaphylaxis. World Allergy Organ J 4:13–37 Simons FE, Ardusso LR, Bilo MB et al (2011) World allergy organization guidelines for the assessment and management of anaphylaxis. World Allergy Organ J 4:13–37
842.
Zurück zum Zitat Chong LK, Morice AH, Yeo WW, Schleimer RP, Peachell PT (1995) Functional desensitization of beta agonist responses in human lung mast cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 13:540–546 Chong LK, Morice AH, Yeo WW, Schleimer RP, Peachell PT (1995) Functional desensitization of beta agonist responses in human lung mast cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 13:540–546
843.
Zurück zum Zitat Korenblat P, Lundie MJ, Dankner RE, Day JH (1999) A retrospective study of epinephrine administration for anaphylaxis: how many doses are needed? Allergy Asthma Proc 20:383–386 Korenblat P, Lundie MJ, Dankner RE, Day JH (1999) A retrospective study of epinephrine administration for anaphylaxis: how many doses are needed? Allergy Asthma Proc 20:383–386
844.
Zurück zum Zitat Rudders SA, Banerji A, Corel B, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr (2010) Multicenter study of repeat epinephrine treatments for food-related anaphylaxis. Pediatrics 125:e711–e718 Rudders SA, Banerji A, Corel B, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr (2010) Multicenter study of repeat epinephrine treatments for food-related anaphylaxis. Pediatrics 125:e711–e718
845.
Zurück zum Zitat Rudders SA, Banerji A, Katzman DP, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr (2010) Multiple epinephrine doses for stinging insect hypersensitivity reactions treated in the emergency department. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 105:85–93 Rudders SA, Banerji A, Katzman DP, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr (2010) Multiple epinephrine doses for stinging insect hypersensitivity reactions treated in the emergency department. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 105:85–93
846.
Zurück zum Zitat Inoue N, Yamamoto A (2013) Clinical evaluation of pediatric anaphylaxis and the necessity for multiple doses of epinephrine. Asia Pac. Allergy 3:106–114 Inoue N, Yamamoto A (2013) Clinical evaluation of pediatric anaphylaxis and the necessity for multiple doses of epinephrine. Asia Pac. Allergy 3:106–114
847.
Zurück zum Zitat Ellis BC, Brown SG (2013) Efficacy of intramuscular epinephrine for the treatment of severe anaphylaxis: a comparison of two ambulance services with different protocols. Ann Emerg Med 62(4):146 Ellis BC, Brown SG (2013) Efficacy of intramuscular epinephrine for the treatment of severe anaphylaxis: a comparison of two ambulance services with different protocols. Ann Emerg Med 62(4):146
848.
Zurück zum Zitat Oren E, Banerji A, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr (2007) Food-induced anaphylaxis and repeated epinephrine treatments. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 99:429–432 Oren E, Banerji A, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr (2007) Food-induced anaphylaxis and repeated epinephrine treatments. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 99:429–432
849.
Zurück zum Zitat Tsuang A, Menon N, Setia N, Geyman L, Nowak-Wegrzyn AH (2013) Multiple epinephrine doses in food-induced anaphylaxis in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 131(2):AB90 Tsuang A, Menon N, Setia N, Geyman L, Nowak-Wegrzyn AH (2013) Multiple epinephrine doses in food-induced anaphylaxis in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 131(2):AB90
850.
Zurück zum Zitat Banerji A, Rudders SA, Corel B, Garth AM, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr (2010) Repeat epinephrine treatments for food-related allergic reactions that present to the emergency department. Allergy Asthma Proc 31:308–316 Banerji A, Rudders SA, Corel B, Garth AM, Clark S, Camargo CA Jr (2010) Repeat epinephrine treatments for food-related allergic reactions that present to the emergency department. Allergy Asthma Proc 31:308–316
851.
Zurück zum Zitat Noimark L, Wales J, Du Toit G et al (2012) The use of adrenaline autoinjectors by children and teenagers. Clin Exp Allergy 42:284–292 Noimark L, Wales J, Du Toit G et al (2012) The use of adrenaline autoinjectors by children and teenagers. Clin Exp Allergy 42:284–292
852.
Zurück zum Zitat Jarvinen KM, Sicherer SH, Sampson HA, Nowak-Wegrzyn A (2008) Use of multiple doses of epinephrine in food-induced anaphylaxis in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 122:133–138 Jarvinen KM, Sicherer SH, Sampson HA, Nowak-Wegrzyn A (2008) Use of multiple doses of epinephrine in food-induced anaphylaxis in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 122:133–138
853.
Zurück zum Zitat Slama G, Traynard PY, Desplanque N et al (1990) The search for an optimized treatment of hypoglycemia. Carbohydrates in tablets, solutin, or gel for the correction of insulin reactions. Arch Intern Med 150:589–593 Slama G, Traynard PY, Desplanque N et al (1990) The search for an optimized treatment of hypoglycemia. Carbohydrates in tablets, solutin, or gel for the correction of insulin reactions. Arch Intern Med 150:589–593
854.
Zurück zum Zitat Husband AC, Crawford S, McCoy LA, Pacaud D (2010) The effectiveness of glucose, sucrose, and fructose in treating hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes 11:154–158 Husband AC, Crawford S, McCoy LA, Pacaud D (2010) The effectiveness of glucose, sucrose, and fructose in treating hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes 11:154–158
855.
Zurück zum Zitat McTavish L, Wiltshire E (2011) Effective treatment of hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Pediatr Diabetes 12:381–387 McTavish L, Wiltshire E (2011) Effective treatment of hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Pediatr Diabetes 12:381–387
856.
Zurück zum Zitat Osterberg KL, Pallardy SE, Johnson RJ, Horswill CA (2010) Carbohydrate exerts a mild influence on fluid retention following exercise-induced dehydration. J Appl Physiol 108:245–250 Osterberg KL, Pallardy SE, Johnson RJ, Horswill CA (2010) Carbohydrate exerts a mild influence on fluid retention following exercise-induced dehydration. J Appl Physiol 108:245–250
857.
Zurück zum Zitat Kalman DS, Feldman S, Krieger DR, Bloomer RJ (2012) Comparison of coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration and physical performance in exercise-trained men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 9:1 Kalman DS, Feldman S, Krieger DR, Bloomer RJ (2012) Comparison of coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration and physical performance in exercise-trained men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 9:1
858.
Zurück zum Zitat Chang CQ, Chen YB, Chen ZM, Zhang LT (2010) Effects of a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage on blood viscosity after dehydration in healthy adults. Chin Med J (Engl) 123:3220–3225 Chang CQ, Chen YB, Chen ZM, Zhang LT (2010) Effects of a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage on blood viscosity after dehydration in healthy adults. Chin Med J (Engl) 123:3220–3225
859.
Zurück zum Zitat Seifert J, Harmon J, DeClercq P (2006) Protein added to a sports drink improves fluid retention. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 16:420–429 Seifert J, Harmon J, DeClercq P (2006) Protein added to a sports drink improves fluid retention. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 16:420–429
860.
Zurück zum Zitat Wong SH, Chen Y (2011) Effect of a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage, lemon tea, or water on rehydration during short-term recovery from exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 21:300–310 Wong SH, Chen Y (2011) Effect of a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage, lemon tea, or water on rehydration during short-term recovery from exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 21:300–310
861.
Zurück zum Zitat Shirreffs SM, Watson P, Maughan RJ (2007) Milk as an effective post-exercise rehydration drink. Br J Nutr 98:173–180 Shirreffs SM, Watson P, Maughan RJ (2007) Milk as an effective post-exercise rehydration drink. Br J Nutr 98:173–180
862.
Zurück zum Zitat Gonzalez-Alonso J, Heaps CL, Coyle EF (1992) Rehydration after exercise with common beverages and water. Int J Sports Med 13:399–406 Gonzalez-Alonso J, Heaps CL, Coyle EF (1992) Rehydration after exercise with common beverages and water. Int J Sports Med 13:399–406
863.
Zurück zum Zitat Ismail I, Singh R, Sirisinghe RG (2007) Rehydration with sodium-enriched coconut water after exercise-induced dehydration. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 38:769–785 Ismail I, Singh R, Sirisinghe RG (2007) Rehydration with sodium-enriched coconut water after exercise-induced dehydration. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 38:769–785
864.
Zurück zum Zitat Saat M, Singh R, Sirisinghe RG, Nawawi M (2002) Rehydration after exercise with fresh young coconut water, carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage and plain water. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci 21:93–104 Saat M, Singh R, Sirisinghe RG, Nawawi M (2002) Rehydration after exercise with fresh young coconut water, carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage and plain water. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci 21:93–104
865.
Zurück zum Zitat Miccheli A, Marini F, Capuani G et al (2009) The influence of a sports drink on the postexercise metabolism of elite athletes as investigated by NMR-based metabolomics. J Am Coll Nutr 28:553–564 Miccheli A, Marini F, Capuani G et al (2009) The influence of a sports drink on the postexercise metabolism of elite athletes as investigated by NMR-based metabolomics. J Am Coll Nutr 28:553–564
866.
Zurück zum Zitat Kompa S, Redbrake C, Hilgers C, Wustemeyer H, Schrage N, Remky A (2005) Effect of different irrigating solutions on aqueous humour pH changes, intraocular pressure and histological findings after induced alkali burns. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 83:467–470 Kompa S, Redbrake C, Hilgers C, Wustemeyer H, Schrage N, Remky A (2005) Effect of different irrigating solutions on aqueous humour pH changes, intraocular pressure and histological findings after induced alkali burns. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 83:467–470
867.
Zurück zum Zitat King NA, Philpott SJ, Leary A (2008) A randomized controlled trial assessing the use of compression versus vasoconstriction in the treatment of femoral hematoma occurring after percutaneous coronary intervention. Heart Lung 37:205–210 King NA, Philpott SJ, Leary A (2008) A randomized controlled trial assessing the use of compression versus vasoconstriction in the treatment of femoral hematoma occurring after percutaneous coronary intervention. Heart Lung 37:205–210
868.
Zurück zum Zitat Levy AS, Marmar E (1993) The role of cold compression dressings in the postoperative treatment of total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res (297):174–178 Levy AS, Marmar E (1993) The role of cold compression dressings in the postoperative treatment of total knee arthroplasty. Clin Orthop Relat Res (297):174–178
869.
Zurück zum Zitat Kheirabadi BS, Edens JW, Terrazas IB et al (2009) Comparison of new hemostatic granules/powders with currently deployed hemostatic products in a lethal model of extremity arterial hemorrhage in swine. J Trauma 66:316–326 (discussion 27–8) Kheirabadi BS, Edens JW, Terrazas IB et al (2009) Comparison of new hemostatic granules/powders with currently deployed hemostatic products in a lethal model of extremity arterial hemorrhage in swine. J Trauma 66:316–326 (discussion 27–8)
870.
Zurück zum Zitat Ward KR, Tiba MH, Holbert WH et al (2007) Comparison of a new hemostatic agent to current combat hemostatic agents in a Swine model of lethal extremity arterial hemorrhage. J Trauma 63:276–283 (discussion 83–4) Ward KR, Tiba MH, Holbert WH et al (2007) Comparison of a new hemostatic agent to current combat hemostatic agents in a Swine model of lethal extremity arterial hemorrhage. J Trauma 63:276–283 (discussion 83–4)
871.
Zurück zum Zitat Carraway JW, Kent D, Young K, Cole A, Friedman R, Ward KR (2008) Comparison of a new mineral based hemostatic agent to a commercially available granular zeolite agent for hemostasis in a swine model of lethal extremity arterial hemorrhage. Resuscitation 78:230–235 Carraway JW, Kent D, Young K, Cole A, Friedman R, Ward KR (2008) Comparison of a new mineral based hemostatic agent to a commercially available granular zeolite agent for hemostasis in a swine model of lethal extremity arterial hemorrhage. Resuscitation 78:230–235
872.
Zurück zum Zitat Arnaud F, Parreno-Sadalan D, Tomori T et al (2009) Comparison of 10 hemostatic dressings in a groin transection model in swine. J Trauma 67:848–855 Arnaud F, Parreno-Sadalan D, Tomori T et al (2009) Comparison of 10 hemostatic dressings in a groin transection model in swine. J Trauma 67:848–855
873.
Zurück zum Zitat Kheirabadi BS, Acheson EM, Deguzman R et al (2005) Hemostatic efficacy of two advanced dressings in an aortic hemorrhage model in Swine. J Trauma 59:25–34 (discussion 34–35) Kheirabadi BS, Acheson EM, Deguzman R et al (2005) Hemostatic efficacy of two advanced dressings in an aortic hemorrhage model in Swine. J Trauma 59:25–34 (discussion 34–35)
874.
Zurück zum Zitat Brown MA, Daya MR, Worley JA (2009) Experience with chitosan dressings in a civilian EMS system. J Emerg Med 37:1–7 Brown MA, Daya MR, Worley JA (2009) Experience with chitosan dressings in a civilian EMS system. J Emerg Med 37:1–7
875.
Zurück zum Zitat Cox ED, Schreiber MA, McManus J, Wade CE, Holcomb JB (2009) New hemostatic agents in the combat setting. Transfusion 49(Suppl 5):248 S-55 S Cox ED, Schreiber MA, McManus J, Wade CE, Holcomb JB (2009) New hemostatic agents in the combat setting. Transfusion 49(Suppl 5):248 S-55 S
876.
Zurück zum Zitat Ran Y, Hadad E, Daher S et al (2010) QuikClot Combat Gauze use for hemorrhage control in military trauma: january 2009 Israel Defense Force experience in the Gaza Strip – a preliminary report of 14 cases. Prehosp Disaster Med 25:584–588 Ran Y, Hadad E, Daher S et al (2010) QuikClot Combat Gauze use for hemorrhage control in military trauma: january 2009 Israel Defense Force experience in the Gaza Strip – a preliminary report of 14 cases. Prehosp Disaster Med 25:584–588
877.
Zurück zum Zitat Wedmore I, McManus JG, Pusateri AE, Holcomb JB (2006) A special report on the chitosan-based hemostatic dressing: experience in current combat operations. J Trauma 60:655–658 Wedmore I, McManus JG, Pusateri AE, Holcomb JB (2006) A special report on the chitosan-based hemostatic dressing: experience in current combat operations. J Trauma 60:655–658
878.
Zurück zum Zitat Engels PT, Rezende-Neto JB, Mahroos M A, Scarpelini S, Rizoli SB, Tien HC (2011) The natural history of trauma-related coagulopathy: implications for treatment. J Trauma 71:448–455 Engels PT, Rezende-Neto JB, Mahroos M A, Scarpelini S, Rizoli SB, Tien HC (2011) The natural history of trauma-related coagulopathy: implications for treatment. J Trauma 71:448–455
879.
Zurück zum Zitat Sauaia A, Moore FA, Moore EE et al (1995) Epidemiology of trauma deaths: a reassessment. J Trauma 38:185–193 Sauaia A, Moore FA, Moore EE et al (1995) Epidemiology of trauma deaths: a reassessment. J Trauma 38:185–193
880.
Zurück zum Zitat Beekley AC, Sebesta JA, Blackbourne LH et al (2008) Prehospital tourniquet use in Operation Iraqi Freedom: effect on hemorrhage control and outcomes. J Trauma 64:S28–S37 discussion S Beekley AC, Sebesta JA, Blackbourne LH et al (2008) Prehospital tourniquet use in Operation Iraqi Freedom: effect on hemorrhage control and outcomes. J Trauma 64:S28–S37 discussion S
881.
Zurück zum Zitat Lakstein D, Blumenfeld A, Sokolov T et al (2003) Tourniquets for hemorrhage control on the battlefield: a 4-year accumulated experience. J Trauma 54:S221–S225 Lakstein D, Blumenfeld A, Sokolov T et al (2003) Tourniquets for hemorrhage control on the battlefield: a 4-year accumulated experience. J Trauma 54:S221–S225
882.
Zurück zum Zitat Passos E, Dingley B, Smith A et al (2014) Tourniquet use for peripheral vascular injuries in the civilian setting. Injury 45:573–577 Passos E, Dingley B, Smith A et al (2014) Tourniquet use for peripheral vascular injuries in the civilian setting. Injury 45:573–577
883.
Zurück zum Zitat King DR, van der Wilden G, Kragh JF Jr, Blackbourne LH (2012) Forward assessment of 79 prehospital battlefield tourniquets used in the current war. J Spec Oper Med 12:33–38 King DR, van der Wilden G, Kragh JF Jr, Blackbourne LH (2012) Forward assessment of 79 prehospital battlefield tourniquets used in the current war. J Spec Oper Med 12:33–38
884.
Zurück zum Zitat Kragh JF Jr, Littrel ML, Jones JA et al (2011) Battle casualty survival with emergency tourniquet use to stop limb bleeding. J Emerg Med 41:590–597 Kragh JF Jr, Littrel ML, Jones JA et al (2011) Battle casualty survival with emergency tourniquet use to stop limb bleeding. J Emerg Med 41:590–597
885.
Zurück zum Zitat Kragh JF Jr, Cooper A, Aden JK et al (2012) Survey of trauma registry data on tourniquet use in pediatric war casualties. Pediatr Emerg Care 28:1361–1365 Kragh JF Jr, Cooper A, Aden JK et al (2012) Survey of trauma registry data on tourniquet use in pediatric war casualties. Pediatr Emerg Care 28:1361–1365
886.
Zurück zum Zitat Tien HC, Jung V, Rizoli SB, Acharya SV, MacDonald JC (2008) An evaluation of tactical combat casualty care interventions in a combat environment. J Am Coll Surg 207:174–178 Tien HC, Jung V, Rizoli SB, Acharya SV, MacDonald JC (2008) An evaluation of tactical combat casualty care interventions in a combat environment. J Am Coll Surg 207:174–178
887.
Zurück zum Zitat Kragh JF Jr, Nam JJ, Berry KA et al (2015) Transfusion for shock in US military war casualties with and without tourniquet use. Ann Emerg Med 65:290–296 Kragh JF Jr, Nam JJ, Berry KA et al (2015) Transfusion for shock in US military war casualties with and without tourniquet use. Ann Emerg Med 65:290–296
888.
Zurück zum Zitat Brodie S, Hodgetts TJ, Ollerton J, McLeod J, Lambert P, Mahoney P (2007) Tourniquet use in combat trauma: UK military experience. J R Army Med Corps 153:310–313 Brodie S, Hodgetts TJ, Ollerton J, McLeod J, Lambert P, Mahoney P (2007) Tourniquet use in combat trauma: UK military experience. J R Army Med Corps 153:310–313
889.
Zurück zum Zitat Kue RC, Temin ES, Weiner SG et al (2015) Tourniquet Use in a Civilian Emergency Medical Services Setting: a Descriptive Analysis of the Boston EMS Experience. Prehosp Emerg Care 19:399–404 Kue RC, Temin ES, Weiner SG et al (2015) Tourniquet Use in a Civilian Emergency Medical Services Setting: a Descriptive Analysis of the Boston EMS Experience. Prehosp Emerg Care 19:399–404
890.
Zurück zum Zitat Ayling J (2004) An open question. Emerg Med Serv 33:44 Ayling J (2004) An open question. Emerg Med Serv 33:44
891.
Zurück zum Zitat Sundstrom T, Asbjornsen H, Habiba S, Sunde GA, Wester K (2014) Prehospital use of cervical collars in trauma patients: a critical review. J Neurotrauma 31:531–540 Sundstrom T, Asbjornsen H, Habiba S, Sunde GA, Wester K (2014) Prehospital use of cervical collars in trauma patients: a critical review. J Neurotrauma 31:531–540
892.
Zurück zum Zitat Kwan I, Bunn F, Roberts I (2001) Spinal immobilisation for trauma patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001:CD002803 Kwan I, Bunn F, Roberts I (2001) Spinal immobilisation for trauma patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001:CD002803
893.
Zurück zum Zitat Davies G, Deakin C, Wilson A (1996) The effect of a rigid collar on intracranial pressure. Injury 27:647–649 Davies G, Deakin C, Wilson A (1996) The effect of a rigid collar on intracranial pressure. Injury 27:647–649
894.
Zurück zum Zitat Hunt K, Hallworth S, Smith M (2001) The effects of rigid collar placement on intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Anaesthesia 56:511–513 Hunt K, Hallworth S, Smith M (2001) The effects of rigid collar placement on intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Anaesthesia 56:511–513
895.
Zurück zum Zitat Mobbs RJ, Stoodley MA, Fuller J (2002) Effect of cervical hard collar on intracranial pressure after head injury. ANZ J Surg 72:389–391 Mobbs RJ, Stoodley MA, Fuller J (2002) Effect of cervical hard collar on intracranial pressure after head injury. ANZ J Surg 72:389–391
896.
Zurück zum Zitat Kolb JC, Summers RL, Galli RL (1999) Cervical collar-induced changes in intracranial pressure. Am J Emerg Med 17:135–137 Kolb JC, Summers RL, Galli RL (1999) Cervical collar-induced changes in intracranial pressure. Am J Emerg Med 17:135–137
897.
Zurück zum Zitat Raphael JH, Chotai R (1994) Effects of the cervical collar on cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Anaesthesia 49:437–439 Raphael JH, Chotai R (1994) Effects of the cervical collar on cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Anaesthesia 49:437–439
898.
Zurück zum Zitat McCrory P, Meeuwisse W, Johnston K et al (2009) Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport: the 3rd International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Zurich, November 2008. Br J Sports Med 43(Suppl 1):i76–i90 McCrory P, Meeuwisse W, Johnston K et al (2009) Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport: the 3rd International Conference on Concussion in Sport held in Zurich, November 2008. Br J Sports Med 43(Suppl 1):i76–i90
899.
Zurück zum Zitat Nguyen NL, Gun RT, Sparnon AL, Ryan P (2002) The importance of immediate cooling – a case series of childhood burns in Vietnam. Burns 28:173–176 Nguyen NL, Gun RT, Sparnon AL, Ryan P (2002) The importance of immediate cooling – a case series of childhood burns in Vietnam. Burns 28:173–176
900.
Zurück zum Zitat Yava A, Koyuncu A, Tosun N, Kilic S (2012) Effectiveness of local cold application on skin burns and pain after transthoracic cardioversion. Emerg Med J 29:544–549 Yava A, Koyuncu A, Tosun N, Kilic S (2012) Effectiveness of local cold application on skin burns and pain after transthoracic cardioversion. Emerg Med J 29:544–549
901.
Zurück zum Zitat Skinner AM, Brown TLH, Peat BG, Muller MJ (2004) Reduced Hospitalisation of burns patients following a multi-media campaign that increased adequacy of first aid treatment. Burns 30:82–85 Skinner AM, Brown TLH, Peat BG, Muller MJ (2004) Reduced Hospitalisation of burns patients following a multi-media campaign that increased adequacy of first aid treatment. Burns 30:82–85
902.
Zurück zum Zitat Wasiak J, Cleland H, Campbell F, Spinks A (2013) Dressings for superficial and partial thickness burns. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD002106 Wasiak J, Cleland H, Campbell F, Spinks A (2013) Dressings for superficial and partial thickness burns. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:CD002106
903.
Zurück zum Zitat Murad MK, Husum H (2010) Trained lay first responders reduce trauma mortality: a controlled study of rural trauma in Iraq. Prehosp Disaster Med 25:533–539 Murad MK, Husum H (2010) Trained lay first responders reduce trauma mortality: a controlled study of rural trauma in Iraq. Prehosp Disaster Med 25:533–539
904.
Zurück zum Zitat Wall HK, Beagan BM, O’Neill J, Foell KM, Boddie-Willis CL (2008) Addressing stroke signs and symptoms through public education: the Stroke Heroes Act FAST campaign. Prev Chronic Dis 5:A49 Wall HK, Beagan BM, O’Neill J, Foell KM, Boddie-Willis CL (2008) Addressing stroke signs and symptoms through public education: the Stroke Heroes Act FAST campaign. Prev Chronic Dis 5:A49
905.
Zurück zum Zitat Chamberlain DA, Hazinski MF (2003) Education in resuscitation. Resuscitation 59:11–43 Chamberlain DA, Hazinski MF (2003) Education in resuscitation. Resuscitation 59:11–43
906.
Zurück zum Zitat Kudenchuk PJ, Redshaw JD, Stubbs BA et al (2012) Impact of changes in resuscitation practice on survival and neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resulting from nonshockable arrhythmias. Circulation 125:1787–1794 Kudenchuk PJ, Redshaw JD, Stubbs BA et al (2012) Impact of changes in resuscitation practice on survival and neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resulting from nonshockable arrhythmias. Circulation 125:1787–1794
907.
Zurück zum Zitat Steinberg MT, Olsen JA, Brunborg C et al (2015) Minimizing pre-shock chest compression pauses in a cardiopulmonary resuscitation cycle by performing an earlier rhythm analysis. Resuscitation 87:33–37 Steinberg MT, Olsen JA, Brunborg C et al (2015) Minimizing pre-shock chest compression pauses in a cardiopulmonary resuscitation cycle by performing an earlier rhythm analysis. Resuscitation 87:33–37
908.
Zurück zum Zitat Swor R, Khan I, Domeier R, Honeycutt L, Chu K, Compton S (2006) CPR training and CPR performance: do CPR-trained bystanders perform CPR? Acad Emerg Med 13:596–601 Swor R, Khan I, Domeier R, Honeycutt L, Chu K, Compton S (2006) CPR training and CPR performance: do CPR-trained bystanders perform CPR? Acad Emerg Med 13:596–601
909.
Zurück zum Zitat Tanigawa K, Iwami T, Nishiyama C, Nonogi H, Kawamura T (2011) Are trained individuals more likely to perform bystander CPR? An observational study. Resuscitation 82:523–528 Tanigawa K, Iwami T, Nishiyama C, Nonogi H, Kawamura T (2011) Are trained individuals more likely to perform bystander CPR? An observational study. Resuscitation 82:523–528
910.
Zurück zum Zitat Nielsen AM, Isbye DL, Lippert FK, Rasmussen LS (2013) Can mass education and a television campaign change the attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a rural community? Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 21:39 Nielsen AM, Isbye DL, Lippert FK, Rasmussen LS (2013) Can mass education and a television campaign change the attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a rural community? Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 21:39
911.
Zurück zum Zitat Sasson C, Haukoos JS, Bond C et al (2013) Barriers and facilitators to learning and performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation in neighborhoods with low bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation prevalence and high rates of cardiac arrest in Columbus, OH. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 6:550–558 Sasson C, Haukoos JS, Bond C et al (2013) Barriers and facilitators to learning and performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation in neighborhoods with low bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation prevalence and high rates of cardiac arrest in Columbus, OH. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 6:550–558
912.
Zurück zum Zitat King R, Heisler M, Sayre MR et al (2015) Identification of factors integral to designing community-based CPR interventions for high-risk neighborhood residents. Prehosp Emerg Care 19:308–312 King R, Heisler M, Sayre MR et al (2015) Identification of factors integral to designing community-based CPR interventions for high-risk neighborhood residents. Prehosp Emerg Care 19:308–312
913.
Zurück zum Zitat Greenberg MR, Barr GC Jr, Rupp VA et al (2012) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation prescription program: a pilot randomized comparator trial. J Emerg Med 43:166–171 Greenberg MR, Barr GC Jr, Rupp VA et al (2012) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation prescription program: a pilot randomized comparator trial. J Emerg Med 43:166–171
914.
Zurück zum Zitat Blewer AL, Leary M, Esposito EC et al (2012) Continuous chest compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation training promotes rescuer self-confidence and increased secondary training: a hospital-based randomized controlled trial*. Crit Care Med 40:787–792 Blewer AL, Leary M, Esposito EC et al (2012) Continuous chest compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation training promotes rescuer self-confidence and increased secondary training: a hospital-based randomized controlled trial*. Crit Care Med 40:787–792
915.
Zurück zum Zitat Brannon TS, White LA, Kilcrease JN, Richard LD, Spillers JG, Phelps CL (2009) Use of instructional video to prepare parents for learning infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 22:133–137 Brannon TS, White LA, Kilcrease JN, Richard LD, Spillers JG, Phelps CL (2009) Use of instructional video to prepare parents for learning infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 22:133–137
916.
Zurück zum Zitat Haugk M, Robak O, Sterz F et al (2006) High acceptance of a home AED programme by survivors of sudden cardiac arrest and their families. Resuscitation 70:263–274 Haugk M, Robak O, Sterz F et al (2006) High acceptance of a home AED programme by survivors of sudden cardiac arrest and their families. Resuscitation 70:263–274
917.
Zurück zum Zitat Knight LJ, Wintch S, Nichols A, Arnolde V, Schroeder AR (2013) Saving a life after discharge: CPR training for parents of high-risk children. J Healthc Qual 35:9–16 (quiz7) Knight LJ, Wintch S, Nichols A, Arnolde V, Schroeder AR (2013) Saving a life after discharge: CPR training for parents of high-risk children. J Healthc Qual 35:9–16 (quiz7)
918.
Zurück zum Zitat Barr GC Jr, Rupp VA, Hamilton KM et al (2013) Training mothers in infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation with an instructional DVD and manikin. J Am Osteopath Assoc 113:538–545 Barr GC Jr, Rupp VA, Hamilton KM et al (2013) Training mothers in infant cardiopulmonary resuscitation with an instructional DVD and manikin. J Am Osteopath Assoc 113:538–545
919.
Zurück zum Zitat Plant N, Taylor K (2013) How best to teach CPR to schoolchildren: a systematic review. Resuscitation 84:415–421 Plant N, Taylor K (2013) How best to teach CPR to schoolchildren: a systematic review. Resuscitation 84:415–421
920.
Zurück zum Zitat Bohn A, Van Aken HK, Mollhoff T et al (2012) Teaching resuscitation in schools: annual tuition by trained teachers is effective starting at age 10. A four-year prospective cohort study. Resuscitation 83:619–625 Bohn A, Van Aken HK, Mollhoff T et al (2012) Teaching resuscitation in schools: annual tuition by trained teachers is effective starting at age 10. A four-year prospective cohort study. Resuscitation 83:619–625
921.
Zurück zum Zitat Song KJ, Shin SD, Park CB et al (2014) Dispatcher-assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a metropolitan city: a before-after population-based study. Resuscitation 85:34–41 Song KJ, Shin SD, Park CB et al (2014) Dispatcher-assisted bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a metropolitan city: a before-after population-based study. Resuscitation 85:34–41
922.
Zurück zum Zitat Mancini ME, Cazzell M, Kardong-Edgren S, Cason CL (2009) Improving workplace safety training using a self-directed CPR-AED learning program. AAOHN J 57:159–167 (quiz 68–69) Mancini ME, Cazzell M, Kardong-Edgren S, Cason CL (2009) Improving workplace safety training using a self-directed CPR-AED learning program. AAOHN J 57:159–167 (quiz 68–69)
923.
Zurück zum Zitat Cason CL, Kardong-Edgren S, Cazzell M, Behan D, Mancini ME (2009) Innovations in basic life support education for healthcare providers: improving competence in cardiopulmonary resuscitation through self-directed learning. J Nurses Staff Dev 25:E1–E13 Cason CL, Kardong-Edgren S, Cazzell M, Behan D, Mancini ME (2009) Innovations in basic life support education for healthcare providers: improving competence in cardiopulmonary resuscitation through self-directed learning. J Nurses Staff Dev 25:E1–E13
924.
Zurück zum Zitat Einspruch EL, Lynch B, Aufderheide TP, Nichol G, Becker L (2007) Retention of CPR skills learned in a traditional AHA Heartsaver course versus 30-Min video self-training: a controlled randomized study. Resuscitation 74:476–486 Einspruch EL, Lynch B, Aufderheide TP, Nichol G, Becker L (2007) Retention of CPR skills learned in a traditional AHA Heartsaver course versus 30-Min video self-training: a controlled randomized study. Resuscitation 74:476–486
925.
Zurück zum Zitat Lynch B, Einspruch EL, Nichol G, Becker LB, Aufderheide TP, Idris A (2005) Effectiveness of a 30-Min CPR self-instruction program for lay responders: a controlled randomized study. Resuscitation 67:31–43 Lynch B, Einspruch EL, Nichol G, Becker LB, Aufderheide TP, Idris A (2005) Effectiveness of a 30-Min CPR self-instruction program for lay responders: a controlled randomized study. Resuscitation 67:31–43
926.
Zurück zum Zitat Chung CH, Siu AY, Po LL, Lam CY, Wong PC (2010) Comparing the effectiveness of video self-instruction versus traditional classroom instruction targeted at cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills for laypersons: a prospective randomised controlled trial. Hong Kong Med J 16:165–170 Chung CH, Siu AY, Po LL, Lam CY, Wong PC (2010) Comparing the effectiveness of video self-instruction versus traditional classroom instruction targeted at cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills for laypersons: a prospective randomised controlled trial. Hong Kong Med J 16:165–170
927.
Zurück zum Zitat Roppolo LP, Pepe PE, Campbell L et al (2007) Prospective, randomized trial of the effectiveness and retention of 30-Min layperson training for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillators: the American Airlines Study. Resuscitation 74:276–285 Roppolo LP, Pepe PE, Campbell L et al (2007) Prospective, randomized trial of the effectiveness and retention of 30-Min layperson training for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillators: the American Airlines Study. Resuscitation 74:276–285
928.
Zurück zum Zitat Smith KK, Gilcreast D, Pierce K (2008) Evaluation of staff’s retention of ACLS and BLS skills. Resuscitation 78:59–65 Smith KK, Gilcreast D, Pierce K (2008) Evaluation of staff’s retention of ACLS and BLS skills. Resuscitation 78:59–65
929.
Zurück zum Zitat Woollard M, Whitfeild R, Smith A et al (2004) Skill acquisition and retention in automated external defibrillator (AED) use and CPR by lay responders: a prospective study. Resuscitation 60:17–28 Woollard M, Whitfeild R, Smith A et al (2004) Skill acquisition and retention in automated external defibrillator (AED) use and CPR by lay responders: a prospective study. Resuscitation 60:17–28
930.
Zurück zum Zitat Woollard M, Whitfield R, Newcombe RG, Colquhoun M, Vetter N, Chamberlain D (2006) Optimal refresher training intervals for AED and CPR skills: a randomised controlled trial. Resuscitation 71:237–247 Woollard M, Whitfield R, Newcombe RG, Colquhoun M, Vetter N, Chamberlain D (2006) Optimal refresher training intervals for AED and CPR skills: a randomised controlled trial. Resuscitation 71:237–247
931.
Zurück zum Zitat Andresen D, Arntz HR, Grafling W et al (2008) Public access resuscitation program including defibrillator training for laypersons: a randomized trial to evaluate the impact of training course duration. Resuscitation 76:419–424 Andresen D, Arntz HR, Grafling W et al (2008) Public access resuscitation program including defibrillator training for laypersons: a randomized trial to evaluate the impact of training course duration. Resuscitation 76:419–424
932.
Zurück zum Zitat Beckers SK, Fries M, Bickenbach J et al (2007) Retention of skills in medical students following minimal theoretical instructions on semi and fully automated external defibrillators. Resuscitation 72:444–450 Beckers SK, Fries M, Bickenbach J et al (2007) Retention of skills in medical students following minimal theoretical instructions on semi and fully automated external defibrillators. Resuscitation 72:444–450
933.
Zurück zum Zitat Kirkbright S, Finn J, Tohira H, Bremner A, Jacobs I, Celenza A (2014) Audiovisual feedback device use by health care professionals during CPR: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised and non-randomised trials. Resuscitation 85:460–471 Kirkbright S, Finn J, Tohira H, Bremner A, Jacobs I, Celenza A (2014) Audiovisual feedback device use by health care professionals during CPR: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised and non-randomised trials. Resuscitation 85:460–471
934.
Zurück zum Zitat Mundell WC, Kennedy CC, Szostek JH, Cook DA (2013) Simulation technology for resuscitation training: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation 84:1174–1183 Mundell WC, Kennedy CC, Szostek JH, Cook DA (2013) Simulation technology for resuscitation training: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation 84:1174–1183
935.
Zurück zum Zitat Andreatta P, Saxton E, Thompson M, Annich G (2011) Simulation-based mock codes significantly correlate with improved pediatric patient cardiopulmonary arrest survival rates. Pediatr Crit Care Med 12:33–38 Andreatta P, Saxton E, Thompson M, Annich G (2011) Simulation-based mock codes significantly correlate with improved pediatric patient cardiopulmonary arrest survival rates. Pediatr Crit Care Med 12:33–38
936.
Zurück zum Zitat Neily J, Mills PD, Young-Xu Y et al (2010) Association between implementation of a medical team training program and surgical mortality. JAMA 304:1693–1700 Neily J, Mills PD, Young-Xu Y et al (2010) Association between implementation of a medical team training program and surgical mortality. JAMA 304:1693–1700
937.
Zurück zum Zitat Thomas EJ, Taggart B, Crandell S et al (2007) Teaching teamwork during the Neonatal Resuscitation Program: a randomized trial. J Perinatol 27:409–414 Thomas EJ, Taggart B, Crandell S et al (2007) Teaching teamwork during the Neonatal Resuscitation Program: a randomized trial. J Perinatol 27:409–414
938.
Zurück zum Zitat Gilfoyle E, Gottesman R, Razack S (2007) Development of a leadership skills workshop in paediatric advanced resuscitation. Med Teach 29:e276–e283 Gilfoyle E, Gottesman R, Razack S (2007) Development of a leadership skills workshop in paediatric advanced resuscitation. Med Teach 29:e276–e283
939.
Zurück zum Zitat Edelson DP, Litzinger B, Arora V et al (2008) Improving in-hospital cardiac arrest process and outcomes with performance debriefing. Arch Intern Med 168:1063–1069 Edelson DP, Litzinger B, Arora V et al (2008) Improving in-hospital cardiac arrest process and outcomes with performance debriefing. Arch Intern Med 168:1063–1069
940.
Zurück zum Zitat Hayes CW, Rhee A, Detsky ME, Leblanc VR, Wax RS (2007) Residents feel unprepared and unsupervised as leaders of cardiac arrest teams in teaching hospitals: a survey of internal medicine residents. Crit Care Med 35:1668–1672 Hayes CW, Rhee A, Detsky ME, Leblanc VR, Wax RS (2007) Residents feel unprepared and unsupervised as leaders of cardiac arrest teams in teaching hospitals: a survey of internal medicine residents. Crit Care Med 35:1668–1672
941.
Zurück zum Zitat Marsch SC, Muller C, Marquardt K, Conrad G, Tschan F, Hunziker PR (2004) Human factors affect the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in simulated cardiac arrests. Resuscitation 60:51–56 Marsch SC, Muller C, Marquardt K, Conrad G, Tschan F, Hunziker PR (2004) Human factors affect the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in simulated cardiac arrests. Resuscitation 60:51–56
942.
Zurück zum Zitat Raemer D, Anderson M, Cheng A, Fanning R, Nadkarni V, Savoldelli G (2011) Research regarding debriefing as part of the learning process. Simul Healthc 6(Suppl):S52–S57 Raemer D, Anderson M, Cheng A, Fanning R, Nadkarni V, Savoldelli G (2011) Research regarding debriefing as part of the learning process. Simul Healthc 6(Suppl):S52–S57
943.
Zurück zum Zitat Byrne AJ, Sellen AJ, Jones JG et al (2002) Effect of videotape feedback on anaesthetists’ performance while managing simulated anaesthetic crises: a multicentre study. Anaesthesia 57:176–179 Byrne AJ, Sellen AJ, Jones JG et al (2002) Effect of videotape feedback on anaesthetists’ performance while managing simulated anaesthetic crises: a multicentre study. Anaesthesia 57:176–179
944.
Zurück zum Zitat Savoldelli GL, Naik VN, Park J, Joo HS, Chow R, Hamstra SJ (2006) Value of debriefing during simulated crisis management: oral versus video-assisted oral feedback. Anesthesiology 105:279–285 Savoldelli GL, Naik VN, Park J, Joo HS, Chow R, Hamstra SJ (2006) Value of debriefing during simulated crisis management: oral versus video-assisted oral feedback. Anesthesiology 105:279–285
945.
Zurück zum Zitat Kurosawa H, Ikeyama T, Achuff P et al (2014) A randomized, controlled trial of in situ pediatric advanced life support recertification („pediatric advanced life support reconstructed“) compared with standard pediatric advanced life support recertification for ICU frontline providers*. Crit Care Med 42:610–618 Kurosawa H, Ikeyama T, Achuff P et al (2014) A randomized, controlled trial of in situ pediatric advanced life support recertification („pediatric advanced life support reconstructed“) compared with standard pediatric advanced life support recertification for ICU frontline providers*. Crit Care Med 42:610–618
946.
Zurück zum Zitat Patocka C, Khan F, Dubrovsky AS, Brody D, Bank I, Bhanji F (2015) Pediatric resuscitation training-instruction all at once or spaced over time? Resuscitation 88:6–11 Patocka C, Khan F, Dubrovsky AS, Brody D, Bank I, Bhanji F (2015) Pediatric resuscitation training-instruction all at once or spaced over time? Resuscitation 88:6–11
947.
Zurück zum Zitat Stross JK (1983) Maintaining competency in advanced cardiac life support skills. JAMA 249:3339–3341 Stross JK (1983) Maintaining competency in advanced cardiac life support skills. JAMA 249:3339–3341
948.
Zurück zum Zitat Jensen ML, Mondrup F, Lippert F, Ringsted C (2009) Using e-learning for maintenance of ALS competence. Resuscitation 80:903–908 Jensen ML, Mondrup F, Lippert F, Ringsted C (2009) Using e-learning for maintenance of ALS competence. Resuscitation 80:903–908
949.
Zurück zum Zitat Kaczorowski J, Levitt C, Hammond M et al (1998) Retention of neonatal resuscitation skills and knowledge: a randomized controlled trial. Fam Med 30:705–711 Kaczorowski J, Levitt C, Hammond M et al (1998) Retention of neonatal resuscitation skills and knowledge: a randomized controlled trial. Fam Med 30:705–711
950.
Zurück zum Zitat Rea TD, Helbock M, Perry S et al (2006) Increasing use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation arrest: survival implications of guideline changes. Circulation 114:2760–2765 Rea TD, Helbock M, Perry S et al (2006) Increasing use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation arrest: survival implications of guideline changes. Circulation 114:2760–2765
951.
Zurück zum Zitat Aufderheide TP, Yannopoulos D, Lick CJ et al (2010) Implementing the 2005 American Heart Association Guidelines improves outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Heart Rhythm 7:1357–1362 Aufderheide TP, Yannopoulos D, Lick CJ et al (2010) Implementing the 2005 American Heart Association Guidelines improves outcomes after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Heart Rhythm 7:1357–1362
952.
Zurück zum Zitat Garza AG, Gratton MC, Salomone JA, Lindholm D, McElroy J, Archer R (2009) Improved patient survival using a modified resuscitation protocol for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 119:2597–2605 Garza AG, Gratton MC, Salomone JA, Lindholm D, McElroy J, Archer R (2009) Improved patient survival using a modified resuscitation protocol for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 119:2597–2605
953.
Zurück zum Zitat Deasy C, Bray JE, Smith K et al (2011) Cardiac arrest outcomes before and after the 2005 resuscitation guidelines implementation: evidence of improvement? Resuscitation 82:984–988 Deasy C, Bray JE, Smith K et al (2011) Cardiac arrest outcomes before and after the 2005 resuscitation guidelines implementation: evidence of improvement? Resuscitation 82:984–988
954.
Zurück zum Zitat Bigham BL, Koprowicz K, Rea T et al (2011) Cardiac arrest survival did not increase in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium after implementation of the 2005 AHA CPR and ECC guidelines. Resuscitation 82:979–983 Bigham BL, Koprowicz K, Rea T et al (2011) Cardiac arrest survival did not increase in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium after implementation of the 2005 AHA CPR and ECC guidelines. Resuscitation 82:979–983
955.
Zurück zum Zitat Jiang C, Zhao Y, Chen Z, Chen S, Yang X (2010) Improving cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency department by real-time video recording and regular feedback learning. Resuscitation 81:1664–1669 Jiang C, Zhao Y, Chen Z, Chen S, Yang X (2010) Improving cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the emergency department by real-time video recording and regular feedback learning. Resuscitation 81:1664–1669
956.
Zurück zum Zitat Stiell IG, Wells GA, Field BJ et al (1999) Improved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival through the inexpensive optimization of an existing defibrillation program: OPALS study phase II. Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support. JAMA 281:1175–1181 Stiell IG, Wells GA, Field BJ et al (1999) Improved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival through the inexpensive optimization of an existing defibrillation program: OPALS study phase II. Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support. JAMA 281:1175–1181
957.
Zurück zum Zitat Olasveengen TM, Tomlinson AE, Wik L et al (2007) A failed attempt to improve quality of out-of-hospital CPR through performance evaluation. Prehosp Emerg Care 11:427–433 Olasveengen TM, Tomlinson AE, Wik L et al (2007) A failed attempt to improve quality of out-of-hospital CPR through performance evaluation. Prehosp Emerg Care 11:427–433
958.
Zurück zum Zitat Clarke S, Lyon R, Milligan D, Clegg G (2011) Resuscitation feedback and targeted education improves quality of pre-hospital resuscitation in Scotland. Emerg Med J 28(Suppl 1):A6 Clarke S, Lyon R, Milligan D, Clegg G (2011) Resuscitation feedback and targeted education improves quality of pre-hospital resuscitation in Scotland. Emerg Med J 28(Suppl 1):A6
959.
Zurück zum Zitat Fletcher D, Galloway R, Chamberlain D, Pateman J, Bryant G, Newcombe RG (2008) Basics in advanced life support: a role for download audit and metronomes. Resuscitation 78:127–134 Fletcher D, Galloway R, Chamberlain D, Pateman J, Bryant G, Newcombe RG (2008) Basics in advanced life support: a role for download audit and metronomes. Resuscitation 78:127–134
960.
Zurück zum Zitat Rittenberger JC, Guyette FX, Tisherman SA, DeVita MA, Alvarez RJ, Callaway CW (2008) Outcomes of a hospital-wide plan to improve care of comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 79:198–204 Rittenberger JC, Guyette FX, Tisherman SA, DeVita MA, Alvarez RJ, Callaway CW (2008) Outcomes of a hospital-wide plan to improve care of comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 79:198–204
961.
Zurück zum Zitat Wolfe H, Zebuhr C, Topjian AA et al (2014) Interdisciplinary ICU cardiac arrest debriefing improves survival outcomes*. Crit Care Med 42:1688–1695 Wolfe H, Zebuhr C, Topjian AA et al (2014) Interdisciplinary ICU cardiac arrest debriefing improves survival outcomes*. Crit Care Med 42:1688–1695
962.
Zurück zum Zitat Hillman K, Chen J, Cretikos M et al (2005) Introduction of the medical emergency team (MET) system: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet 365:2091–2097 Hillman K, Chen J, Cretikos M et al (2005) Introduction of the medical emergency team (MET) system: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet 365:2091–2097
963.
Zurück zum Zitat Buist MD, Moore GE, Bernard SA, Waxman BP, Anderson JN, Nguyen TV (2002) Effects of a medical emergency team on reduction of incidence of and mortality from unexpected cardiac arrests in hospital: preliminary study. BMJ 324:387–390 Buist MD, Moore GE, Bernard SA, Waxman BP, Anderson JN, Nguyen TV (2002) Effects of a medical emergency team on reduction of incidence of and mortality from unexpected cardiac arrests in hospital: preliminary study. BMJ 324:387–390
964.
Zurück zum Zitat Beitler JR, Link N, Bails DB, Hurdle K, Chong DH (2011) Reduction in hospital-wide mortality after implementation of a rapid response team: a long-term cohort study. Crit Care 15:R269 Beitler JR, Link N, Bails DB, Hurdle K, Chong DH (2011) Reduction in hospital-wide mortality after implementation of a rapid response team: a long-term cohort study. Crit Care 15:R269
965.
Zurück zum Zitat Chan PS, Khalid A, Longmore LS, Berg RA, Kosiborod M, Spertus JA (2008) Hospital-wide code rates and mortality before and after implementation of a rapid response team. JAMA 300:2506–2513 Chan PS, Khalid A, Longmore LS, Berg RA, Kosiborod M, Spertus JA (2008) Hospital-wide code rates and mortality before and after implementation of a rapid response team. JAMA 300:2506–2513
966.
Zurück zum Zitat Konrad D, Jaderling G, Bell M, Granath F, Ekbom A, Martling CR (2010) Reducing in-hospital cardiac arrests and hospital mortality by introducing a medical emergency team. Intensive Care Med 36:100–106 Konrad D, Jaderling G, Bell M, Granath F, Ekbom A, Martling CR (2010) Reducing in-hospital cardiac arrests and hospital mortality by introducing a medical emergency team. Intensive Care Med 36:100–106
967.
Zurück zum Zitat Lighthall GK, Parast LM, Rapoport L, Wagner TH (2010) Introduction of a rapid response system at a United States veterans affairs hospital reduced cardiac arrests. Anesth Analg 111:679–686 Lighthall GK, Parast LM, Rapoport L, Wagner TH (2010) Introduction of a rapid response system at a United States veterans affairs hospital reduced cardiac arrests. Anesth Analg 111:679–686
968.
Zurück zum Zitat Santamaria J, Tobin A, Holmes J (2010) Changing cardiac arrest and hospital mortality rates through a medical emergency team takes time and constant review. Crit Care Med 38:445–450 Santamaria J, Tobin A, Holmes J (2010) Changing cardiac arrest and hospital mortality rates through a medical emergency team takes time and constant review. Crit Care Med 38:445–450
969.
Zurück zum Zitat Priestley G, Watson W, Rashidian A et al (2004) Introducing Critical Care Outreach: a ward-randomised trial of phased introduction in a general hospital. Intensive Care Med 30:1398–1404 Priestley G, Watson W, Rashidian A et al (2004) Introducing Critical Care Outreach: a ward-randomised trial of phased introduction in a general hospital. Intensive Care Med 30:1398–1404
970.
Zurück zum Zitat Kaldjian LC, Weir RF, Duffy TP (2005) A clinician’s approach to clinical ethical reasoning. J Gen Intern Med 20:306–311 Kaldjian LC, Weir RF, Duffy TP (2005) A clinician’s approach to clinical ethical reasoning. J Gen Intern Med 20:306–311
971.
Zurück zum Zitat O’Neill O (2002) Autonomy and trust in bioethics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge O’Neill O (2002) Autonomy and trust in bioethics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
972.
Zurück zum Zitat Beauchamp TL, Childress JF (2009) Principles of biomedical ethics, 6. Aufl. Oxford University Press, New York Beauchamp TL, Childress JF (2009) Principles of biomedical ethics, 6. Aufl. Oxford University Press, New York
973.
Zurück zum Zitat World Medical Association (Hrsg) (2009) Medical ethics manual, 2. Aufl. World Medical Association, Ferney-Voltaire World Medical Association (Hrsg) (2009) Medical ethics manual, 2. Aufl. World Medical Association, Ferney-Voltaire
974.
Zurück zum Zitat Lippert FK, Raffay V, Georgiou M, Steen PA, Bossaert L (2010) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 10. The ethics of resuscitation and end-of-life decisions. Resuscitation 81:1445–1451 Lippert FK, Raffay V, Georgiou M, Steen PA, Bossaert L (2010) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 10. The ethics of resuscitation and end-of-life decisions. Resuscitation 81:1445–1451
975.
Zurück zum Zitat Morrison LJ, Kierzek G, Diekema DS et al (2010) Part 3: ethics: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 122:665–675 Morrison LJ, Kierzek G, Diekema DS et al (2010) Part 3: ethics: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 122:665–675
976.
Zurück zum Zitat Brody BA, Halevy A (1995) Is futility a futile concept? J Med Philos 20:123–144 Brody BA, Halevy A (1995) Is futility a futile concept? J Med Philos 20:123–144
977.
Zurück zum Zitat Swig L, Cooke M, Osmond D et al (1996) Physician responses to a hospital policy allowing them to not offer cardiopulmonary resuscitation. J Am Geriatr Soc 44:1215–1219 Swig L, Cooke M, Osmond D et al (1996) Physician responses to a hospital policy allowing them to not offer cardiopulmonary resuscitation. J Am Geriatr Soc 44:1215–1219
978.
Zurück zum Zitat Waisel DB, Truog RD (1995) The cardiopulmonary resuscitation-not-indicated order: futility revisited. Ann Intern Med 122:304–308 Waisel DB, Truog RD (1995) The cardiopulmonary resuscitation-not-indicated order: futility revisited. Ann Intern Med 122:304–308
979.
Zurück zum Zitat British Medical Association the Resuscitation Council (UK) and the Royal College of Nursing (2014) Decisions relating to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A joint statment from the British Medical Association, the Resuscitation Council (UK) and the Royal College of Nursing. British Medical Association, London British Medical Association the Resuscitation Council (UK) and the Royal College of Nursing (2014) Decisions relating to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. A joint statment from the British Medical Association, the Resuscitation Council (UK) and the Royal College of Nursing. British Medical Association, London
980.
Zurück zum Zitat Soholm H, Bro-Jeppesen J, Lippert FK et al (2014) Resuscitation of patients suffering from sudden cardiac arrests in nursing homes is not futile. Resuscitation 85:369–375 Soholm H, Bro-Jeppesen J, Lippert FK et al (2014) Resuscitation of patients suffering from sudden cardiac arrests in nursing homes is not futile. Resuscitation 85:369–375
981.
Zurück zum Zitat Committee on Bioethics (DH-BIO) of the Council of Europe (2014) Guide on the Decision-Making Process Regarding Medical Treatment in End-of-Life Situations Committee on Bioethics (DH-BIO) of the Council of Europe (2014) Guide on the Decision-Making Process Regarding Medical Treatment in End-of-Life Situations
982.
Zurück zum Zitat Fritz Z, Cork N, Dodd A, Malyon A (2014) DNACPR decisions: challenging and changing practice in the wake of the Tracey judgment. Clin Med 14:571–576 Fritz Z, Cork N, Dodd A, Malyon A (2014) DNACPR decisions: challenging and changing practice in the wake of the Tracey judgment. Clin Med 14:571–576
983.
Zurück zum Zitat Etheridge Z, Gatland E (2015) When and how to discuss „do not resuscitate“ decisions with patients. BMJ 350:h2640 Etheridge Z, Gatland E (2015) When and how to discuss „do not resuscitate“ decisions with patients. BMJ 350:h2640
984.
Zurück zum Zitat Xanthos T (2014) ‚Do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation‘ or ‚allowing natural death‘? The time for resuscitation community to review its boundaries and its terminology. Resuscitation 85:1644–1645 Xanthos T (2014) ‚Do not attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation‘ or ‚allowing natural death‘? The time for resuscitation community to review its boundaries and its terminology. Resuscitation 85:1644–1645
985.
Zurück zum Zitat Salkic A, Zwick A (2012) Acronyms of dying versus patient autonomy. Eur J Health Law 19:289–303 Salkic A, Zwick A (2012) Acronyms of dying versus patient autonomy. Eur J Health Law 19:289–303
986.
Zurück zum Zitat Johnston C, Liddle J (2007) The Mental Capacity Act 2005: a new framework for healthcare decision making. J Med Ethics 33:94–97 Johnston C, Liddle J (2007) The Mental Capacity Act 2005: a new framework for healthcare decision making. J Med Ethics 33:94–97
987.
Zurück zum Zitat Shaw D (2012) A direct advance on advance directives. Bioethics 26:267–274 Shaw D (2012) A direct advance on advance directives. Bioethics 26:267–274
988.
Zurück zum Zitat Resuscitation Council (UK) (2013) Quality Standards for cardiopulmonary resuscitation practice and training. Acute Care. Resuscitation Council (UK), London Resuscitation Council (UK) (2013) Quality Standards for cardiopulmonary resuscitation practice and training. Acute Care. Resuscitation Council (UK), London
989.
Zurück zum Zitat Andorno R, Biller-Andorno N, Brauer S (2009) Advance health care directives: towards a coordinated European policy? Eur J Health Law 16:207–227 Andorno R, Biller-Andorno N, Brauer S (2009) Advance health care directives: towards a coordinated European policy? Eur J Health Law 16:207–227
990.
Zurück zum Zitat Staniszewska S, Haywood KL, Brett J, Tutton L (2012) Patient and public involvement in patient-reported outcome measures: evolution not revolution. Patient 5:79–87 Staniszewska S, Haywood KL, Brett J, Tutton L (2012) Patient and public involvement in patient-reported outcome measures: evolution not revolution. Patient 5:79–87
991.
Zurück zum Zitat Lannon R, O’Keeffe ST (2010) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in older people – a review. Reviews in Clinical. Gerontology 20:20–29 Lannon R, O’Keeffe ST (2010) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in older people – a review. Reviews in Clinical. Gerontology 20:20–29
992.
Zurück zum Zitat Becker TK, Gausche-Hill M, Aswegan AL et al (2013) Ethical challenges in Emergency Medical Services: controversies and recommendations. Prehosp Disaster Med 28:488–497 Becker TK, Gausche-Hill M, Aswegan AL et al (2013) Ethical challenges in Emergency Medical Services: controversies and recommendations. Prehosp Disaster Med 28:488–497
993.
Zurück zum Zitat Nordby H, Nohr O (2012) The ethics of resuscitation: how do paramedics experience ethical dilemmas when faced with cancer patients with cardiac arrest? Prehosp Disaster Med 27:64–70 Nordby H, Nohr O (2012) The ethics of resuscitation: how do paramedics experience ethical dilemmas when faced with cancer patients with cardiac arrest? Prehosp Disaster Med 27:64–70
994.
Zurück zum Zitat Fraser J, Sidebotham P, Frederick J, Covington T, Mitchell EA (2014) Learning from child death review in the USA, England, Australia, and New Zealand. Lancet 384:894–903 Fraser J, Sidebotham P, Frederick J, Covington T, Mitchell EA (2014) Learning from child death review in the USA, England, Australia, and New Zealand. Lancet 384:894–903
995.
Zurück zum Zitat Ulrich CM, Grady C (2015) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation for Ebola patients: ethical considerations. Nurs Outlook 63:16–18 Ulrich CM, Grady C (2015) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation for Ebola patients: ethical considerations. Nurs Outlook 63:16–18
996.
Zurück zum Zitat Torabi-Parizi P, Davey RT Jr, Suffredini AF, Chertow DS (2015) Ethical and practical considerations in providing critical care to patients with ebola virus disease. Chest 147:1460–1466 Torabi-Parizi P, Davey RT Jr, Suffredini AF, Chertow DS (2015) Ethical and practical considerations in providing critical care to patients with ebola virus disease. Chest 147:1460–1466
997.
Zurück zum Zitat Zavalkoff SR, Shemie SD (2013) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: saving life then saving organs? Crit Care Med 41:2833–2834 Zavalkoff SR, Shemie SD (2013) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: saving life then saving organs? Crit Care Med 41:2833–2834
998.
Zurück zum Zitat Orioles A, Morrison WE, Rossano JW et al (2013) An under-recognized benefit of cardiopulmonary resuscitation: organ transplantation. Crit Care Med 41:2794–2799 Orioles A, Morrison WE, Rossano JW et al (2013) An under-recognized benefit of cardiopulmonary resuscitation: organ transplantation. Crit Care Med 41:2794–2799
999.
Zurück zum Zitat Gillett G (2013) Honouring the donor: in death and in life. J Med Ethics 39:149–152 Gillett G (2013) Honouring the donor: in death and in life. J Med Ethics 39:149–152
1000.
Zurück zum Zitat Mentzelopoulos SD, Bossaert L, Raffay V et al (2015) A survey of ethical resuscitation practices in 32 European countries. Resuscitation (In Press) Mentzelopoulos SD, Bossaert L, Raffay V et al (2015) A survey of ethical resuscitation practices in 32 European countries. Resuscitation (In Press)
1001.
Zurück zum Zitat Hurst SA, Becerra M, Perrier A, Perron NJ, Cochet S, Elger B (2013) Including patients in resuscitation decisions in Switzerland: from doing more to doing better. J Med Ethics 39:158–165 Hurst SA, Becerra M, Perrier A, Perron NJ, Cochet S, Elger B (2013) Including patients in resuscitation decisions in Switzerland: from doing more to doing better. J Med Ethics 39:158–165
1002.
Zurück zum Zitat Gorton AJ, Jayanthi NV, Lepping P, Scriven MW (2008) Patients’ attitudes towards „do not attempt resuscitation“ status. J Med Ethics 34:624–626 Gorton AJ, Jayanthi NV, Lepping P, Scriven MW (2008) Patients’ attitudes towards „do not attempt resuscitation“ status. J Med Ethics 34:624–626
1003.
Zurück zum Zitat Freeman K, Field RA, Perkins GD (2015) Variation in local trust Do, Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) policies: a review of 48 English healthcare trusts. BMJ Open 5:e006517 Freeman K, Field RA, Perkins GD (2015) Variation in local trust Do, Not Attempt Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (DNACPR) policies: a review of 48 English healthcare trusts. BMJ Open 5:e006517
1004.
Zurück zum Zitat Field RA, Fritz Z, Baker A, Grove A, Perkins GD (2014) Systematic review of interventions to improve appropriate use and outcomes associated with do-not-attempt-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation decisions. Resuscitation 85:1418–1431 Field RA, Fritz Z, Baker A, Grove A, Perkins GD (2014) Systematic review of interventions to improve appropriate use and outcomes associated with do-not-attempt-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation decisions. Resuscitation 85:1418–1431
1005.
Zurück zum Zitat Micallef S, Skrifvars MB, Parr MJ (2011) Level of agreement on resuscitation decisions among hospital specialists and barriers to documenting do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) orders in ward patients. Resuscitation 82:815–818 Micallef S, Skrifvars MB, Parr MJ (2011) Level of agreement on resuscitation decisions among hospital specialists and barriers to documenting do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR) orders in ward patients. Resuscitation 82:815–818
1006.
Zurück zum Zitat Pitcher D, Smith G, Nolan J, Soar J (2009) The death of DNR. Training is needed to dispel confusion around DNAR. BMJ 338:b2021 Pitcher D, Smith G, Nolan J, Soar J (2009) The death of DNR. Training is needed to dispel confusion around DNAR. BMJ 338:b2021
1007.
Zurück zum Zitat Davies H, Shakur H, Padkin A, Roberts I, Slowther AM, Perkins GD (2014) Guide to the design and review of emergency research when it is proposed that consent and consultation be waived. Emerg Med J 31:794–795 Davies H, Shakur H, Padkin A, Roberts I, Slowther AM, Perkins GD (2014) Guide to the design and review of emergency research when it is proposed that consent and consultation be waived. Emerg Med J 31:794–795
1008.
Zurück zum Zitat Mentzelopoulos SD, Mantzanas M, van Belle G, Nichol G (2015) Evolution of European Union legislation on emergency research. Resuscitation 91:84–91 Mentzelopoulos SD, Mantzanas M, van Belle G, Nichol G (2015) Evolution of European Union legislation on emergency research. Resuscitation 91:84–91
1009.
Zurück zum Zitat Booth MG (2007) Informed consent in emergency research: a contradiction in terms. Sci Eng Ethics 13:351–359 Booth MG (2007) Informed consent in emergency research: a contradiction in terms. Sci Eng Ethics 13:351–359
1010.
Zurück zum Zitat World Medical Association (2013) Guidance on good clinical practice CPMP/ICH/135/95. World Medical Association, Ferney-Voltaire World Medical Association (2013) Guidance on good clinical practice CPMP/ICH/135/95. World Medical Association, Ferney-Voltaire
1011.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Bossaert L, Nolan J et al (2013) Proposed revisions to the EU clinical trials directive – comments from the European Resuscitation Council. Resuscitation 84:263–264 Perkins GD, Bossaert L, Nolan J et al (2013) Proposed revisions to the EU clinical trials directive – comments from the European Resuscitation Council. Resuscitation 84:263–264
1012.
Zurück zum Zitat Lemaire F (2014) Clinical research in the ICU: response to Kompanje et al. Intensive Care Med 40:766 Lemaire F (2014) Clinical research in the ICU: response to Kompanje et al. Intensive Care Med 40:766
1013.
Zurück zum Zitat McInnes AD, Sutton RM, Nishisaki A et al (2012) Ability of code leaders to recall CPR quality errors during the resuscitation of older children and adolescents. Resuscitation 83:1462–1466 McInnes AD, Sutton RM, Nishisaki A et al (2012) Ability of code leaders to recall CPR quality errors during the resuscitation of older children and adolescents. Resuscitation 83:1462–1466
1014.
Zurück zum Zitat Gabbott D, Smith G, Mitchell S et al (2005) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation standards for clinical practice and training in the UK. Resuscitation 64:13–19 Gabbott D, Smith G, Mitchell S et al (2005) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation standards for clinical practice and training in the UK. Resuscitation 64:13–19
1015.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Jacobs IG, Nadkarni VM et al (2014) Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcome reports: update of the Utstein resuscitation registry templates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation Perkins GD, Jacobs IG, Nadkarni VM et al (2014) Cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation outcome reports: update of the Utstein resuscitation registry templates for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation
1016.
Zurück zum Zitat Daya MR, Schmicker RH, Zive DM et al (2015) Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival improving over time: results from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC). Resuscitation 91:108–115 Daya MR, Schmicker RH, Zive DM et al (2015) Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival improving over time: results from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium (ROC). Resuscitation 91:108–115
1017.
Zurück zum Zitat Grasner JT, Herlitz J, Koster RW, Rosell-Ortiz F, Stamatakis L, Bossaert L (2011) Quality management in resuscitation – towards a European cardiac arrest registry (EuReCa). Resuscitation 82:989–994 Grasner JT, Herlitz J, Koster RW, Rosell-Ortiz F, Stamatakis L, Bossaert L (2011) Quality management in resuscitation – towards a European cardiac arrest registry (EuReCa). Resuscitation 82:989–994
1018.
Zurück zum Zitat Grasner JT, Bossaert L (2013) Epidemiology and management of cardiac arrest: what registries are revealing. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 27:293–306 Grasner JT, Bossaert L (2013) Epidemiology and management of cardiac arrest: what registries are revealing. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 27:293–306
1019.
Zurück zum Zitat Wnent J, Masterson S, Grasner JT et al (2015) EuReCa ONE – 27 Nations, ONE Europe, ONE Registry: a prospective observational analysis over one month in 27 resuscitation registries in Europe – the EuReCa ONE study protocol. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 23:7 Wnent J, Masterson S, Grasner JT et al (2015) EuReCa ONE – 27 Nations, ONE Europe, ONE Registry: a prospective observational analysis over one month in 27 resuscitation registries in Europe – the EuReCa ONE study protocol. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 23:7
Metadaten
Titel
Kurzdarstellung
Kapitel 1 der Leitlinien zur Reanimation 2015 des European Resuscitation Council
verfasst von
K.G. Monsieurs
J.P. Nolan
L.L. Bossaert
R. Greif
I.K. Maconochie
N.I. Nikolaou
G.D. Perkins
J. Soar
A. Truhlář
J. Wyllie
D.A. Zideman
on behalf of the ERC Guidelines 2015 Writing Group
Publikationsdatum
01.12.2015
Verlag
Springer Medizin
Erschienen in
Notfall + Rettungsmedizin / Ausgabe 8/2015
Print ISSN: 1434-6222
Elektronische ISSN: 1436-0578
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10049-015-0097-6