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02.10.2018 | Originalien | Sonderheft 1/2019

Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie 1/2019

Gender differences in paid employment after retirement

Psychosocial working conditions and well-being

Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie > Sonderheft 1/2019
Jeannette Weber, Annet de Lange, Andreas Müller
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s00391-018-1453-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.



An increasing number of persons continue to work after retirement age. This decision is often different between men and women as well as working histories, sectors and hierarchical positions; however, whether gender differences in working conditions and occupational well-being also exist in paid employment after retirement (PEAR) has not yet been investigated.


This study aimed to examine gender differences in working conditions and well-being of workers in PEAR.

Material and methods

In this study 784 employees (23.5% female) aged 65 years and older who were contracted by a Dutch temporary employment agency, participated in the baseline survey in 2011. Furthermore, a panel of 228 employees (25.9% female) participated again during a second wave in 2012. Job demands, job control, emotional exhaustion and job engagement were assessed at both time points by validated self-reporting measures.


Female employees worked fewer years in paid employment before 65 years of age, were more likely to be single, divorced or widowed, had a smaller income and worked less hours during PEAR than men. In the baseline analysis, females reported less job control and higher job stress than men. No gender differences were found on emotional exhaustion, engagement or job demands. Over the study period emotional exhaustion only increased in females. The longitudinal trend of job demands, control and engagement did not significantly differ between both sexes.


The results suggest that working conditions of PEAR are less favorable for women than for men. Furthermore, the longitudinal trend of emotional exhaustion seems to be more disadvantageous for women.

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Supplemental Material 1 Drop-out analysis for all participants, male participants and female participants with data from wave 1
Supplemental Material 2 Spearman correlation between study variables
Supplemental Material 3 Results of repeated measures ANCOVA
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