Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen

Erschienen in: Notfall + Rettungsmedizin 4/2021

08.06.2021 | ERC Leitlinien

Erweiterte lebensrettende Maßnahmen für Erwachsene

Leitlinien des European Resuscitation Council 2021

verfasst von: Jasmeet Soar, Bernd W. Böttiger, Pierre Carli, Keith Couper, Charles D. Deakin, Therese Djärv, Carsten Lott, Theresa Olasveengen, Peter Paal, Tommaso Pellis, Gavin D. Perkins, Claudio Sandroni, Jerry P. Nolan

Erschienen in: Notfall + Rettungsmedizin | Ausgabe 4/2021

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten

Zusammenfassung

Diese Leitlinien des Europäischen Reanimationsrates für erweiterte lebensrettende Maßnahmen basieren auf dem Internationalen Konsens 2020 zur Wissenschaft in kardiopulmonaler Wiederbelebung mit Behandlungsempfehlungen. Dieser Abschnitt enthält Leitlinien zur Prävention und zur ALS(Advanced Life Support)-Behandlung von Kreislaufstillstand innerhalb und außerhalb des Krankenhauses.
Fußnoten
1
Die Rechtslage zur Organspende nach persistierendem Kreislaufstillstand (Donation after Circulatory Determination of Death, DCD) ist in den deutschsprachigen Ländern unterschiedlich: während in Deutschland für die Organspende grundsätzlich die Feststellung des Hirntodes erforderlich ist, ist in Österreich, der Schweiz und Luxemburg die Organspende bei erfolgloser Reanimation grundsätzlich möglich. Im Moment wird sie allerdings aus organisatorisch/logistischen Gründen nur an wenigen Orten durchgeführt.
 
Literatur
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Soar J, Berg KM, Andersen LW et al (2020) Adult advanced life support: 2020 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 156:A80–A119 PubMedPubMedCentral Soar J, Berg KM, Andersen LW et al (2020) Adult advanced life support: 2020 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 156:A80–A119 PubMedPubMedCentral
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Nolan JP, Monsieurs KG, Bossaert L et al (2020) European Resuscitation Council COVID-19 guidelines executive summary. Resuscitation 153:45–55 PubMedPubMedCentral Nolan JP, Monsieurs KG, Bossaert L et al (2020) European Resuscitation Council COVID-19 guidelines executive summary. Resuscitation 153:45–55 PubMedPubMedCentral
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Morley PT, Nolan JP et al (2020) International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation: COVID-19 consensus on science, treatment recommendations and task force insights. Resuscitation 151:145–147 PubMedPubMedCentral Perkins GD, Morley PT, Nolan JP et al (2020) International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation: COVID-19 consensus on science, treatment recommendations and task force insights. Resuscitation 151:145–147 PubMedPubMedCentral
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Couper K, Taylor-Phillips S, Grove A et al (2020) COVID-19 in cardiac arrest and infection risk to rescuers: a systematic review. Resuscitation 151:59–66 PubMedPubMedCentral Couper K, Taylor-Phillips S, Grove A et al (2020) COVID-19 in cardiac arrest and infection risk to rescuers: a systematic review. Resuscitation 151:59–66 PubMedPubMedCentral
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Andersen LW, Holmberg MJ, Berg KM, Donnino MW, Granfeldt A (2019) In-hospital cardiac arrest: a review. JAMA 321:1200–1210 PubMedPubMedCentral Andersen LW, Holmberg MJ, Berg KM, Donnino MW, Granfeldt A (2019) In-hospital cardiac arrest: a review. JAMA 321:1200–1210 PubMedPubMedCentral
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Hessulf F, Karlsson T, Lundgren P et al (2018) Factors of importance to 30-day survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden—a population-based register study of more than 18,000 cases. Int J Cardiol 255:237–242 PubMed Hessulf F, Karlsson T, Lundgren P et al (2018) Factors of importance to 30-day survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest in Sweden—a population-based register study of more than 18,000 cases. Int J Cardiol 255:237–242 PubMed
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Aune S, Herlitz J, Bang A (2005) Characteristics of patients who die in hospital with no attempt at resuscitation. Resuscitation 65:291–299 PubMed Aune S, Herlitz J, Bang A (2005) Characteristics of patients who die in hospital with no attempt at resuscitation. Resuscitation 65:291–299 PubMed
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Skrifvars MB, Hilden HM, Finne P, Rosenberg PH, Castren M (2003) Prevalence of’ “do not attempt resuscitation” orders and living wills among patients suffering cardiac arrest in four secondary hospitals. Resuscitation 58:65–71 PubMed Skrifvars MB, Hilden HM, Finne P, Rosenberg PH, Castren M (2003) Prevalence of’ “do not attempt resuscitation” orders and living wills among patients suffering cardiac arrest in four secondary hospitals. Resuscitation 58:65–71 PubMed
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Fritz ZB, Heywood RM, Moffat SC, Bradshaw LE, Fuld JP (2014) Characteristics and outcome of patients with DNACPR orders in an acute hospital; an observational study. Resuscitation 85:104–108 PubMed Fritz ZB, Heywood RM, Moffat SC, Bradshaw LE, Fuld JP (2014) Characteristics and outcome of patients with DNACPR orders in an acute hospital; an observational study. Resuscitation 85:104–108 PubMed
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Moskowitz A, Berg KM, Cocchi MN et al (2019) Cardiac arrest in the intensive care unit: an assessment of preventability. Resuscitation 145:15–20 PubMedPubMedCentral Moskowitz A, Berg KM, Cocchi MN et al (2019) Cardiac arrest in the intensive care unit: an assessment of preventability. Resuscitation 145:15–20 PubMedPubMedCentral
15.
Zurück zum Zitat Roberts D, Djarv T (2017) Preceding national early warnings scores among in-hospital cardiac arrests and their impact on survival. Am J Emerg Med 35:1601–1606 PubMed Roberts D, Djarv T (2017) Preceding national early warnings scores among in-hospital cardiac arrests and their impact on survival. Am J Emerg Med 35:1601–1606 PubMed
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Smith GB (2010) In-hospital cardiac arrest: Is it time for an in-hospital “chain of prevention”? Resuscitation 81:1209–1211 PubMed Smith GB (2010) In-hospital cardiac arrest: Is it time for an in-hospital “chain of prevention”? Resuscitation 81:1209–1211 PubMed
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Royal College of Physicians (2017) National Early Warning Score (NEWS) 2: Standardising the assessment of acute-illness severity in the NHS. Updated report of a working party. RCP, London Royal College of Physicians (2017) National Early Warning Score (NEWS) 2: Standardising the assessment of acute-illness severity in the NHS. Updated report of a working party. RCP, London
18.
Zurück zum Zitat National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2007) NICE clinical guideline 50. Acutely ill patients in hospital: recognition of and response to acute illness in adults in hospital. NICE, London National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (2007) NICE clinical guideline 50. Acutely ill patients in hospital: recognition of and response to acute illness in adults in hospital. NICE, London
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Greif R (2020) Education, implementation, and teams 2020 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 156:A188–A239 PubMed Greif R (2020) Education, implementation, and teams 2020 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 156:A188–A239 PubMed
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Nolan JP, Soar J, Smith GB et al (2014) Incidence and outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest in the United Kingdom National Cardiac Arrest Audit. Resuscitation 85:987–992 PubMed Nolan JP, Soar J, Smith GB et al (2014) Incidence and outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest in the United Kingdom National Cardiac Arrest Audit. Resuscitation 85:987–992 PubMed
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Smith GB, Redfern O, Maruotti A, Recio-Saucedo A, Griffiths P, Missed Care Study Group (2020) The association between nurse staffing levels and a failure to respond to patients with deranged physiology: a retrospective observational study in the UK. Resuscitation 149:202–208 PubMed Smith GB, Redfern O, Maruotti A, Recio-Saucedo A, Griffiths P, Missed Care Study Group (2020) The association between nurse staffing levels and a failure to respond to patients with deranged physiology: a retrospective observational study in the UK. Resuscitation 149:202–208 PubMed
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Griffiths P, Recio-Saucedo A, Dall’Ora C et al (2018) The association between nurse staffing and omissions in nursing care: a systematic review. J Adv Nurs 74:1474–1487 PubMedPubMedCentral Griffiths P, Recio-Saucedo A, Dall’Ora C et al (2018) The association between nurse staffing and omissions in nursing care: a systematic review. J Adv Nurs 74:1474–1487 PubMedPubMedCentral
23.
Zurück zum Zitat Thoren A, Rawshani A, Herlitz J et al (2020) ECG-monitoring of in-hospital cardiac arrest and factors associated with survival. Resuscitation 150:130–138 PubMed Thoren A, Rawshani A, Herlitz J et al (2020) ECG-monitoring of in-hospital cardiac arrest and factors associated with survival. Resuscitation 150:130–138 PubMed
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Soar J, Nolan JP, Böttiger BW et al (2015) European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation 2015: section 3. Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation 95:100–147 PubMed Soar J, Nolan JP, Böttiger BW et al (2015) European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation 2015: section 3. Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation 95:100–147 PubMed
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Douw G, Schoonhoven L, Holwerda T et al (2015) Nurses’ worry or concern and early recognition of deteriorating patients on general wards in acute care hospitals: a systematic review. Crit Care 19:230 PubMedPubMedCentral Douw G, Schoonhoven L, Holwerda T et al (2015) Nurses’ worry or concern and early recognition of deteriorating patients on general wards in acute care hospitals: a systematic review. Crit Care 19:230 PubMedPubMedCentral
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Douw G, Huisman-de Waal G, van Zanten ARH, van der Hoeven JG, Schoonhoven L (2017) Capturing early signs of deterioration: the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score and its value in the Rapid Response System. J Clin Nurs 26:2605–2613 PubMed Douw G, Huisman-de Waal G, van Zanten ARH, van der Hoeven JG, Schoonhoven L (2017) Capturing early signs of deterioration: the dutch-early-nurse-worry-indicator-score and its value in the Rapid Response System. J Clin Nurs 26:2605–2613 PubMed
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Marshall S, Harrison J, Flanagan B (2009) The teaching of a structured tool improves the clarity and content of interprofessional clinical communication. Qual Saf Health Care 18:137–140 PubMed Marshall S, Harrison J, Flanagan B (2009) The teaching of a structured tool improves the clarity and content of interprofessional clinical communication. Qual Saf Health Care 18:137–140 PubMed
28.
Zurück zum Zitat Buljac-Samardzic M, Doekhie KD, van Wijngaarden JDH (2020) Interventions to improve team effectiveness within health care: a systematic review of the past decade. Hum Resour Health 18:2 PubMedPubMedCentral Buljac-Samardzic M, Doekhie KD, van Wijngaarden JDH (2020) Interventions to improve team effectiveness within health care: a systematic review of the past decade. Hum Resour Health 18:2 PubMedPubMedCentral
29.
Zurück zum Zitat Muller M, Jurgens J, Redaelli M, Klingberg K, Hautz WE, Stock S (2018) Impact of the communication and patient hand-off tool SBAR on patient safety: a systematic review. BMJ Open 8:e22202 PubMedPubMedCentral Muller M, Jurgens J, Redaelli M, Klingberg K, Hautz WE, Stock S (2018) Impact of the communication and patient hand-off tool SBAR on patient safety: a systematic review. BMJ Open 8:e22202 PubMedPubMedCentral
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Brady PW, Zix J, Brilli R et al (2015) Developing and evaluating the success of a family activated medical emergency team: a quality improvement report. BMJ Qual Saf 24:203–211 PubMed Brady PW, Zix J, Brilli R et al (2015) Developing and evaluating the success of a family activated medical emergency team: a quality improvement report. BMJ Qual Saf 24:203–211 PubMed
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Albutt AK, O’Hara JK, Conner MT, Fletcher SJ, Lawton RJ (2017) Is there a role for patients and their relatives in escalating clinical deterioration in hospital? A systematic review. Health Expect 20:818–825 PubMed Albutt AK, O’Hara JK, Conner MT, Fletcher SJ, Lawton RJ (2017) Is there a role for patients and their relatives in escalating clinical deterioration in hospital? A systematic review. Health Expect 20:818–825 PubMed
32.
Zurück zum Zitat McKinney A, Fitzsimons D, Blackwood B, McGaughey J (2019) Patient and family-initiated escalation of care: a qualitative systematic review protocol. Syst Rev 8:91 PubMedPubMedCentral McKinney A, Fitzsimons D, Blackwood B, McGaughey J (2019) Patient and family-initiated escalation of care: a qualitative systematic review protocol. Syst Rev 8:91 PubMedPubMedCentral
33.
Zurück zum Zitat Subbe CP, Bannard-Smith J, Bunch J et al (2019) Quality metrics for the evaluation of Rapid Response Systems: proceedings from the third international consensus conference on Rapid Response Systems. Resuscitation 141:1–12 PubMed Subbe CP, Bannard-Smith J, Bunch J et al (2019) Quality metrics for the evaluation of Rapid Response Systems: proceedings from the third international consensus conference on Rapid Response Systems. Resuscitation 141:1–12 PubMed
34.
Zurück zum Zitat Winters BD, Weaver SJ, Pfoh ER, Yang T, Pham JC, Dy SM (2013) Rapid-response systems as a patient safety strategy: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med 158:417–425 PubMedPubMedCentral Winters BD, Weaver SJ, Pfoh ER, Yang T, Pham JC, Dy SM (2013) Rapid-response systems as a patient safety strategy: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med 158:417–425 PubMedPubMedCentral
35.
Zurück zum Zitat Virani SS, Alonso A, Benjamin EJ et al (2020) Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2020 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 141:e139–e596 PubMed Virani SS, Alonso A, Benjamin EJ et al (2020) Heart disease and stroke statistics – 2020 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation 141:e139–e596 PubMed
36.
Zurück zum Zitat Kiguchi T, Okubo M, Nishiyama C et al (2020) Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest across the World: first report from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). Resuscitation 152:39–49 PubMed Kiguchi T, Okubo M, Nishiyama C et al (2020) Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest across the World: first report from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). Resuscitation 152:39–49 PubMed
37.
Zurück zum Zitat Grasner JT, Wnent J, Herlitz J et al (2020) Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Europe—results of the EuReCa TWO study. Resuscitation 148:218–226 PubMed Grasner JT, Wnent J, Herlitz J et al (2020) Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Europe—results of the EuReCa TWO study. Resuscitation 148:218–226 PubMed
38.
Zurück zum Zitat Gräsner JT, Herlitz J, Tjelmeland IBM et al (2021) European Resuscitation Council guidelines 2021: epidemiology of cardiac arrest in Europe. Resuscitation 161:61–79 PubMed Gräsner JT, Herlitz J, Tjelmeland IBM et al (2021) European Resuscitation Council guidelines 2021: epidemiology of cardiac arrest in Europe. Resuscitation 161:61–79 PubMed
39.
Zurück zum Zitat Basso C, Carturan E, Pilichou K, Rizzo S, Corrado D, Thiene G (2010) Sudden cardiac death with normal heart: molecular autopsy. Cardiovasc Pathol 19:321–325 PubMed Basso C, Carturan E, Pilichou K, Rizzo S, Corrado D, Thiene G (2010) Sudden cardiac death with normal heart: molecular autopsy. Cardiovasc Pathol 19:321–325 PubMed
40.
Zurück zum Zitat Goldberger JJ, Basu A, Boineau R et al (2014) Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death: a plan for the future. Circulation 129:516–526 PubMed Goldberger JJ, Basu A, Boineau R et al (2014) Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death: a plan for the future. Circulation 129:516–526 PubMed
41.
Zurück zum Zitat Harmon KG, Drezner JA, Wilson MG, Sharma S (2014) Incidence of sudden cardiac death in athletes: a state-of-the-art review. Heart 100:1227–1234 PubMed Harmon KG, Drezner JA, Wilson MG, Sharma S (2014) Incidence of sudden cardiac death in athletes: a state-of-the-art review. Heart 100:1227–1234 PubMed
42.
Zurück zum Zitat Kramer MR, Drori Y, Lev B (1988) Sudden death in young soldiers. High incidence of syncope prior to death. Chest 93:345–347 PubMed Kramer MR, Drori Y, Lev B (1988) Sudden death in young soldiers. High incidence of syncope prior to death. Chest 93:345–347 PubMed
43.
Zurück zum Zitat Mazzanti A, O’Rourke S, Ng K et al (2014) The usual suspects in sudden cardiac death of the young: a focus on inherited arrhythmogenic diseases. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 12:499–519 PubMed Mazzanti A, O’Rourke S, Ng K et al (2014) The usual suspects in sudden cardiac death of the young: a focus on inherited arrhythmogenic diseases. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 12:499–519 PubMed
44.
Zurück zum Zitat Quigley F, Greene M, O’Connor D, Kelly F (2005) A survey of the causes of sudden cardiac death in the under 35-year-age group. Ir Med J 98:232–235 PubMed Quigley F, Greene M, O’Connor D, Kelly F (2005) A survey of the causes of sudden cardiac death in the under 35-year-age group. Ir Med J 98:232–235 PubMed
45.
Zurück zum Zitat Winkel BG, Risgaard B, Sadjadieh G, Bundgaard H, Haunso S, Tfelt-Hansen J (2014) Sudden cardiac death in children (1–18 years): symptoms and causes of death in a nationwide setting. Eur Heart J 35:868–875 PubMed Winkel BG, Risgaard B, Sadjadieh G, Bundgaard H, Haunso S, Tfelt-Hansen J (2014) Sudden cardiac death in children (1–18 years): symptoms and causes of death in a nationwide setting. Eur Heart J 35:868–875 PubMed
46.
Zurück zum Zitat Wisten A, Forsberg H, Krantz P, Messner T (2002) Sudden cardiac death in 15–35-year olds in Sweden during 1992–99. J Intern Med 252:529–536 PubMed Wisten A, Forsberg H, Krantz P, Messner T (2002) Sudden cardiac death in 15–35-year olds in Sweden during 1992–99. J Intern Med 252:529–536 PubMed
47.
Zurück zum Zitat Wisten A, Messner T (2005) Symptoms preceding sudden cardiac death in the young are common but often misinterpreted. Scand Cardiovasc J 39:143–149 PubMed Wisten A, Messner T (2005) Symptoms preceding sudden cardiac death in the young are common but often misinterpreted. Scand Cardiovasc J 39:143–149 PubMed
48.
Zurück zum Zitat Wisten A, Messner T (2005) Young Swedish patients with sudden cardiac death have a lifestyle very similar to a control population. Scand Cardiovasc J 39:137–142 PubMed Wisten A, Messner T (2005) Young Swedish patients with sudden cardiac death have a lifestyle very similar to a control population. Scand Cardiovasc J 39:137–142 PubMed
49.
Zurück zum Zitat Kandala J, Oommen C, Kern KB (2017) Sudden cardiac death. Br Med Bull 122:5–15 PubMed Kandala J, Oommen C, Kern KB (2017) Sudden cardiac death. Br Med Bull 122:5–15 PubMed
50.
Zurück zum Zitat Winkel BG, Jabbari R, Tfelt-Hansen J (2017) How to prevent SCD in the young? Int J Cardiol 237:6–9 PubMed Winkel BG, Jabbari R, Tfelt-Hansen J (2017) How to prevent SCD in the young? Int J Cardiol 237:6–9 PubMed
51.
Zurück zum Zitat Wellens HJ, Schwartz PJ, Lindemans FW et al (2014) Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death: current status and challenges for the future. Eur Heart J 35:1642–1651 PubMedPubMedCentral Wellens HJ, Schwartz PJ, Lindemans FW et al (2014) Risk stratification for sudden cardiac death: current status and challenges for the future. Eur Heart J 35:1642–1651 PubMedPubMedCentral
52.
Zurück zum Zitat Buxton AE, Lee KL, DiCarlo L et al (2000) Electrophysiologic testing to identify patients with coronary artery disease who are at risk for sudden death. Multicenter Unsustained Tachycardia Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med 342:1937–1945 PubMed Buxton AE, Lee KL, DiCarlo L et al (2000) Electrophysiologic testing to identify patients with coronary artery disease who are at risk for sudden death. Multicenter Unsustained Tachycardia Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med 342:1937–1945 PubMed
53.
Zurück zum Zitat Buxton AE (2017) Sudden death in ischemic heart disease—2017. Int J Cardiol 237:64–66 PubMed Buxton AE (2017) Sudden death in ischemic heart disease—2017. Int J Cardiol 237:64–66 PubMed
54.
Zurück zum Zitat Levine YC, Rosenberg MA, Mittleman M et al (2014) B‑type natriuretic peptide is a major predictor of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Heart Rhythm 11:1109–1116 PubMed Levine YC, Rosenberg MA, Mittleman M et al (2014) B‑type natriuretic peptide is a major predictor of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Heart Rhythm 11:1109–1116 PubMed
55.
Zurück zum Zitat Levine YC, Matos J, Rosenberg MA, Manning WJ, Josephson ME, Buxton AE (2016) Left ventricular sphericity independently predicts appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy. Heart Rhythm 13:490–497 PubMed Levine YC, Matos J, Rosenberg MA, Manning WJ, Josephson ME, Buxton AE (2016) Left ventricular sphericity independently predicts appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy. Heart Rhythm 13:490–497 PubMed
56.
Zurück zum Zitat Brignole M, Moya A, de Lange FJ et al (2018) 2018 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope. Eur Heart J 39:1883–1948 PubMed Brignole M, Moya A, de Lange FJ et al (2018) 2018 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope. Eur Heart J 39:1883–1948 PubMed
57.
Zurück zum Zitat Stecker EC, Reinier K, Marijon E et al (2014) Public health burden of sudden cardiac death in the United States. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 7:212–217 PubMedPubMedCentral Stecker EC, Reinier K, Marijon E et al (2014) Public health burden of sudden cardiac death in the United States. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 7:212–217 PubMedPubMedCentral
58.
Zurück zum Zitat Jayaraman R, Reinier K, Nair S et al (2018) Risk factors of sudden cardiac death in the young: multiple-year community-wide assessment. Circulation 137:1561–1570 PubMed Jayaraman R, Reinier K, Nair S et al (2018) Risk factors of sudden cardiac death in the young: multiple-year community-wide assessment. Circulation 137:1561–1570 PubMed
59.
Zurück zum Zitat Bjune T, Risgaard B, Kruckow L et al (2018) Post-mortem toxicology in young sudden cardiac death victims: a nationwide cohort study. Europace 20:614–621 PubMed Bjune T, Risgaard B, Kruckow L et al (2018) Post-mortem toxicology in young sudden cardiac death victims: a nationwide cohort study. Europace 20:614–621 PubMed
60.
Zurück zum Zitat Behr ER, Dalageorgou C, Christiansen M et al (2008) Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome: familial evaluation identifies inheritable heart disease in the majority of families. Eur Heart J 29:1670–1680 PubMed Behr ER, Dalageorgou C, Christiansen M et al (2008) Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome: familial evaluation identifies inheritable heart disease in the majority of families. Eur Heart J 29:1670–1680 PubMed
61.
Zurück zum Zitat Giudicessi JR, Ackerman MJ (2018) Role of genetic heart disease in sentinel sudden cardiac arrest survivors across the age spectrum. Int J Cardiol 270:214–220 PubMedPubMedCentral Giudicessi JR, Ackerman MJ (2018) Role of genetic heart disease in sentinel sudden cardiac arrest survivors across the age spectrum. Int J Cardiol 270:214–220 PubMedPubMedCentral
63.
Zurück zum Zitat Maron BJ (2018) Clinical course and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 379:655–668 PubMed Maron BJ (2018) Clinical course and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. N Engl J Med 379:655–668 PubMed
64.
Zurück zum Zitat Stecker EC, Vickers C, Waltz J et al (2006) Population-based analysis of sudden cardiac death with and without left ventricular systolic dysfunction: two-year findings from the Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 47:1161–1166 PubMed Stecker EC, Vickers C, Waltz J et al (2006) Population-based analysis of sudden cardiac death with and without left ventricular systolic dysfunction: two-year findings from the Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 47:1161–1166 PubMed
65.
Zurück zum Zitat Marijon E, Uy-Evanado A, Dumas F et al (2016) Warning symptoms are associated with survival from sudden cardiac arrest. Ann Intern Med 164:23–29 PubMedPubMedCentral Marijon E, Uy-Evanado A, Dumas F et al (2016) Warning symptoms are associated with survival from sudden cardiac arrest. Ann Intern Med 164:23–29 PubMedPubMedCentral
66.
Zurück zum Zitat Müller D, Agrawal R, Arntz HR (2006) How sudden is sudden cardiac death? Circulation 114:1146–1150 PubMed Müller D, Agrawal R, Arntz HR (2006) How sudden is sudden cardiac death? Circulation 114:1146–1150 PubMed
67.
Zurück zum Zitat Nishiyama C, Iwami T, Kawamura T et al (2013) Prodromal symptoms of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: a report from a large-scale population-based cohort study. Resuscitation 84:558–563 PubMed Nishiyama C, Iwami T, Kawamura T et al (2013) Prodromal symptoms of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: a report from a large-scale population-based cohort study. Resuscitation 84:558–563 PubMed
68.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakin CD, Quartermain A, Ellery J (2020) Do patients suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest present to the ambulance service with symptoms in the preceding 48 h? Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 6:308–314 PubMed Deakin CD, Quartermain A, Ellery J (2020) Do patients suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest present to the ambulance service with symptoms in the preceding 48 h? Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 6:308–314 PubMed
69.
Zurück zum Zitat Priori SG, Blomström-Lundqvist C (2015) 2015 European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death summarized by co-chairs. Eur Heart J 36:2757–2759 PubMed Priori SG, Blomström-Lundqvist C (2015) 2015 European Society of Cardiology guidelines for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death summarized by co-chairs. Eur Heart J 36:2757–2759 PubMed
70.
Zurück zum Zitat Elliott PM, Anastasakis A, Borger MA et al (2014) 2014 ESC guidelines on diagnosis and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Management of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 35:2733–2779 PubMed Elliott PM, Anastasakis A, Borger MA et al (2014) 2014 ESC guidelines on diagnosis and management of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: the Task Force for the Diagnosis and Management of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 35:2733–2779 PubMed
71.
Zurück zum Zitat Brugada J, Brugada R, Brugada P (2003) Determinants of sudden cardiac death in individuals with the electrocardiographic pattern of Brugada syndrome and no previous cardiac arrest. Circulation 108:3092–3096 PubMed Brugada J, Brugada R, Brugada P (2003) Determinants of sudden cardiac death in individuals with the electrocardiographic pattern of Brugada syndrome and no previous cardiac arrest. Circulation 108:3092–3096 PubMed
72.
Zurück zum Zitat Jons C, Moss AJ, Goldenberg I et al (2010) Risk of fatal arrhythmic events in long QT syndrome patients after syncope. J Am Coll Cardiol 55:783–788 PubMed Jons C, Moss AJ, Goldenberg I et al (2010) Risk of fatal arrhythmic events in long QT syndrome patients after syncope. J Am Coll Cardiol 55:783–788 PubMed
73.
Zurück zum Zitat Krahn AD, Healey JS, Simpson CS et al (2012) Sentinel symptoms in patients with unexplained cardiac arrest: from the cardiac arrest survivors with preserved ejection fraction registry (CASPER). J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 23:60–66 PubMed Krahn AD, Healey JS, Simpson CS et al (2012) Sentinel symptoms in patients with unexplained cardiac arrest: from the cardiac arrest survivors with preserved ejection fraction registry (CASPER). J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 23:60–66 PubMed
74.
Zurück zum Zitat Marcus FI, McKenna WJ, Sherrill D et al (2010) Diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia: proposed modification of the task force criteria. Eur Heart J 31:806–814 PubMedPubMedCentral Marcus FI, McKenna WJ, Sherrill D et al (2010) Diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia: proposed modification of the task force criteria. Eur Heart J 31:806–814 PubMedPubMedCentral
75.
Zurück zum Zitat Marjamaa A, Hiippala A, Arrhenius B et al (2012) Intravenous epinephrine infusion test in diagnosis of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 23:194–199 PubMed Marjamaa A, Hiippala A, Arrhenius B et al (2012) Intravenous epinephrine infusion test in diagnosis of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 23:194–199 PubMed
76.
Zurück zum Zitat Nava A, Bauce B, Basso C et al (2000) Clinical profile and long-term follow-up of 37 families with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 36:2226–2233 PubMed Nava A, Bauce B, Basso C et al (2000) Clinical profile and long-term follow-up of 37 families with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 36:2226–2233 PubMed
77.
Zurück zum Zitat Priori SG, Napolitano C, Gasparini M et al (2002) Natural history of Brugada syndrome: insights for risk stratification and management. Circulation 105:1342–1347 PubMed Priori SG, Napolitano C, Gasparini M et al (2002) Natural history of Brugada syndrome: insights for risk stratification and management. Circulation 105:1342–1347 PubMed
78.
Zurück zum Zitat Schinkel AF (2013) Implantable cardioverter defibrillators in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy: patient outcomes, incidence of appropriate and inappropriate interventions, and complications. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 6:562–568 PubMed Schinkel AF (2013) Implantable cardioverter defibrillators in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy: patient outcomes, incidence of appropriate and inappropriate interventions, and complications. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 6:562–568 PubMed
79.
Zurück zum Zitat Schwartz PJ, Spazzolini C, Priori SG et al (2010) Who are the long-QT syndrome patients who receive an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and what happens to them? Data from the European Long-QT Syndrome Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (LQTS ICD) Registry. Circulation 122:1272–1282 PubMed Schwartz PJ, Spazzolini C, Priori SG et al (2010) Who are the long-QT syndrome patients who receive an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and what happens to them? Data from the European Long-QT Syndrome Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (LQTS ICD) Registry. Circulation 122:1272–1282 PubMed
80.
Zurück zum Zitat Spirito P, Autore C, Rapezzi C et al (2009) Syncope and risk of sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 119:1703–1710 PubMed Spirito P, Autore C, Rapezzi C et al (2009) Syncope and risk of sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Circulation 119:1703–1710 PubMed
81.
Zurück zum Zitat Quinn J, McDermott D, Stiell I, Kohn M, Wells G (2006) Prospective validation of the San Francisco Syncope Rule to predict patients with serious outcomes. Ann Emerg Med 47:448–454 PubMed Quinn J, McDermott D, Stiell I, Kohn M, Wells G (2006) Prospective validation of the San Francisco Syncope Rule to predict patients with serious outcomes. Ann Emerg Med 47:448–454 PubMed
82.
Zurück zum Zitat Reed MJ, Newby DE, Coull AJ, Prescott RJ, Jacques KG, Gray AJ (2010) The ROSE (risk stratification of syncope in the emergency department) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 55:713–721 PubMed Reed MJ, Newby DE, Coull AJ, Prescott RJ, Jacques KG, Gray AJ (2010) The ROSE (risk stratification of syncope in the emergency department) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 55:713–721 PubMed
83.
Zurück zum Zitat Quinn JV, Stiell IG, McDermott DA, Sellers KL, Kohn MA, Wells GA (2004) Derivation of the San Francisco Syncope Rule to predict patients with short-term serious outcomes. Ann Emerg Med 43:224–232 PubMed Quinn JV, Stiell IG, McDermott DA, Sellers KL, Kohn MA, Wells GA (2004) Derivation of the San Francisco Syncope Rule to predict patients with short-term serious outcomes. Ann Emerg Med 43:224–232 PubMed
84.
Zurück zum Zitat Del Rosso A, Ungar A, Maggi R et al (2008) Clinical predictors of cardiac syncope at initial evaluation in patients referred urgently to a general hospital: the EGSYS score. Heart 94:1620–1626 PubMed Del Rosso A, Ungar A, Maggi R et al (2008) Clinical predictors of cardiac syncope at initial evaluation in patients referred urgently to a general hospital: the EGSYS score. Heart 94:1620–1626 PubMed
85.
Zurück zum Zitat Alboni P, Brignole M, Menozzi C et al (2001) Diagnostic value of history in patients with syncope with or without heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 37:1921–1928 PubMed Alboni P, Brignole M, Menozzi C et al (2001) Diagnostic value of history in patients with syncope with or without heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 37:1921–1928 PubMed
86.
Zurück zum Zitat Calkins H, Shyr Y, Frumin H, Schork A, Morady F (1995) The value of the clinical history in the differentiation of syncope due to ventricular tachycardia, atrioventricular block, and neurocardiogenic syncope. Am J Med 98:365–373 PubMed Calkins H, Shyr Y, Frumin H, Schork A, Morady F (1995) The value of the clinical history in the differentiation of syncope due to ventricular tachycardia, atrioventricular block, and neurocardiogenic syncope. Am J Med 98:365–373 PubMed
87.
Zurück zum Zitat Costantino G, Perego F, Dipaola F et al (2008) Short- and long-term prognosis of syncope, risk factors, and role of hospital admission: results from the STePS (Short-Term Prognosis of Syncope) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 51:276–283 PubMed Costantino G, Perego F, Dipaola F et al (2008) Short- and long-term prognosis of syncope, risk factors, and role of hospital admission: results from the STePS (Short-Term Prognosis of Syncope) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 51:276–283 PubMed
88.
Zurück zum Zitat Colman N, Bakker A, Linzer M, Reitsma JB, Wieling W, Wilde AA (2009) Value of history-taking in syncope patients: in whom to suspect long QT syndrome? Europace 11:937–943 PubMed Colman N, Bakker A, Linzer M, Reitsma JB, Wieling W, Wilde AA (2009) Value of history-taking in syncope patients: in whom to suspect long QT syndrome? Europace 11:937–943 PubMed
89.
Zurück zum Zitat Jamjoom AA, Nikkar-Esfahani A, Fitzgerald JE (2009) Operating theatre related syncope in medical students: a cross sectional study. BMC Med Educ 9:14 PubMedPubMedCentral Jamjoom AA, Nikkar-Esfahani A, Fitzgerald JE (2009) Operating theatre related syncope in medical students: a cross sectional study. BMC Med Educ 9:14 PubMedPubMedCentral
90.
Zurück zum Zitat Priori SG, Blomström-Lundqvist C, Mazzanti A et al (2015) 2015 ESC guidelines for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death: The Task Force for the Management of Patients with Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Endorsed by: Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). Eur Heart J 36:2793–2867 PubMed Priori SG, Blomström-Lundqvist C, Mazzanti A et al (2015) 2015 ESC guidelines for the management of patients with ventricular arrhythmias and the prevention of sudden cardiac death: The Task Force for the Management of Patients with Ventricular Arrhythmias and the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Endorsed by: Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). Eur Heart J 36:2793–2867 PubMed
91.
Zurück zum Zitat Sheldon R, Rose S, Connolly S, Ritchie D, Koshman ML, Frenneaux M (2006) Diagnostic criteria for vasovagal syncope based on a quantitative history. Eur Heart J 27:344–350 PubMed Sheldon R, Rose S, Connolly S, Ritchie D, Koshman ML, Frenneaux M (2006) Diagnostic criteria for vasovagal syncope based on a quantitative history. Eur Heart J 27:344–350 PubMed
92.
Zurück zum Zitat Mahmood S, Lim L, Akram Y, Alford-Morales S, Sherin K, Committee APP (2013) Screening for sudden cardiac death before participation in high school and collegiate sports: American College of Preventive Medicine position statement on preventive practice. Am J Prev Med 45:130–133 PubMed Mahmood S, Lim L, Akram Y, Alford-Morales S, Sherin K, Committee APP (2013) Screening for sudden cardiac death before participation in high school and collegiate sports: American College of Preventive Medicine position statement on preventive practice. Am J Prev Med 45:130–133 PubMed
93.
Zurück zum Zitat Hainline B, Drezner J, Baggish A et al (2017) Interassociation consensus statement on cardiovascular care of college student-athletes. Br J Sports Med 51:74–85 PubMed Hainline B, Drezner J, Baggish A et al (2017) Interassociation consensus statement on cardiovascular care of college student-athletes. Br J Sports Med 51:74–85 PubMed
94.
Zurück zum Zitat Malhotra A, Dhutia H, Finocchiaro G et al (2018) Outcomes of cardiac screening in adolescent soccer players. N Engl J Med 379:524–534 PubMed Malhotra A, Dhutia H, Finocchiaro G et al (2018) Outcomes of cardiac screening in adolescent soccer players. N Engl J Med 379:524–534 PubMed
95.
Zurück zum Zitat Brugada J, Katritsis DG, Arbelo E et al (2019) ESC guidelines for the management of patients with supraventricular tachycardia: the task force for the management of patients with supraventricular tachycardia of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2020(41):655–720 Brugada J, Katritsis DG, Arbelo E et al (2019) ESC guidelines for the management of patients with supraventricular tachycardia: the task force for the management of patients with supraventricular tachycardia of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2020(41):655–720
96.
Zurück zum Zitat Perez MV, Mahaffey KW, Hedlin H et al (2019) Large-scale assessment of a smartwatch to identify atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 381:1909–1917 PubMedPubMedCentral Perez MV, Mahaffey KW, Hedlin H et al (2019) Large-scale assessment of a smartwatch to identify atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 381:1909–1917 PubMedPubMedCentral
97.
Zurück zum Zitat Guo Y, Wang H, Zhang H et al (2019) Mobile photoplethysmographic technology to detect atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 74:2365–2375 PubMed Guo Y, Wang H, Zhang H et al (2019) Mobile photoplethysmographic technology to detect atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 74:2365–2375 PubMed
99.
Zurück zum Zitat Chan PS, Krumholz HM, Nichol G, Nallamothu BK (2008) Delayed time to defibrillation after in-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 358:9–17 PubMed Chan PS, Krumholz HM, Nichol G, Nallamothu BK (2008) Delayed time to defibrillation after in-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 358:9–17 PubMed
100.
Zurück zum Zitat Larsen MP, Eisenberg MS, Cummins RO, Hallstrom AP (1993) Predicting survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a graphic model. Ann Emerg Med 22:1652–1658 PubMed Larsen MP, Eisenberg MS, Cummins RO, Hallstrom AP (1993) Predicting survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a graphic model. Ann Emerg Med 22:1652–1658 PubMed
101.
Zurück zum Zitat Whitaker DK, Nolan JP, Castrén M, Abela C, Goldik Z (2017) Implementing a standard internal telephone number 2222 for cardiac arrest calls in all hospitals in Europe. Resuscitation 115:A14–A15 PubMed Whitaker DK, Nolan JP, Castrén M, Abela C, Goldik Z (2017) Implementing a standard internal telephone number 2222 for cardiac arrest calls in all hospitals in Europe. Resuscitation 115:A14–A15 PubMed
102.
Zurück zum Zitat Featherstone P, Chalmers T, Smith GB (2008) RSVP: a system for communication of deterioration in hospital patients. Br J Nurs 17:860–864 PubMed Featherstone P, Chalmers T, Smith GB (2008) RSVP: a system for communication of deterioration in hospital patients. Br J Nurs 17:860–864 PubMed
103.
Zurück zum Zitat De Meester K, Verspuy M, Monsieurs KG, Van Bogaert P (2013) SBAR improves nurse-physician communication and reduces unexpected death: a pre and post intervention study. Resuscitation 84:1192–1196 PubMed De Meester K, Verspuy M, Monsieurs KG, Van Bogaert P (2013) SBAR improves nurse-physician communication and reduces unexpected death: a pre and post intervention study. Resuscitation 84:1192–1196 PubMed
104.
Zurück zum Zitat Ornato JP, Peberdy MA, Reid RD, Feeser VR, Dhindsa HS (2012) Impact of resuscitation system errors on survival from in-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 83:63–69 PubMed Ornato JP, Peberdy MA, Reid RD, Feeser VR, Dhindsa HS (2012) Impact of resuscitation system errors on survival from in-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 83:63–69 PubMed
105.
Zurück zum Zitat Weng TI, Huang CH, Ma MH et al (2004) Improving the rate of return of spontaneous circulation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests with a formal, structured emergency resuscitation team. Resuscitation 60:137–142 PubMed Weng TI, Huang CH, Ma MH et al (2004) Improving the rate of return of spontaneous circulation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests with a formal, structured emergency resuscitation team. Resuscitation 60:137–142 PubMed
106.
Zurück zum Zitat Panesar SS, Ignatowicz AM, Donaldson LJ (2014) Errors in the management of cardiac arrests: an observational study of patient safety incidents in England. Resuscitation 85:1759–1763 PubMed Panesar SS, Ignatowicz AM, Donaldson LJ (2014) Errors in the management of cardiac arrests: an observational study of patient safety incidents in England. Resuscitation 85:1759–1763 PubMed
107.
Zurück zum Zitat Bray J, Nehme Z, Nguyen A et al (2020) A systematic review of the impact of emergency medical service practitioner experience and exposure to out of hospital cardiac arrest on patient outcomes. Resuscitation 155:134–142 PubMed Bray J, Nehme Z, Nguyen A et al (2020) A systematic review of the impact of emergency medical service practitioner experience and exposure to out of hospital cardiac arrest on patient outcomes. Resuscitation 155:134–142 PubMed
108.
Zurück zum Zitat Yeung J, Matsuyama T, Bray J, Reynolds J, Skrifvars MB (2019) Does care at a cardiac arrest centre improve outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest?—A systematic review. Resuscitation 137:102–115 PubMed Yeung J, Matsuyama T, Bray J, Reynolds J, Skrifvars MB (2019) Does care at a cardiac arrest centre improve outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest?—A systematic review. Resuscitation 137:102–115 PubMed
109.
Zurück zum Zitat Smyth M, Perkins G, Coppola A et al (2020) On behalf of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Education, Implementation and Teams Task Force. Prehospital termination of resuscitation (TOR) rules Draft Consensus on Science with Treatment Recommendations. International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Education, Implementation and Teams Task Force, 2020, January 6. http://​ilcor.​org Smyth M, Perkins G, Coppola A et al (2020) On behalf of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation Education, Implementation and Teams Task Force. Prehospital termination of resuscitation (TOR) rules Draft Consensus on Science with Treatment Recommendations. International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Education, Implementation and Teams Task Force, 2020, January 6. http://​ilcor.​org
110.
Zurück zum Zitat Olasveengen TM, Mancini ME, Perkins GD et al (2020) Adult basic life support: 2020 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Circulation 142:S41–S91 PubMed Olasveengen TM, Mancini ME, Perkins GD et al (2020) Adult basic life support: 2020 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Circulation 142:S41–S91 PubMed
111.
Zurück zum Zitat Nichol G, Sayre MR, Guerra F, Poole J (2017) Defibrillation for ventricular fibrillation: a shocking update. J Am Coll Cardiol 70:1496–1509 PubMed Nichol G, Sayre MR, Guerra F, Poole J (2017) Defibrillation for ventricular fibrillation: a shocking update. J Am Coll Cardiol 70:1496–1509 PubMed
112.
Zurück zum Zitat Dyson K, Bray JE, Smith K, Bernard S, Straney L, Finn J (2016) Paramedic exposure to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation is associated with patient survival. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 9:154–160 PubMed Dyson K, Bray JE, Smith K, Bernard S, Straney L, Finn J (2016) Paramedic exposure to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation is associated with patient survival. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 9:154–160 PubMed
113.
Zurück zum Zitat Tuttle JE, Hubble MW (2018) Paramedic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest case volume is a predictor of return of spontaneous circulation. West J Emerg Med 19:654–659 PubMedPubMedCentral Tuttle JE, Hubble MW (2018) Paramedic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest case volume is a predictor of return of spontaneous circulation. West J Emerg Med 19:654–659 PubMedPubMedCentral
114.
Zurück zum Zitat Appelboam A, Reuben A, Mann C et al (2015) Postural modification to the standard Valsalva manoeuvre for emergency treatment of supraventricular tachycardias (REVERT): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 386:1747–1753 PubMed Appelboam A, Reuben A, Mann C et al (2015) Postural modification to the standard Valsalva manoeuvre for emergency treatment of supraventricular tachycardias (REVERT): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 386:1747–1753 PubMed
115.
Zurück zum Zitat Smith GD, Fry MM, Taylor D, Morgans A, Cantwell K (2015) Effectiveness of the Valsalva manoeuvre for reversion of supraventricular tachycardia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD9502 Smith GD, Fry MM, Taylor D, Morgans A, Cantwell K (2015) Effectiveness of the Valsalva manoeuvre for reversion of supraventricular tachycardia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2:CD9502
116.
Zurück zum Zitat Smith G, Morgans A, Boyle M (2009) Use of the Valsalva manoeuvre in the prehospital setting: a review of the literature. Emerg Med Clin North Am 26:8–10 Smith G, Morgans A, Boyle M (2009) Use of the Valsalva manoeuvre in the prehospital setting: a review of the literature. Emerg Med Clin North Am 26:8–10
117.
Zurück zum Zitat Lim SH, Anantharaman V, Teo WS, Goh PP, Tan AT (1998) Comparison of treatment of supraventricular tachycardia by Valsalva maneuver and carotid sinus massage. Ann Emerg Med 31:30–35 PubMed Lim SH, Anantharaman V, Teo WS, Goh PP, Tan AT (1998) Comparison of treatment of supraventricular tachycardia by Valsalva maneuver and carotid sinus massage. Ann Emerg Med 31:30–35 PubMed
118.
Zurück zum Zitat Brady WJ Jr, DeBehnke DJ, Wickman LL, Lindbeck G (1996) Treatment of out-of-hospital supraventricular tachycardia: adenosine vs verapamil. Acad Emerg Med 3:574–585 PubMed Brady WJ Jr, DeBehnke DJ, Wickman LL, Lindbeck G (1996) Treatment of out-of-hospital supraventricular tachycardia: adenosine vs verapamil. Acad Emerg Med 3:574–585 PubMed
119.
Zurück zum Zitat Glatter KA, Cheng J, Dorostkar P et al (1999) Electrophysiologic effects of adenosine in patients with supraventricular tachycardia. Circulation 99(8):1034–1040 PubMed Glatter KA, Cheng J, Dorostkar P et al (1999) Electrophysiologic effects of adenosine in patients with supraventricular tachycardia. Circulation 99(8):1034–1040 PubMed
120.
Zurück zum Zitat Delaney B, Loy J, Kelly AM (2011) The relative efficacy of adenosine versus verapamil for the treatment of stable paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in adults: a meta-analysis. Eur J Emerg Med 18:148–152 PubMed Delaney B, Loy J, Kelly AM (2011) The relative efficacy of adenosine versus verapamil for the treatment of stable paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in adults: a meta-analysis. Eur J Emerg Med 18:148–152 PubMed
121.
Zurück zum Zitat Van Gelder IC, Rienstra M, Crijns HJ, Olshansky B (2016) Rate control in atrial fibrillation. Lancet 388:818–828 PubMed Van Gelder IC, Rienstra M, Crijns HJ, Olshansky B (2016) Rate control in atrial fibrillation. Lancet 388:818–828 PubMed
122.
Zurück zum Zitat Dougherty AH, Jackman WM, Naccarelli GV, Friday KJ, Dias VC (1992) Acute conversion of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia with intravenous diltiazem: IV diltiazem study group. Am J Cardiol 70:587–592 PubMed Dougherty AH, Jackman WM, Naccarelli GV, Friday KJ, Dias VC (1992) Acute conversion of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia with intravenous diltiazem: IV diltiazem study group. Am J Cardiol 70:587–592 PubMed
123.
Zurück zum Zitat Hood MA, Smith WM (1992) Adenosine versus verapamil in the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia: a randomized double-crossover trial. Am Heart J 123:1543–1549 PubMed Hood MA, Smith WM (1992) Adenosine versus verapamil in the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia: a randomized double-crossover trial. Am Heart J 123:1543–1549 PubMed
124.
Zurück zum Zitat Gupta A, Naik A, Vora A, Lokhandwala Y (1999) Comparison of efficacy of intravenous diltiazem and esmolol in terminating supraventricular tachycardia. J Assoc Physicians India 47:969–972 PubMed Gupta A, Naik A, Vora A, Lokhandwala Y (1999) Comparison of efficacy of intravenous diltiazem and esmolol in terminating supraventricular tachycardia. J Assoc Physicians India 47:969–972 PubMed
125.
Zurück zum Zitat Lim SH, Anantharaman V, Teo WS, Chan YH (2009) Slow infusion of calcium channel blockers compared with intravenous adenosine in the emergency treatment of supraventricular tachycardia. Resuscitation 80:523–528 PubMed Lim SH, Anantharaman V, Teo WS, Chan YH (2009) Slow infusion of calcium channel blockers compared with intravenous adenosine in the emergency treatment of supraventricular tachycardia. Resuscitation 80:523–528 PubMed
126.
Zurück zum Zitat Das G, Tschida V, Gray R et al (1988) Efficacy of esmolol in the treatment and transfer of patients with supraventricular tachyarrhythmias to alternate oral antiarrhythmic agents. J Clin Pharmacol 28:746–750 PubMed Das G, Tschida V, Gray R et al (1988) Efficacy of esmolol in the treatment and transfer of patients with supraventricular tachyarrhythmias to alternate oral antiarrhythmic agents. J Clin Pharmacol 28:746–750 PubMed
127.
Zurück zum Zitat Amsterdam EA, Kulcyski J, Ridgeway MG (1991) Efficacy of cardioselective beta-adrenergic blockade with intravenously administered metoprolol in the treatment of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. J Clin Pharmacol 31:714–718 PubMed Amsterdam EA, Kulcyski J, Ridgeway MG (1991) Efficacy of cardioselective beta-adrenergic blockade with intravenously administered metoprolol in the treatment of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. J Clin Pharmacol 31:714–718 PubMed
128.
Zurück zum Zitat Brubaker S, Long B, Koyfman A (2018) Alternative treatment options for atrioventricular-nodal-reentry tachycardia: an emergency medicine review. J Emerg Med 54:198–206 PubMed Brubaker S, Long B, Koyfman A (2018) Alternative treatment options for atrioventricular-nodal-reentry tachycardia: an emergency medicine review. J Emerg Med 54:198–206 PubMed
129.
Zurück zum Zitat Ortiz M, Martin A, Arribas F et al (2017) Randomized comparison of intravenous procainamide vs. intravenous amiodarone for the acute treatment of tolerated wide QRS tachycardia: the PROCAMIO study. Eur Heart J 38:1329–1335 PubMed Ortiz M, Martin A, Arribas F et al (2017) Randomized comparison of intravenous procainamide vs. intravenous amiodarone for the acute treatment of tolerated wide QRS tachycardia: the PROCAMIO study. Eur Heart J 38:1329–1335 PubMed
130.
Zurück zum Zitat Gorgels AP, van den Dool A, Hofs A et al (1996) Comparison of procainamide and lidocaine in terminating sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. Am J Cardiol 78:43–46 PubMed Gorgels AP, van den Dool A, Hofs A et al (1996) Comparison of procainamide and lidocaine in terminating sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. Am J Cardiol 78:43–46 PubMed
131.
Zurück zum Zitat Scheinman MM, Levine JH, Cannom DS et al (1995) Dose-ranging study of intravenous amiodarone in patients with life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The Intravenous Amiodarone Multicenter Investigators Group. Circulation 92:3264–3272 PubMed Scheinman MM, Levine JH, Cannom DS et al (1995) Dose-ranging study of intravenous amiodarone in patients with life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The Intravenous Amiodarone Multicenter Investigators Group. Circulation 92:3264–3272 PubMed
132.
Zurück zum Zitat Levine JH, Massumi A, Scheinman MM et al (1996) Intravenous amiodarone for recurrent sustained hypotensive ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Intravenous Amiodarone Multicenter Trial Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 27:67–75 PubMed Levine JH, Massumi A, Scheinman MM et al (1996) Intravenous amiodarone for recurrent sustained hypotensive ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Intravenous Amiodarone Multicenter Trial Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 27:67–75 PubMed
133.
Zurück zum Zitat Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (2018) Cardiac arrhythmias in coronary heart disease. A national clinical guideline. Network SIG, Edinburgh Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (2018) Cardiac arrhythmias in coronary heart disease. A national clinical guideline. Network SIG, Edinburgh
134.
Zurück zum Zitat Tzivoni D, Banai S, Schuger C et al (1988) Treatment of torsade de pointes with magnesium sulfate. Circulation 77:392–397 PubMed Tzivoni D, Banai S, Schuger C et al (1988) Treatment of torsade de pointes with magnesium sulfate. Circulation 77:392–397 PubMed
135.
Zurück zum Zitat Edelson DP, Abella BS, Kramer-Johansen J et al (2006) Effects of compression depth and pre-shock pauses predict defibrillation failure during cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 71:137–145 PubMed Edelson DP, Abella BS, Kramer-Johansen J et al (2006) Effects of compression depth and pre-shock pauses predict defibrillation failure during cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 71:137–145 PubMed
136.
Zurück zum Zitat Eftestol T, Sunde K, Steen PA (2002) Effects of interrupting precordial compressions on the calculated probability of defibrillation success during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 105:2270–2273 PubMed Eftestol T, Sunde K, Steen PA (2002) Effects of interrupting precordial compressions on the calculated probability of defibrillation success during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 105:2270–2273 PubMed
137.
Zurück zum Zitat Cheskes S, Schmicker RH, Christenson J et al (2011) Perishock pause: an independent predictor of survival from out-of-hospital shockable cardiac arrest. Circulation 124:58–66 PubMedPubMedCentral Cheskes S, Schmicker RH, Christenson J et al (2011) Perishock pause: an independent predictor of survival from out-of-hospital shockable cardiac arrest. Circulation 124:58–66 PubMedPubMedCentral
138.
Zurück zum Zitat Cheskes S, Schmicker RH, Verbeek PR et al (2014) The impact of peri-shock pause on survival from out-of-hospital shockable cardiac arrest during the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium PRIMED Trial. Resuscitation 85:336–342 PubMed Cheskes S, Schmicker RH, Verbeek PR et al (2014) The impact of peri-shock pause on survival from out-of-hospital shockable cardiac arrest during the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium PRIMED Trial. Resuscitation 85:336–342 PubMed
139.
Zurück zum Zitat Gundersen K, Kvaloy JT, Kramer-Johansen J, Steen PA, Eftestol T (2009) Development of the probability of return of spontaneous circulation in intervals without chest compressions during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: an observational study. BMC Med 7:6 PubMedPubMedCentral Gundersen K, Kvaloy JT, Kramer-Johansen J, Steen PA, Eftestol T (2009) Development of the probability of return of spontaneous circulation in intervals without chest compressions during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: an observational study. BMC Med 7:6 PubMedPubMedCentral
140.
Zurück zum Zitat Sell RE, Sarno R, Lawrence B et al (2010) Minimizing pre- and post-defibrillation pauses increases the likelihood of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Resuscitation 81:822–825 PubMed Sell RE, Sarno R, Lawrence B et al (2010) Minimizing pre- and post-defibrillation pauses increases the likelihood of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Resuscitation 81:822–825 PubMed
141.
Zurück zum Zitat Edelson DP, Robertson-Dick BJ, Yuen TC et al (2010) Safety and efficacy of defibrillator charging during ongoing chest compressions: a multi-center study. Resuscitation 81:1521–1526 PubMedPubMedCentral Edelson DP, Robertson-Dick BJ, Yuen TC et al (2010) Safety and efficacy of defibrillator charging during ongoing chest compressions: a multi-center study. Resuscitation 81:1521–1526 PubMedPubMedCentral
142.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Davies RP, Soar J, Thickett DR (2007) The impact of manual defibrillation technique on no-flow time during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 73:109–114 PubMed Perkins GD, Davies RP, Soar J, Thickett DR (2007) The impact of manual defibrillation technique on no-flow time during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 73:109–114 PubMed
143.
Zurück zum Zitat Otto Q, Musiol S, Deakin CD, Morley P, Soar J (2020) Anticipatory manual defibrillator charging during advanced life support: a scoping review. Resusc Plus 1–2:100004 PubMedPubMedCentral Otto Q, Musiol S, Deakin CD, Morley P, Soar J (2020) Anticipatory manual defibrillator charging during advanced life support: a scoping review. Resusc Plus 1–2:100004 PubMedPubMedCentral
144.
Zurück zum Zitat Miller PH (1972) Potential fire hazard in defibrillation. JAMA 221:192 PubMed Miller PH (1972) Potential fire hazard in defibrillation. JAMA 221:192 PubMed
145.
Zurück zum Zitat Hummel RS 3rd, Ornato JP, Weinberg SM, Clarke AM (1988) Spark-generating properties of electrode gels used during defibrillation. A potential fire hazard. JAMA 260:3021–3024 PubMed Hummel RS 3rd, Ornato JP, Weinberg SM, Clarke AM (1988) Spark-generating properties of electrode gels used during defibrillation. A potential fire hazard. JAMA 260:3021–3024 PubMed
146.
Zurück zum Zitat ECRI (1987) Defibrillation in oxygen-enriched environments. Health Devices 16:113–114 ECRI (1987) Defibrillation in oxygen-enriched environments. Health Devices 16:113–114
147.
Zurück zum Zitat Lefever J, Smith A (1995) Risk of fire when using defibrillation in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. Med Devices Agency Saf Not 3:1–3 Lefever J, Smith A (1995) Risk of fire when using defibrillation in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. Med Devices Agency Saf Not 3:1–3
148.
Zurück zum Zitat Ward ME (1996) Risk of fires when using defibrillators in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. Resuscitation 31:173 PubMed Ward ME (1996) Risk of fires when using defibrillators in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. Resuscitation 31:173 PubMed
149.
Zurück zum Zitat Theodorou AA, Gutierrez JA, Berg RA (2003) Fire attributable to a defibrillation attempt in a neonate. Pediatrics 112:677–679 PubMed Theodorou AA, Gutierrez JA, Berg RA (2003) Fire attributable to a defibrillation attempt in a neonate. Pediatrics 112:677–679 PubMed
150.
Zurück zum Zitat Pagan-Carlo LA, Spencer KT, Robertson CE, Dengler A, Birkett C, Kerber RE (1996) Transthoracic defibrillation: importance of avoiding electrode placement directly on the female breast. J Am Coll Cardiol 27:449–452 PubMed Pagan-Carlo LA, Spencer KT, Robertson CE, Dengler A, Birkett C, Kerber RE (1996) Transthoracic defibrillation: importance of avoiding electrode placement directly on the female breast. J Am Coll Cardiol 27:449–452 PubMed
151.
Zurück zum Zitat Foster AG, Deakin CD (2019) Accuracy of instructional diagrams for automated external defibrillator pad positioning. Resuscitation 139:282–288 PubMed Foster AG, Deakin CD (2019) Accuracy of instructional diagrams for automated external defibrillator pad positioning. Resuscitation 139:282–288 PubMed
152.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakin CD, Sado DM, Petley GW, Clewlow F (2003) Is the orientation of the apical defibrillation paddle of importance during manual external defibrillation? Resuscitation 56:15–18 PubMed Deakin CD, Sado DM, Petley GW, Clewlow F (2003) Is the orientation of the apical defibrillation paddle of importance during manual external defibrillation? Resuscitation 56:15–18 PubMed
153.
Zurück zum Zitat Kirchhof P, Eckardt L, Loh P et al (2002) Anterior-posterior versus anterior-lateral electrode positions for external cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: a randomised trial. Lancet 360:1275–1279 PubMed Kirchhof P, Eckardt L, Loh P et al (2002) Anterior-posterior versus anterior-lateral electrode positions for external cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: a randomised trial. Lancet 360:1275–1279 PubMed
154.
Zurück zum Zitat Botto GL, Politi A, Bonini W, Broffoni T, Bonatti R (1999) External cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: role of paddle position on technical efficacy and energy requirements. Heart 82:726–730 PubMedPubMedCentral Botto GL, Politi A, Bonini W, Broffoni T, Bonatti R (1999) External cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: role of paddle position on technical efficacy and energy requirements. Heart 82:726–730 PubMedPubMedCentral
155.
Zurück zum Zitat Alp NJ, Rahman S, Bell JA, Shahi M (2000) Randomised comparison of antero-lateral versus antero-posterior paddle positions for DC cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation. Int J Cardiol 75:211–216 PubMed Alp NJ, Rahman S, Bell JA, Shahi M (2000) Randomised comparison of antero-lateral versus antero-posterior paddle positions for DC cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation. Int J Cardiol 75:211–216 PubMed
156.
Zurück zum Zitat Mathew TP, Moore A, McIntyre M et al (1999) Randomised comparison of electrode positions for cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Heart 81:576–579 PubMedPubMedCentral Mathew TP, Moore A, McIntyre M et al (1999) Randomised comparison of electrode positions for cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Heart 81:576–579 PubMedPubMedCentral
157.
Zurück zum Zitat Kirkland S, Stiell I, AlShawabkeh T, Campbell S, Dickinson G, Rowe BH (2014) The efficacy of pad placement for electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation/flutter: a systematic review. Acad Emerg Med 21:717–726 PubMed Kirkland S, Stiell I, AlShawabkeh T, Campbell S, Dickinson G, Rowe BH (2014) The efficacy of pad placement for electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation/flutter: a systematic review. Acad Emerg Med 21:717–726 PubMed
158.
Zurück zum Zitat Zhang B, Li X, Shen D, Zhen Y, Tao A, Zhang G (2014) Anterior-posterior versus anterior-lateral electrode position for external electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Cardiovasc Dis 107:280–290 PubMed Zhang B, Li X, Shen D, Zhen Y, Tao A, Zhang G (2014) Anterior-posterior versus anterior-lateral electrode position for external electrical cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Cardiovasc Dis 107:280–290 PubMed
159.
Zurück zum Zitat Walsh SJ, McCarty D, McClelland AJ et al (2005) Impedance compensated biphasic waveforms for transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: a multi-centre comparison of antero-apical and antero-posterior pad positions. Eur Heart J 26:1298–1302 PubMed Walsh SJ, McCarty D, McClelland AJ et al (2005) Impedance compensated biphasic waveforms for transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: a multi-centre comparison of antero-apical and antero-posterior pad positions. Eur Heart J 26:1298–1302 PubMed
160.
Zurück zum Zitat Manegold JC, Israel CW, Ehrlich JR et al (2007) External cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in patients with implanted pacemaker or cardioverter-defibrillator systems: a randomized comparison of monophasic and biphasic shock energy application. Eur Heart J 28:1731–1738 PubMed Manegold JC, Israel CW, Ehrlich JR et al (2007) External cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in patients with implanted pacemaker or cardioverter-defibrillator systems: a randomized comparison of monophasic and biphasic shock energy application. Eur Heart J 28:1731–1738 PubMed
161.
Zurück zum Zitat Alferness CA (1982) Pacemaker damage due to external countershock in patients with implanted cardiac pacemakers. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 5:457–458 PubMed Alferness CA (1982) Pacemaker damage due to external countershock in patients with implanted cardiac pacemakers. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 5:457–458 PubMed
162.
Zurück zum Zitat Pitcher D, Soar J, Hogg K et al (2016) Cardiovascular implanted electronic devices in people towards the end of life, during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and after death: guidance from the Resuscitation Council (UK), British Cardiovascular Society and National Council for Palliative Care. Heart 102(Suppl 7):A1–A17 PubMed Pitcher D, Soar J, Hogg K et al (2016) Cardiovascular implanted electronic devices in people towards the end of life, during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and after death: guidance from the Resuscitation Council (UK), British Cardiovascular Society and National Council for Palliative Care. Heart 102(Suppl 7):A1–A17 PubMed
163.
Zurück zum Zitat Olsen JA, Brunborg C, Steinberg M et al (2015) Pre-shock chest compression pause effects on termination of ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia and return of organized rhythm within mechanical and manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 93:158–163 PubMed Olsen JA, Brunborg C, Steinberg M et al (2015) Pre-shock chest compression pause effects on termination of ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia and return of organized rhythm within mechanical and manual cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 93:158–163 PubMed
164.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakin CD, Lee-Shrewsbury V, Hogg K, Petley GW (2013) Do clinical examination gloves provide adequate electrical insulation for safe hands-on defibrillation? I: Resistive properties of nitrile gloves. Resuscitation 84:895–899 PubMed Deakin CD, Lee-Shrewsbury V, Hogg K, Petley GW (2013) Do clinical examination gloves provide adequate electrical insulation for safe hands-on defibrillation? I: Resistive properties of nitrile gloves. Resuscitation 84:895–899 PubMed
165.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakin CD, McLaren RM, Petley GW, Clewlow F, Dalrymple-Hay MJ (1998) Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on transthoracic impedance—implications for defibrillation. Resuscitation 37:9–12 PubMed Deakin CD, McLaren RM, Petley GW, Clewlow F, Dalrymple-Hay MJ (1998) Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on transthoracic impedance—implications for defibrillation. Resuscitation 37:9–12 PubMed
166.
Zurück zum Zitat Jacobs I, Sunde K, Deakin CD et al (2010) Part 6: Defibrillation: 2010 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Circulation 122:S325–S337 PubMed Jacobs I, Sunde K, Deakin CD et al (2010) Part 6: Defibrillation: 2010 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Circulation 122:S325–S337 PubMed
167.
Zurück zum Zitat Sunde K, Jacobs I, Deakin CD et al (2010) Part 6: Defibrillation: 2010 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 81(Suppl 1):e71–e85 PubMed Sunde K, Jacobs I, Deakin CD et al (2010) Part 6: Defibrillation: 2010 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 81(Suppl 1):e71–e85 PubMed
168.
Zurück zum Zitat Jost D, Degrange H, Verret C et al (2010) DEFI 2005: a randomized controlled trial of the effect of automated external defibrillator cardiopulmonary resuscitation protocol on outcome from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 121:1614–1622 PubMed Jost D, Degrange H, Verret C et al (2010) DEFI 2005: a randomized controlled trial of the effect of automated external defibrillator cardiopulmonary resuscitation protocol on outcome from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 121:1614–1622 PubMed
169.
Zurück zum Zitat Berdowski J, Schulten RJ, Tijssen JG, van Alem AP, Koster RW (2010) Delaying a shock after takeover from the automated external defibrillator by paramedics is associated with decreased survival. Resuscitation 81:287–292 PubMed Berdowski J, Schulten RJ, Tijssen JG, van Alem AP, Koster RW (2010) Delaying a shock after takeover from the automated external defibrillator by paramedics is associated with decreased survival. Resuscitation 81:287–292 PubMed
170.
Zurück zum Zitat Sunde K, Eftestol T, Askenberg C, Steen PA (1999) Quality assessment of defibrillation and advanced life support using data from the medical control module of the defibrillator. Resuscitation 41:237–247 PubMed Sunde K, Eftestol T, Askenberg C, Steen PA (1999) Quality assessment of defibrillation and advanced life support using data from the medical control module of the defibrillator. Resuscitation 41:237–247 PubMed
171.
Zurück zum Zitat Rea TD, Shah S, Kudenchuk PJ, Copass MK, Cobb LA (2005) Automated external defibrillators: to what extent does the algorithm delay CPR? Ann Emerg Med 46:132–141 PubMed Rea TD, Shah S, Kudenchuk PJ, Copass MK, Cobb LA (2005) Automated external defibrillators: to what extent does the algorithm delay CPR? Ann Emerg Med 46:132–141 PubMed
172.
Zurück zum Zitat Pierce AE, Roppolo LP, Owens PC, Pepe PE, Idris AH (2015) The need to resume chest compressions immediately after defibrillation attempts: an analysis of post-shock rhythms and duration of pulselessness following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 89:162–168 PubMed Pierce AE, Roppolo LP, Owens PC, Pepe PE, Idris AH (2015) The need to resume chest compressions immediately after defibrillation attempts: an analysis of post-shock rhythms and duration of pulselessness following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 89:162–168 PubMed
173.
Zurück zum Zitat Link MS, Berkow LC, Kudenchuk PJ et al (2015) Part 7: adult advanced cardiovascular life support: 2015 American Heart Association guidelines update for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation 132:S444–S464 PubMed Link MS, Berkow LC, Kudenchuk PJ et al (2015) Part 7: adult advanced cardiovascular life support: 2015 American Heart Association guidelines update for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation 132:S444–S464 PubMed
174.
Zurück zum Zitat Eftestol T, Wik L, Sunde K, Steen PA (2004) Effects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on predictors of ventricular fibrillation defibrillation success during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 110:10–15 PubMed Eftestol T, Wik L, Sunde K, Steen PA (2004) Effects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on predictors of ventricular fibrillation defibrillation success during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 110:10–15 PubMed
175.
Zurück zum Zitat Eftestol T, Sunde K, Aase SO, Husoy JH, Steen PA (2000) Predicting outcome of defibrillation by spectral characterization and nonparametric classification of ventricular fibrillation in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 102:1523–1529 PubMed Eftestol T, Sunde K, Aase SO, Husoy JH, Steen PA (2000) Predicting outcome of defibrillation by spectral characterization and nonparametric classification of ventricular fibrillation in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 102:1523–1529 PubMed
176.
Zurück zum Zitat Callaway CW, Sherman LD, Mosesso VN Jr, Dietrich TJ, Holt E, Clarkson MC (2001) Scaling exponent predicts defibrillation success for out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. Circulation 103:1656–1661 PubMed Callaway CW, Sherman LD, Mosesso VN Jr, Dietrich TJ, Holt E, Clarkson MC (2001) Scaling exponent predicts defibrillation success for out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. Circulation 103:1656–1661 PubMed
177.
Zurück zum Zitat Weaver WD, Cobb LA, Dennis D, Ray R, Hallstrom AP, Copass MK (1985) Amplitude of ventricular fibrillation waveform and outcome after cardiac arrest. Ann Intern Med 102:53–55 PubMed Weaver WD, Cobb LA, Dennis D, Ray R, Hallstrom AP, Copass MK (1985) Amplitude of ventricular fibrillation waveform and outcome after cardiac arrest. Ann Intern Med 102:53–55 PubMed
178.
Zurück zum Zitat Brown CG, Dzwonczyk R (1996) Signal analysis of the human electrocardiogram during ventricular fibrillation: frequency and amplitude parameters as predictors of successful countershock. Ann Emerg Med 27:184–188 PubMed Brown CG, Dzwonczyk R (1996) Signal analysis of the human electrocardiogram during ventricular fibrillation: frequency and amplitude parameters as predictors of successful countershock. Ann Emerg Med 27:184–188 PubMed
179.
Zurück zum Zitat Callaham M, Braun O, Valentine W, Clark DM, Zegans C (1993) Prehospital cardiac arrest treated by urban first-responders: profile of patient response and prediction of outcome by ventricular fibrillation waveform. Ann Emerg Med 22:1664–1677 PubMed Callaham M, Braun O, Valentine W, Clark DM, Zegans C (1993) Prehospital cardiac arrest treated by urban first-responders: profile of patient response and prediction of outcome by ventricular fibrillation waveform. Ann Emerg Med 22:1664–1677 PubMed
180.
Zurück zum Zitat Strohmenger HU, Lindner KH, Brown CG (1997) Analysis of the ventricular fibrillation ECG signal amplitude and frequency parameters as predictors of countershock success in humans. Chest 111:584–589 PubMed Strohmenger HU, Lindner KH, Brown CG (1997) Analysis of the ventricular fibrillation ECG signal amplitude and frequency parameters as predictors of countershock success in humans. Chest 111:584–589 PubMed
181.
Zurück zum Zitat Strohmenger HU, Eftestol T, Sunde K et al (2001) The predictive value of ventricular fibrillation electrocardiogram signal frequency and amplitude variables in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Anesth Analg 93:1428–1433 PubMed Strohmenger HU, Eftestol T, Sunde K et al (2001) The predictive value of ventricular fibrillation electrocardiogram signal frequency and amplitude variables in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Anesth Analg 93:1428–1433 PubMed
182.
Zurück zum Zitat Podbregar M, Kovacic M, Podbregar-Mars A, Brezocnik M (2003) Predicting defibrillation success by “genetic” programming in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 57:153–159 PubMed Podbregar M, Kovacic M, Podbregar-Mars A, Brezocnik M (2003) Predicting defibrillation success by “genetic” programming in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 57:153–159 PubMed
183.
Zurück zum Zitat Menegazzi JJ, Callaway CW, Sherman LD et al (2004) Ventricular fibrillation scaling exponent can guide timing of defibrillation and other therapies. Circulation 109:926–931 PubMed Menegazzi JJ, Callaway CW, Sherman LD et al (2004) Ventricular fibrillation scaling exponent can guide timing of defibrillation and other therapies. Circulation 109:926–931 PubMed
184.
Zurück zum Zitat Povoas HP, Weil MH, Tang W, Bisera J, Klouche K, Barbatsis A (2002) Predicting the success of defibrillation by electrocardiographic analysis. Resuscitation 53:77–82 PubMed Povoas HP, Weil MH, Tang W, Bisera J, Klouche K, Barbatsis A (2002) Predicting the success of defibrillation by electrocardiographic analysis. Resuscitation 53:77–82 PubMed
185.
Zurück zum Zitat Noc M, Weil MH, Tang W, Sun S, Pernat A, Bisera J (1999) Electrocardiographic prediction of the success of cardiac resuscitation. Crit Care Med 27:708–714 PubMed Noc M, Weil MH, Tang W, Sun S, Pernat A, Bisera J (1999) Electrocardiographic prediction of the success of cardiac resuscitation. Crit Care Med 27:708–714 PubMed
186.
Zurück zum Zitat Strohmenger HU, Lindner KH, Keller A, Lindner IM, Pfenninger EG (1996) Spectral analysis of ventricular fibrillation and closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 33:155–161 PubMed Strohmenger HU, Lindner KH, Keller A, Lindner IM, Pfenninger EG (1996) Spectral analysis of ventricular fibrillation and closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 33:155–161 PubMed
187.
Zurück zum Zitat Noc M, Weil MH, Gazmuri RJ, Sun S, Biscera J, Tang W (1994) Ventricular fibrillation voltage as a monitor of the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. J Lab Clin Med 124:421–426 PubMed Noc M, Weil MH, Gazmuri RJ, Sun S, Biscera J, Tang W (1994) Ventricular fibrillation voltage as a monitor of the effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. J Lab Clin Med 124:421–426 PubMed
188.
Zurück zum Zitat Lightfoot CB, Nremt P, Callaway CW et al (2003) Dynamic nature of electrocardiographic waveform predicts rescue shock outcome in porcine ventricular fibrillation. Ann Emerg Med 42:230–241 PubMed Lightfoot CB, Nremt P, Callaway CW et al (2003) Dynamic nature of electrocardiographic waveform predicts rescue shock outcome in porcine ventricular fibrillation. Ann Emerg Med 42:230–241 PubMed
189.
Zurück zum Zitat Marn-Pernat A, Weil MH, Tang W, Pernat A, Bisera J (2001) Optimizing timing of ventricular defibrillation. Crit Care Med 29:2360–2365 PubMed Marn-Pernat A, Weil MH, Tang W, Pernat A, Bisera J (2001) Optimizing timing of ventricular defibrillation. Crit Care Med 29:2360–2365 PubMed
190.
Zurück zum Zitat Hamprecht FA, Achleitner U, Krismer AC et al (2001) Fibrillation power, an alternative method of ECG spectral analysis for prediction of countershock success in a porcine model of ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation 50:287–296 PubMed Hamprecht FA, Achleitner U, Krismer AC et al (2001) Fibrillation power, an alternative method of ECG spectral analysis for prediction of countershock success in a porcine model of ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation 50:287–296 PubMed
191.
Zurück zum Zitat Amann A, Achleitner U, Antretter H et al (2001) Analysing ventricular fibrillation ECG-signals and predicting defibrillation success during cardiopulmonary resuscitation employing N(alpha)-histograms. Resuscitation 50:77–85 PubMed Amann A, Achleitner U, Antretter H et al (2001) Analysing ventricular fibrillation ECG-signals and predicting defibrillation success during cardiopulmonary resuscitation employing N(alpha)-histograms. Resuscitation 50:77–85 PubMed
192.
Zurück zum Zitat Brown CG, Griffith RF, Van Ligten P et al (1991) Median frequency—a new parameter for predicting defibrillation success rate. Ann Emerg Med 20:787–789 PubMed Brown CG, Griffith RF, Van Ligten P et al (1991) Median frequency—a new parameter for predicting defibrillation success rate. Ann Emerg Med 20:787–789 PubMed
193.
Zurück zum Zitat Amann A, Rheinberger K, Achleitner U et al (2002) The prediction of defibrillation outcome using a new combination of mean frequency and amplitude in porcine models of cardiac arrest. Anesth Analg 95:716–722 PubMed Amann A, Rheinberger K, Achleitner U et al (2002) The prediction of defibrillation outcome using a new combination of mean frequency and amplitude in porcine models of cardiac arrest. Anesth Analg 95:716–722 PubMed
194.
Zurück zum Zitat Firoozabadi R, Nakagawa M, Helfenbein ED, Babaeizadeh S (2013) Predicting defibrillation success in sudden cardiac arrest patients. J Electrocardiol 46:473–479 PubMed Firoozabadi R, Nakagawa M, Helfenbein ED, Babaeizadeh S (2013) Predicting defibrillation success in sudden cardiac arrest patients. J Electrocardiol 46:473–479 PubMed
195.
Zurück zum Zitat Ristagno G, Li Y, Fumagalli F, Finzi A, Quan W (2013) Amplitude spectrum area to guide resuscitation—a retrospective analysis during out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in 609 patients with ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 84:1697–1703 PubMed Ristagno G, Li Y, Fumagalli F, Finzi A, Quan W (2013) Amplitude spectrum area to guide resuscitation—a retrospective analysis during out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in 609 patients with ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 84:1697–1703 PubMed
196.
Zurück zum Zitat Ristagno G, Mauri T, Cesana G et al (2015) Amplitude spectrum area to guide defibrillation: a validation on 1617 patients with ventricular fibrillation. Circulation 131:478–487 PubMed Ristagno G, Mauri T, Cesana G et al (2015) Amplitude spectrum area to guide defibrillation: a validation on 1617 patients with ventricular fibrillation. Circulation 131:478–487 PubMed
197.
Zurück zum Zitat Freese JP, Jorgenson DB, Liu PY et al (2013) Waveform analysis-guided treatment versus a standard shock-first protocol for the treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest presenting in ventricular fibrillation: results of an international randomized, controlled trial. Circulation 128:995–1002 PubMed Freese JP, Jorgenson DB, Liu PY et al (2013) Waveform analysis-guided treatment versus a standard shock-first protocol for the treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest presenting in ventricular fibrillation: results of an international randomized, controlled trial. Circulation 128:995–1002 PubMed
198.
Zurück zum Zitat Coult J, Blackwood J, Sherman L, Rea TD, Kudenchuk PJ, Kwok H (2019) Ventricular fibrillation waveform analysis during chest compressions to predict survival from cardiac arrest. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 12:e6924 PubMedPubMedCentral Coult J, Blackwood J, Sherman L, Rea TD, Kudenchuk PJ, Kwok H (2019) Ventricular fibrillation waveform analysis during chest compressions to predict survival from cardiac arrest. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 12:e6924 PubMedPubMedCentral
199.
Zurück zum Zitat Aiello S, Perez M, Cogan C et al (2017) Real-time ventricular fibrillation amplitude-spectral area analysis to guide timing of shock delivery improves defibrillation efficacy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in swine. J Am Heart Assoc 6(11):e6749 PubMedPubMedCentral Aiello S, Perez M, Cogan C et al (2017) Real-time ventricular fibrillation amplitude-spectral area analysis to guide timing of shock delivery improves defibrillation efficacy during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in swine. J Am Heart Assoc 6(11):e6749 PubMedPubMedCentral
200.
Zurück zum Zitat Nakagawa Y, Amino M, Inokuchi S, Hayashi S, Wakabayashi T, Noda T (2017) Novel CPR system that predicts return of spontaneous circulation from amplitude spectral area before electric shock in ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation 113:8–12 PubMed Nakagawa Y, Amino M, Inokuchi S, Hayashi S, Wakabayashi T, Noda T (2017) Novel CPR system that predicts return of spontaneous circulation from amplitude spectral area before electric shock in ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation 113:8–12 PubMed
201.
Zurück zum Zitat He M, Lu Y, Zhang L, Zhang H, Gong Y, Li Y (2016) Combining amplitude spectrum area with previous shock information using neural networks improves prediction performance of defibrillation outcome for subsequent shocks in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. PLoS ONE 11:e149115 PubMedPubMedCentral He M, Lu Y, Zhang L, Zhang H, Gong Y, Li Y (2016) Combining amplitude spectrum area with previous shock information using neural networks improves prediction performance of defibrillation outcome for subsequent shocks in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. PLoS ONE 11:e149115 PubMedPubMedCentral
202.
Zurück zum Zitat Shandilya S, Ward K, Kurz M, Najarian K (2012) Non-linear dynamical signal characterization for prediction of defibrillation success through machine learning. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 12:116 PubMedPubMedCentral Shandilya S, Ward K, Kurz M, Najarian K (2012) Non-linear dynamical signal characterization for prediction of defibrillation success through machine learning. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 12:116 PubMedPubMedCentral
203.
Zurück zum Zitat Nakagawa Y, Sato Y, Kojima T et al (2012) Electrical defibrillation outcome prediction by waveform analysis of ventricular fibrillation in cardiac arrest out of hospital patients. Tokai J Exp Clin Med 37:1–5 PubMed Nakagawa Y, Sato Y, Kojima T et al (2012) Electrical defibrillation outcome prediction by waveform analysis of ventricular fibrillation in cardiac arrest out of hospital patients. Tokai J Exp Clin Med 37:1–5 PubMed
204.
Zurück zum Zitat Lin LY, Lo MT, Ko PC et al (2010) Detrended fluctuation analysis predicts successful defibrillation for out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 81:297–301 PubMed Lin LY, Lo MT, Ko PC et al (2010) Detrended fluctuation analysis predicts successful defibrillation for out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 81:297–301 PubMed
205.
Zurück zum Zitat Balderston JR, Gertz ZM, Ellenbogen KA, Schaaf KP, Ornato JP (2018) Association between ventricular fibrillation amplitude immediately prior to defibrillation and defibrillation success in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Am Heart J 201:72–76 PubMed Balderston JR, Gertz ZM, Ellenbogen KA, Schaaf KP, Ornato JP (2018) Association between ventricular fibrillation amplitude immediately prior to defibrillation and defibrillation success in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Am Heart J 201:72–76 PubMed
206.
Zurück zum Zitat Agerskov M, Hansen MB, Nielsen AM, Møller TP, Wissenberg M, Rasmussen LS (2017) Return of spontaneous circulation and long-term survival according to feedback provided by automated external defibrillators. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 61:1345–1353 PubMedPubMedCentral Agerskov M, Hansen MB, Nielsen AM, Møller TP, Wissenberg M, Rasmussen LS (2017) Return of spontaneous circulation and long-term survival according to feedback provided by automated external defibrillators. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 61:1345–1353 PubMedPubMedCentral
207.
Zurück zum Zitat Coult J, Kwok H, Sherman L, Blackwood J, Kudenchuk PJ, Rea TD (2018) Ventricular fibrillation waveform measures combined with prior shock outcome predict defibrillation success during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. J Electrocardiol 51:99–106 PubMed Coult J, Kwok H, Sherman L, Blackwood J, Kudenchuk PJ, Rea TD (2018) Ventricular fibrillation waveform measures combined with prior shock outcome predict defibrillation success during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. J Electrocardiol 51:99–106 PubMed
208.
Zurück zum Zitat Hulleman M, Salcido DD, Menegazzi JJ et al (2017) Predictive value of amplitude spectrum area of ventricular fibrillation waveform in patients with acute or previous myocardial infarction in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 120:125–131 PubMedPubMedCentral Hulleman M, Salcido DD, Menegazzi JJ et al (2017) Predictive value of amplitude spectrum area of ventricular fibrillation waveform in patients with acute or previous myocardial infarction in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 120:125–131 PubMedPubMedCentral
209.
Zurück zum Zitat Jin D, Dai C, Gong Y et al (2017) Does the choice of definition for defibrillation and CPR success impact the predictability of ventricular fibrillation waveform analysis? Resuscitation 111:48–54 PubMed Jin D, Dai C, Gong Y et al (2017) Does the choice of definition for defibrillation and CPR success impact the predictability of ventricular fibrillation waveform analysis? Resuscitation 111:48–54 PubMed
210.
Zurück zum Zitat Hidano D, Coult J, Blackwood J et al (2016) Ventricular fibrillation waveform measures and the etiology of cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 109:71–75 PubMed Hidano D, Coult J, Blackwood J et al (2016) Ventricular fibrillation waveform measures and the etiology of cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 109:71–75 PubMed
211.
Zurück zum Zitat Coult J, Sherman L, Kwok H, Blackwood J, Kudenchuk PJ, Rea TD (2016) Short ECG segments predict defibrillation outcome using quantitative waveform measures. Resuscitation 109:16–20 PubMed Coult J, Sherman L, Kwok H, Blackwood J, Kudenchuk PJ, Rea TD (2016) Short ECG segments predict defibrillation outcome using quantitative waveform measures. Resuscitation 109:16–20 PubMed
212.
Zurück zum Zitat Indik JH, Conover Z, McGovern M et al (2014) Association of amplitude spectral area of the ventricular fibrillation waveform with survival of out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. J Am Coll Cardiol 64:1362–1369 PubMed Indik JH, Conover Z, McGovern M et al (2014) Association of amplitude spectral area of the ventricular fibrillation waveform with survival of out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. J Am Coll Cardiol 64:1362–1369 PubMed
213.
Zurück zum Zitat Howe A, Escalona OJ, Di Maio R et al (2014) A support vector machine for predicting defibrillation outcomes from waveform metrics. Resuscitation 85:343–349 PubMed Howe A, Escalona OJ, Di Maio R et al (2014) A support vector machine for predicting defibrillation outcomes from waveform metrics. Resuscitation 85:343–349 PubMed
214.
Zurück zum Zitat Wu X, Bisera J, Tang W (2013) Signal integral for optimizing the timing of defibrillation. Resuscitation 84:1704–1707 PubMed Wu X, Bisera J, Tang W (2013) Signal integral for optimizing the timing of defibrillation. Resuscitation 84:1704–1707 PubMed
215.
Zurück zum Zitat Hall M, Phelps R, Fahrenbruch C, Sherman L, Blackwood J, Rea TD (2011) Myocardial substrate in secondary ventricular fibrillation: insights from quantitative waveform measures. Prehosp Emerg Care 15:388–392 PubMed Hall M, Phelps R, Fahrenbruch C, Sherman L, Blackwood J, Rea TD (2011) Myocardial substrate in secondary ventricular fibrillation: insights from quantitative waveform measures. Prehosp Emerg Care 15:388–392 PubMed
216.
Zurück zum Zitat Foomany FH, Umapathy K, Sugavaneswaran L et al (2010) Wavelet-based markers of ventricular fibrillation in optimizing human cardiac resuscitation. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2010:2001–2004 PubMed Foomany FH, Umapathy K, Sugavaneswaran L et al (2010) Wavelet-based markers of ventricular fibrillation in optimizing human cardiac resuscitation. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2010:2001–2004 PubMed
217.
Zurück zum Zitat Endoh H, Hida S, Oohashi S, Hayashi Y, Kinoshita H, Honda T (2011) Prompt prediction of successful defibrillation from 1‑s ventricular fibrillation waveform in patients with out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest. J Anesth 25:34–41 PubMed Endoh H, Hida S, Oohashi S, Hayashi Y, Kinoshita H, Honda T (2011) Prompt prediction of successful defibrillation from 1‑s ventricular fibrillation waveform in patients with out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest. J Anesth 25:34–41 PubMed
218.
Zurück zum Zitat Kerber RE (1984) External defibrillation: new technologies. Ann Emerg Med 13:794–797 PubMed Kerber RE (1984) External defibrillation: new technologies. Ann Emerg Med 13:794–797 PubMed
219.
Zurück zum Zitat Joglar JA, Kessler DJ, Welch PJ et al (1999) Effects of repeated electrical defibrillations on cardiac troponin I levels. Am J Cardiol 83:270–272 (A6) PubMed Joglar JA, Kessler DJ, Welch PJ et al (1999) Effects of repeated electrical defibrillations on cardiac troponin I levels. Am J Cardiol 83:270–272 (A6) PubMed
220.
Zurück zum Zitat Kerber RE, Martins JB, Kienzle MG et al (1988) Energy, current, and success in defibrillation and cardioversion: clinical studies using an automated impedance-based method of energy adjustment. Circulation 77:1038–1046 PubMed Kerber RE, Martins JB, Kienzle MG et al (1988) Energy, current, and success in defibrillation and cardioversion: clinical studies using an automated impedance-based method of energy adjustment. Circulation 77:1038–1046 PubMed
221.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakin CD, Nolan JP, Soar J et al (2010) European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation 2010 section 4. Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation 81:1305–1352 PubMed Deakin CD, Nolan JP, Soar J et al (2010) European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation 2010 section 4. Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation 81:1305–1352 PubMed
222.
Zurück zum Zitat van Alem AP, Chapman FW, Lank P, Hart AA, Koster RW (2003) A prospective, randomised and blinded comparison of first shock success of monophasic and biphasic waveforms in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 58:17–24 PubMed van Alem AP, Chapman FW, Lank P, Hart AA, Koster RW (2003) A prospective, randomised and blinded comparison of first shock success of monophasic and biphasic waveforms in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 58:17–24 PubMed
223.
Zurück zum Zitat Martens PR, Russell JK, Wolcke B et al (2001) Optimal response to cardiac arrest study: defibrillation waveform effects. Resuscitation 49:233–243 PubMed Martens PR, Russell JK, Wolcke B et al (2001) Optimal response to cardiac arrest study: defibrillation waveform effects. Resuscitation 49:233–243 PubMed
224.
Zurück zum Zitat Carpenter J, Rea TD, Murray JA, Kudenchuk PJ, Eisenberg MS (2003) Defibrillation waveform and post-shock rhythm in out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 59:189–196 PubMed Carpenter J, Rea TD, Murray JA, Kudenchuk PJ, Eisenberg MS (2003) Defibrillation waveform and post-shock rhythm in out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 59:189–196 PubMed
225.
Zurück zum Zitat Gliner BE, Jorgenson DB, Poole JE et al (1998) Treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a low-energy impedance-compensating biphasic waveform automatic external defibrillator. The LIFE Investigators. Biomed Instrum Technol 32:631–644 PubMed Gliner BE, Jorgenson DB, Poole JE et al (1998) Treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a low-energy impedance-compensating biphasic waveform automatic external defibrillator. The LIFE Investigators. Biomed Instrum Technol 32:631–644 PubMed
226.
Zurück zum Zitat White RD, Blackwell TH, Russell JK, Snyder DE, Jorgenson DB (2005) Transthoracic impedance does not affect defibrillation, resuscitation or survival in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest treated with a non-escalating biphasic waveform defibrillator. Resuscitation 64:63–69 PubMed White RD, Blackwell TH, Russell JK, Snyder DE, Jorgenson DB (2005) Transthoracic impedance does not affect defibrillation, resuscitation or survival in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest treated with a non-escalating biphasic waveform defibrillator. Resuscitation 64:63–69 PubMed
227.
Zurück zum Zitat Morrison LJ, Henry RM, Ku V, Nolan JP, Morley P, Deakin CD (2013) Single-shock defibrillation success in adult cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 84:1480–1486 PubMed Morrison LJ, Henry RM, Ku V, Nolan JP, Morley P, Deakin CD (2013) Single-shock defibrillation success in adult cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 84:1480–1486 PubMed
228.
Zurück zum Zitat Stiell IG, Walker RG, Nesbitt LP et al (2007) BIPHASIC trial: a randomized comparison of fixed lower versus escalating higher energy levels for defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 115:1511–1517 PubMed Stiell IG, Walker RG, Nesbitt LP et al (2007) BIPHASIC trial: a randomized comparison of fixed lower versus escalating higher energy levels for defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 115:1511–1517 PubMed
229.
Zurück zum Zitat Walsh SJ, McClelland AJ, Owens CG et al (2004) Efficacy of distinct energy delivery protocols comparing two biphasic defibrillators for cardiac arrest. Am J Cardiol 94:378–380 PubMed Walsh SJ, McClelland AJ, Owens CG et al (2004) Efficacy of distinct energy delivery protocols comparing two biphasic defibrillators for cardiac arrest. Am J Cardiol 94:378–380 PubMed
230.
Zurück zum Zitat Olsen JA, Brunborg C, Steinberg M et al (2019) Survival to hospital discharge with biphasic fixed 360 joules versus 200 escalating to 360 joules defibrillation strategies in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac etiology. Resuscitation 136:112–118 PubMed Olsen JA, Brunborg C, Steinberg M et al (2019) Survival to hospital discharge with biphasic fixed 360 joules versus 200 escalating to 360 joules defibrillation strategies in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac etiology. Resuscitation 136:112–118 PubMed
231.
Zurück zum Zitat Anantharaman V, Tay SY, Manning PG et al (2017) A multicenter prospective randomized study comparing the efficacy of escalating higher biphasic versus low biphasic energy defibrillations in patients presenting with cardiac arrest in the in-hospital environment. Open Access Emerg Med 9:9–17 PubMedPubMedCentral Anantharaman V, Tay SY, Manning PG et al (2017) A multicenter prospective randomized study comparing the efficacy of escalating higher biphasic versus low biphasic energy defibrillations in patients presenting with cardiac arrest in the in-hospital environment. Open Access Emerg Med 9:9–17 PubMedPubMedCentral
232.
Zurück zum Zitat Schneider T, Martens PR, Paschen H et al (2000) Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of 150‑J biphasic shocks compared with 200- to 360‑J monophasic shocks in the resuscitation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims. Optimized Response to Cardiac Arrest (ORCA) Investigators. Circulation 102:1780–1787 PubMed Schneider T, Martens PR, Paschen H et al (2000) Multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of 150‑J biphasic shocks compared with 200- to 360‑J monophasic shocks in the resuscitation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims. Optimized Response to Cardiac Arrest (ORCA) Investigators. Circulation 102:1780–1787 PubMed
233.
Zurück zum Zitat Higgins SL, Herre JM, Epstein AE et al (2000) A comparison of biphasic and monophasic shocks for external defibrillation. Physio-Control Biphasic Investigators. Prehosp Emerg Care 4:305–313 PubMed Higgins SL, Herre JM, Epstein AE et al (2000) A comparison of biphasic and monophasic shocks for external defibrillation. Physio-Control Biphasic Investigators. Prehosp Emerg Care 4:305–313 PubMed
234.
Zurück zum Zitat Berg RA, Samson RA, Berg MD et al (2005) Better outcome after pediatric defibrillation dosage than adult dosage in a swine model of pediatric ventricular fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 45:786–789 PubMed Berg RA, Samson RA, Berg MD et al (2005) Better outcome after pediatric defibrillation dosage than adult dosage in a swine model of pediatric ventricular fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 45:786–789 PubMed
235.
Zurück zum Zitat Killingsworth CR, Melnick SB, Chapman FW et al (2002) Defibrillation threshold and cardiac responses using an external biphasic defibrillator with pediatric and adult adhesive patches in pediatric-sized piglets. Resuscitation 55:177–185 PubMed Killingsworth CR, Melnick SB, Chapman FW et al (2002) Defibrillation threshold and cardiac responses using an external biphasic defibrillator with pediatric and adult adhesive patches in pediatric-sized piglets. Resuscitation 55:177–185 PubMed
236.
Zurück zum Zitat Tang W, Weil MH, Sun S et al (2004) The effects of biphasic waveform design on post-resuscitation myocardial function. J Am Coll Cardiol 43:1228–1235 PubMed Tang W, Weil MH, Sun S et al (2004) The effects of biphasic waveform design on post-resuscitation myocardial function. J Am Coll Cardiol 43:1228–1235 PubMed
237.
Zurück zum Zitat Xie J, Weil MH, Sun S et al (1997) High-energy defibrillation increases the severity of postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction. Circulation 96:683–688 PubMed Xie J, Weil MH, Sun S et al (1997) High-energy defibrillation increases the severity of postresuscitation myocardial dysfunction. Circulation 96:683–688 PubMed
238.
Zurück zum Zitat Koster RW, Walker RG, Chapman FW (2008) Recurrent ventricular fibrillation during advanced life support care of patients with prehospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 78:252–257 PubMed Koster RW, Walker RG, Chapman FW (2008) Recurrent ventricular fibrillation during advanced life support care of patients with prehospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 78:252–257 PubMed
239.
Zurück zum Zitat Walker RG, Koster RW, Sun C et al (2009) Defibrillation probability and impedance change between shocks during resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 80:773–777 PubMed Walker RG, Koster RW, Sun C et al (2009) Defibrillation probability and impedance change between shocks during resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 80:773–777 PubMed
240.
Zurück zum Zitat Hess EP, Russell JK, Liu PY, White RD (2008) A high peak current 150‑J fixed-energy defibrillation protocol treats recurrent ventricular fibrillation (VF) as effectively as initial VF. Resuscitation 79:28–33 PubMed Hess EP, Russell JK, Liu PY, White RD (2008) A high peak current 150‑J fixed-energy defibrillation protocol treats recurrent ventricular fibrillation (VF) as effectively as initial VF. Resuscitation 79:28–33 PubMed
241.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakin CD, Ambler JJ (2006) Post-shock myocardial stunning: a prospective randomised double-blind comparison of monophasic and biphasic waveforms. Resuscitation 68:329–333 PubMed Deakin CD, Ambler JJ (2006) Post-shock myocardial stunning: a prospective randomised double-blind comparison of monophasic and biphasic waveforms. Resuscitation 68:329–333 PubMed
242.
Zurück zum Zitat Khaykin Y, Newman D, Kowalewski M, Korley V, Dorian P (2003) Biphasic versus monophasic cardioversion in shock-resistant atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 14:868–872 PubMed Khaykin Y, Newman D, Kowalewski M, Korley V, Dorian P (2003) Biphasic versus monophasic cardioversion in shock-resistant atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 14:868–872 PubMed
243.
Zurück zum Zitat Koster RW, Dorian P, Chapman FW, Schmitt PW, O’Grady SG, Walker RG (2004) A randomized trial comparing monophasic and biphasic waveform shocks for external cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Am Heart J 147:e20 PubMed Koster RW, Dorian P, Chapman FW, Schmitt PW, O’Grady SG, Walker RG (2004) A randomized trial comparing monophasic and biphasic waveform shocks for external cardioversion of atrial fibrillation. Am Heart J 147:e20 PubMed
244.
Zurück zum Zitat Mittal S, Ayati S, Stein KM et al (2000) Transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: comparison of rectilinear biphasic versus damped sine wave monophasic shocks. Circulation 101:1282–1287 PubMed Mittal S, Ayati S, Stein KM et al (2000) Transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: comparison of rectilinear biphasic versus damped sine wave monophasic shocks. Circulation 101:1282–1287 PubMed
245.
Zurück zum Zitat Kmec J (2006) Comparison the effectiveness of damped sine wave monophasic and rectilinear biphasic shocks in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. Kardiologia 15:265–278 Kmec J (2006) Comparison the effectiveness of damped sine wave monophasic and rectilinear biphasic shocks in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation. Kardiologia 15:265–278
246.
Zurück zum Zitat Kosior DA, Szulec M, Torbicki A, Opolski G, Rabczenko D (2005) A decrease of enlarged left atrium following cardioversion of atrial fibrillationpredicts the long-term maintenance of sinus rhythm. Kardiol Pol 62:428–437 PubMed Kosior DA, Szulec M, Torbicki A, Opolski G, Rabczenko D (2005) A decrease of enlarged left atrium following cardioversion of atrial fibrillationpredicts the long-term maintenance of sinus rhythm. Kardiol Pol 62:428–437 PubMed
247.
Zurück zum Zitat Hess EP, Agarwal D, Myers LA, Atkinson EJ, White RD (2011) Performance of a rectilinear biphasic waveform in defibrillation of presenting and recurrent ventricular fibrillation: a prospective multicenter study. Resuscitation 82:685–689 PubMed Hess EP, Agarwal D, Myers LA, Atkinson EJ, White RD (2011) Performance of a rectilinear biphasic waveform in defibrillation of presenting and recurrent ventricular fibrillation: a prospective multicenter study. Resuscitation 82:685–689 PubMed
248.
Zurück zum Zitat Eilevstjønn J, Kramer-Johansen J, Sunde K (2007) Shock outcome is related to prior rhythm and duration of ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation 75:60–67 PubMed Eilevstjønn J, Kramer-Johansen J, Sunde K (2007) Shock outcome is related to prior rhythm and duration of ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation 75:60–67 PubMed
249.
Zurück zum Zitat Mapp JG, Hans AJ, Darrington AM et al (2019) Prehospital double sequential defibrillation: a matched case-control study. Acad Emerg Med 26:994–1001 PubMed Mapp JG, Hans AJ, Darrington AM et al (2019) Prehospital double sequential defibrillation: a matched case-control study. Acad Emerg Med 26:994–1001 PubMed
250.
Zurück zum Zitat Ross EM, Redman TT, Harper SA, Mapp JG, Wampler DA, Miramontes DA (2016) Dual defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a retrospective cohort analysis. Resuscitation 106:14–17 PubMed Ross EM, Redman TT, Harper SA, Mapp JG, Wampler DA, Miramontes DA (2016) Dual defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a retrospective cohort analysis. Resuscitation 106:14–17 PubMed
251.
Zurück zum Zitat Cortez E, Krebs W, Davis J, Keseg DP, Panchal AR (2016) Use of double sequential external defibrillation for refractory ventricular fibrillation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 108:82–86 PubMed Cortez E, Krebs W, Davis J, Keseg DP, Panchal AR (2016) Use of double sequential external defibrillation for refractory ventricular fibrillation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 108:82–86 PubMed
252.
Zurück zum Zitat Beck LR, Ostermayer DG, Ponce JN, Srinivasan S, Wang HE (2019) Effectiveness of prehospital dual sequential defibrillation for refractory ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia cardiac arrest. Prehosp Emerg Care 23:597–602 PubMed Beck LR, Ostermayer DG, Ponce JN, Srinivasan S, Wang HE (2019) Effectiveness of prehospital dual sequential defibrillation for refractory ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia cardiac arrest. Prehosp Emerg Care 23:597–602 PubMed
253.
Zurück zum Zitat Emmerson AC, Whitbread M, Fothergill RT (2017) Double sequential defibrillation therapy for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: the London experience. Resuscitation 117:97–101 PubMed Emmerson AC, Whitbread M, Fothergill RT (2017) Double sequential defibrillation therapy for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: the London experience. Resuscitation 117:97–101 PubMed
254.
Zurück zum Zitat Cabanas JG, Myers JB, Williams JG, De Maio VJ, Bachman MW (2015) Double sequential external defibrillation in out-of-hospital refractory ventricular fibrillation: a report of ten cases. Prehosp Emerg Care 19:126–130 PubMed Cabanas JG, Myers JB, Williams JG, De Maio VJ, Bachman MW (2015) Double sequential external defibrillation in out-of-hospital refractory ventricular fibrillation: a report of ten cases. Prehosp Emerg Care 19:126–130 PubMed
255.
Zurück zum Zitat Cheskes S, Wudwud A, Turner L et al (2019) The impact of double sequential external defibrillation on termination of refractory ventricular fibrillation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 139:275–281 PubMed Cheskes S, Wudwud A, Turner L et al (2019) The impact of double sequential external defibrillation on termination of refractory ventricular fibrillation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 139:275–281 PubMed
256.
Zurück zum Zitat Cheskes S, Dorian P, Feldman M et al (2020) Double sequential external defibrillation for refractory ventricular fibrillation: the DOSE VF pilot randomized controlled trial. Resuscitation 150:178–184 PubMed Cheskes S, Dorian P, Feldman M et al (2020) Double sequential external defibrillation for refractory ventricular fibrillation: the DOSE VF pilot randomized controlled trial. Resuscitation 150:178–184 PubMed
257.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakin CD, Morley P, Soar J, Drennan IR (2020) Double (dual) sequential defibrillation for refractory ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 155:24–31 PubMed Deakin CD, Morley P, Soar J, Drennan IR (2020) Double (dual) sequential defibrillation for refractory ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 155:24–31 PubMed
258.
Zurück zum Zitat Friedman DJ, Parzynski CS, Varosy PD et al (2016) Trends and in-hospital outcomes associated with adoption of the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator in the United States. JAMA Cardiol 1:900–911 PubMedPubMedCentral Friedman DJ, Parzynski CS, Varosy PD et al (2016) Trends and in-hospital outcomes associated with adoption of the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator in the United States. JAMA Cardiol 1:900–911 PubMedPubMedCentral
259.
Zurück zum Zitat Knops RE, Olde Nordkamp LRA, Delnoy PHM et al (2020) Subcutaneous or transvenous defibrillator therapy. N Engl J Med 383:526–536 PubMed Knops RE, Olde Nordkamp LRA, Delnoy PHM et al (2020) Subcutaneous or transvenous defibrillator therapy. N Engl J Med 383:526–536 PubMed
260.
Zurück zum Zitat Stockwell B, Bellis G, Morton G et al (2009) Electrical injury during “hands on” defibrillation—a potential risk of internal cardioverter defibrillators? Resuscitation 80:832–834 PubMed Stockwell B, Bellis G, Morton G et al (2009) Electrical injury during “hands on” defibrillation—a potential risk of internal cardioverter defibrillators? Resuscitation 80:832–834 PubMed
261.
Zurück zum Zitat Peran D, Cmorej PC, Pekara J (2019) Bystander hit by leakage current from S‑ICD. Resuscitation 138:297–298 PubMed Peran D, Cmorej PC, Pekara J (2019) Bystander hit by leakage current from S‑ICD. Resuscitation 138:297–298 PubMed
262.
Zurück zum Zitat Petley GW, Albon B, Banks P, Roberts PR, Deakin CD (2019) Leakage current from transvenous and subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs): a risk to the rescuer? Resuscitation 137:148–153 PubMed Petley GW, Albon B, Banks P, Roberts PR, Deakin CD (2019) Leakage current from transvenous and subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs): a risk to the rescuer? Resuscitation 137:148–153 PubMed
263.
Zurück zum Zitat Monsieurs KG, Conraads VM, Goethals MP, Snoeck JP, Bossaert LL (1995) Semi-automatic external defibrillation and implanted cardiac pacemakers: understanding the interactions during resuscitation. Resuscitation 30:127–131 PubMed Monsieurs KG, Conraads VM, Goethals MP, Snoeck JP, Bossaert LL (1995) Semi-automatic external defibrillation and implanted cardiac pacemakers: understanding the interactions during resuscitation. Resuscitation 30:127–131 PubMed
264.
Zurück zum Zitat Benger JR, Kirby K, Black S et al (2018) Effect of a strategy of a supraglottic airway device vs tracheal intubation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest on functional outcome: the AIRWAYS‑2 randomized clinical trial. JAMA 320:779–791 PubMedPubMedCentral Benger JR, Kirby K, Black S et al (2018) Effect of a strategy of a supraglottic airway device vs tracheal intubation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest on functional outcome: the AIRWAYS‑2 randomized clinical trial. JAMA 320:779–791 PubMedPubMedCentral
265.
Zurück zum Zitat Jabre P, Penaloza A, Pinero D et al (2018) Effect of bag-mask ventilation vs endotracheal intubation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation on neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 319:779–787 PubMedPubMedCentral Jabre P, Penaloza A, Pinero D et al (2018) Effect of bag-mask ventilation vs endotracheal intubation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation on neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 319:779–787 PubMedPubMedCentral
266.
Zurück zum Zitat Wang HE, Schmicker RH, Daya MR et al (2018) Effect of a strategy of initial laryngeal tube insertion vs endotracheal intubation on 72-hour survival in adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 320:769–778 PubMedPubMedCentral Wang HE, Schmicker RH, Daya MR et al (2018) Effect of a strategy of initial laryngeal tube insertion vs endotracheal intubation on 72-hour survival in adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 320:769–778 PubMedPubMedCentral
267.
Zurück zum Zitat Granfeldt A, Avis SR, Nicholson TC et al (2019) Advanced airway management during adult cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 139:133–143 PubMed Granfeldt A, Avis SR, Nicholson TC et al (2019) Advanced airway management during adult cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 139:133–143 PubMed
268.
Zurück zum Zitat Soar J, Maconochie I, Wyckoff MH et al (2019) 2019 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 145:95–150 PubMed Soar J, Maconochie I, Wyckoff MH et al (2019) 2019 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 145:95–150 PubMed
269.
Zurück zum Zitat Andersen LW, Granfeldt A, Callaway CW et al (2017) Association between tracheal intubation during adult in-hospital cardiac arrest and survival. JAMA 317:494–506 PubMedPubMedCentral Andersen LW, Granfeldt A, Callaway CW et al (2017) Association between tracheal intubation during adult in-hospital cardiac arrest and survival. JAMA 317:494–506 PubMedPubMedCentral
270.
Zurück zum Zitat Soar J, Maconochie I, Wyckoff MH et al (2019) 2019 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations: summary from the basic life support; advanced life support; pediatric life support; neonatal life support; education, implementation, and teams; and first aid task forces. Circulation 140:e826–e880 PubMed Soar J, Maconochie I, Wyckoff MH et al (2019) 2019 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations: summary from the basic life support; advanced life support; pediatric life support; neonatal life support; education, implementation, and teams; and first aid task forces. Circulation 140:e826–e880 PubMed
271.
Zurück zum Zitat Voss S, Rhys M, Coates D et al (2014) How do paramedics manage the airway during out of hospital cardiac arrest? Resuscitation 85:1662–1666 PubMedPubMedCentral Voss S, Rhys M, Coates D et al (2014) How do paramedics manage the airway during out of hospital cardiac arrest? Resuscitation 85:1662–1666 PubMedPubMedCentral
274.
Zurück zum Zitat Olasveengen TM, Semeraro F, Ristagno G et al (2021) European Resuscitation Council guidelines 2021: basic life support. Resuscitation 161:98–114 PubMed Olasveengen TM, Semeraro F, Ristagno G et al (2021) European Resuscitation Council guidelines 2021: basic life support. Resuscitation 161:98–114 PubMed
275.
Zurück zum Zitat Couper K, Abu Hassan A, Ohri V et al (2020) Removal of foreign body airway obstruction: a systematic review of interventions. Resuscitation 156:174–181 PubMed Couper K, Abu Hassan A, Ohri V et al (2020) Removal of foreign body airway obstruction: a systematic review of interventions. Resuscitation 156:174–181 PubMed
276.
Zurück zum Zitat Nichol G, Leroux B, Wang H et al (2015) Trial of continuous or interrupted chest compressions during CPR. N Engl J Med 373:2203–2214 PubMed Nichol G, Leroux B, Wang H et al (2015) Trial of continuous or interrupted chest compressions during CPR. N Engl J Med 373:2203–2214 PubMed
277.
Zurück zum Zitat Olasveengen TM, de Caen AR, Mancini ME et al (2017) 2017 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations summary. Resuscitation 121:201–214 PubMed Olasveengen TM, de Caen AR, Mancini ME et al (2017) 2017 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations summary. Resuscitation 121:201–214 PubMed
278.
Zurück zum Zitat Vissers G, Soar J, Monsieurs KG (2017) Ventilation rate in adults with a tracheal tube during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a systematic review. Resuscitation 119:5–12 PubMed Vissers G, Soar J, Monsieurs KG (2017) Ventilation rate in adults with a tracheal tube during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a systematic review. Resuscitation 119:5–12 PubMed
279.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakin CD, O’Neill JF, Tabor T (2007) Does compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation generate adequate passive ventilation during cardiac arrest? Resuscitation 75:53–59 PubMed Deakin CD, O’Neill JF, Tabor T (2007) Does compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation generate adequate passive ventilation during cardiac arrest? Resuscitation 75:53–59 PubMed
280.
Zurück zum Zitat Saissy JM, Boussignac G, Cheptel E et al (2000) Efficacy of continuous insufflation of oxygen combined with active cardiac compression-decompression during out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest. Anesthesiology 92:1523–1530 PubMed Saissy JM, Boussignac G, Cheptel E et al (2000) Efficacy of continuous insufflation of oxygen combined with active cardiac compression-decompression during out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest. Anesthesiology 92:1523–1530 PubMed
281.
Zurück zum Zitat Bertrand C, Hemery F, Carli P et al (2006) Constant flow insufflation of oxygen as the sole mode of ventilation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Intensive Care Med 32:843–851 PubMed Bertrand C, Hemery F, Carli P et al (2006) Constant flow insufflation of oxygen as the sole mode of ventilation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Intensive Care Med 32:843–851 PubMed
282.
Zurück zum Zitat Bobrow BJ, Ewy GA, Clark L et al (2009) Passive oxygen insufflation is superior to bag-valve-mask ventilation for witnessed ventricular fibrillation out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med 54:656–662.e1 PubMed Bobrow BJ, Ewy GA, Clark L et al (2009) Passive oxygen insufflation is superior to bag-valve-mask ventilation for witnessed ventricular fibrillation out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med 54:656–662.e1 PubMed
283.
Zurück zum Zitat Grmec S (2002) Comparison of three different methods to confirm tracheal tube placement in emergency intubation. Intensive Care Med 28:701–704 PubMed Grmec S (2002) Comparison of three different methods to confirm tracheal tube placement in emergency intubation. Intensive Care Med 28:701–704 PubMed
284.
Zurück zum Zitat Lyon RM, Ferris JD, Young DM, McKeown DW, Oglesby AJ, Robertson C (2010) Field intubation of cardiac arrest patients: a dying art? Emerg Med Clin North Am 27:321–323 Lyon RM, Ferris JD, Young DM, McKeown DW, Oglesby AJ, Robertson C (2010) Field intubation of cardiac arrest patients: a dying art? Emerg Med Clin North Am 27:321–323
285.
Zurück zum Zitat Jones JH, Murphy MP, Dickson RL, Somerville GG, Brizendine EJ (2004) Emergency physician-verified out-of-hospital intubation: miss rates by paramedics. Acad Emerg Med 11:707–709 PubMed Jones JH, Murphy MP, Dickson RL, Somerville GG, Brizendine EJ (2004) Emergency physician-verified out-of-hospital intubation: miss rates by paramedics. Acad Emerg Med 11:707–709 PubMed
286.
Zurück zum Zitat Pelucio M, Halligan L, Dhindsa H (1997) Out-of-hospital experience with the syringe esophageal detector device. Acad Emerg Med 4:563–568 PubMed Pelucio M, Halligan L, Dhindsa H (1997) Out-of-hospital experience with the syringe esophageal detector device. Acad Emerg Med 4:563–568 PubMed
287.
Zurück zum Zitat Jemmett ME, Kendal KM, Fourre MW, Burton JH (2003) Unrecognized misplacement of endotracheal tubes in a mixed urban to rural emergency medical services setting. Acad Emerg Med 10:961–965 PubMed Jemmett ME, Kendal KM, Fourre MW, Burton JH (2003) Unrecognized misplacement of endotracheal tubes in a mixed urban to rural emergency medical services setting. Acad Emerg Med 10:961–965 PubMed
288.
Zurück zum Zitat Katz SH, Falk JL (2001) Misplaced endotracheal tubes by paramedics in an urban emergency medical services system. Ann Emerg Med 37:32–37 PubMed Katz SH, Falk JL (2001) Misplaced endotracheal tubes by paramedics in an urban emergency medical services system. Ann Emerg Med 37:32–37 PubMed
289.
Zurück zum Zitat Wang HE, Simeone SJ, Weaver MD, Callaway CW (2009) Interruptions in cardiopulmonary resuscitation from paramedic endotracheal intubation. Ann Emerg Med 54:645–652.e1 PubMed Wang HE, Simeone SJ, Weaver MD, Callaway CW (2009) Interruptions in cardiopulmonary resuscitation from paramedic endotracheal intubation. Ann Emerg Med 54:645–652.e1 PubMed
290.
Zurück zum Zitat Garza AG, Gratton MC, Coontz D, Noble E, Ma OJ (2003) Effect of paramedic experience on orotracheal intubation success rates. J Emerg Med 25:251–256 PubMed Garza AG, Gratton MC, Coontz D, Noble E, Ma OJ (2003) Effect of paramedic experience on orotracheal intubation success rates. J Emerg Med 25:251–256 PubMed
291.
Zurück zum Zitat Bradley JS, Billows GL, Olinger ML, Boha SP, Cordell WH, Nelson DR (1998) Prehospital oral endotracheal intubation by rural basic emergency medical technicians. Ann Emerg Med 32:26–32 PubMed Bradley JS, Billows GL, Olinger ML, Boha SP, Cordell WH, Nelson DR (1998) Prehospital oral endotracheal intubation by rural basic emergency medical technicians. Ann Emerg Med 32:26–32 PubMed
292.
Zurück zum Zitat Sayre MR, Sakles JC, Mistler AF, Evans JL, Kramer AT, Pancioli AM (1998) Field trial of endotracheal intubation by basic EMTs. Ann Emerg Med 31:228–233 PubMed Sayre MR, Sakles JC, Mistler AF, Evans JL, Kramer AT, Pancioli AM (1998) Field trial of endotracheal intubation by basic EMTs. Ann Emerg Med 31:228–233 PubMed
293.
Zurück zum Zitat Bernhard M, Mohr S, Weigand MA, Martin E, Walther A (2012) Developing the skill of endotracheal intubation: implication for emergency medicine. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 56:164–171 PubMed Bernhard M, Mohr S, Weigand MA, Martin E, Walther A (2012) Developing the skill of endotracheal intubation: implication for emergency medicine. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 56:164–171 PubMed
294.
Zurück zum Zitat Cook TM, Boniface NJ, Seller C et al (2018) Universal videolaryngoscopy: a structured approach to conversion to videolaryngoscopy for all intubations in an anaesthetic and intensive care department. Br J Anaesth 120:173–180 PubMed Cook TM, Boniface NJ, Seller C et al (2018) Universal videolaryngoscopy: a structured approach to conversion to videolaryngoscopy for all intubations in an anaesthetic and intensive care department. Br J Anaesth 120:173–180 PubMed
295.
Zurück zum Zitat Goto Y, Goto T, Hagiwara Y et al (2017) Techniques and outcomes of emergency airway management in Japan: an analysis of two multicentre prospective observational studies, 2010–2016. Resuscitation 114:14–20 PubMed Goto Y, Goto T, Hagiwara Y et al (2017) Techniques and outcomes of emergency airway management in Japan: an analysis of two multicentre prospective observational studies, 2010–2016. Resuscitation 114:14–20 PubMed
296.
Zurück zum Zitat Lee DH, Han M, An JY et al (2015) Video laryngoscopy versus direct laryngoscopy for tracheal intubation during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 89:195–199 PubMed Lee DH, Han M, An JY et al (2015) Video laryngoscopy versus direct laryngoscopy for tracheal intubation during in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 89:195–199 PubMed
297.
Zurück zum Zitat Park SO, Kim JW, Na JH et al (2015) Video laryngoscopy improves the first-attempt success in endotracheal intubation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation among novice physicians. Resuscitation 89:188–194 PubMed Park SO, Kim JW, Na JH et al (2015) Video laryngoscopy improves the first-attempt success in endotracheal intubation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation among novice physicians. Resuscitation 89:188–194 PubMed
298.
Zurück zum Zitat Jiang J, Kang N, Li B, Wu AS, Xue FS (2020) Comparison of adverse events between video and direct laryngoscopes for tracheal intubations in emergency department and ICU patients—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 28:10 PubMedPubMedCentral Jiang J, Kang N, Li B, Wu AS, Xue FS (2020) Comparison of adverse events between video and direct laryngoscopes for tracheal intubations in emergency department and ICU patients—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 28:10 PubMedPubMedCentral
299.
Zurück zum Zitat Kim JW, Park SO, Lee KR et al (2016) Video laryngoscopy vs. direct laryngoscopy: Which should be chosen for endotracheal intubation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation? A prospective randomized controlled study of experienced intubators. Resuscitation 105:196–202 PubMed Kim JW, Park SO, Lee KR et al (2016) Video laryngoscopy vs. direct laryngoscopy: Which should be chosen for endotracheal intubation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation? A prospective randomized controlled study of experienced intubators. Resuscitation 105:196–202 PubMed
300.
Zurück zum Zitat Jiang J, Ma D, Li B, Yue Y, Xue F (2017) Video laryngoscopy does not improve the intubation outcomes in emergency and critical patients—a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Crit Care 21:288 PubMedPubMedCentral Jiang J, Ma D, Li B, Yue Y, Xue F (2017) Video laryngoscopy does not improve the intubation outcomes in emergency and critical patients—a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Crit Care 21:288 PubMedPubMedCentral
301.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakin CD, Morrison LJ, Morley PT et al (2010) Part 8: advanced life support: 2010 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 81(Suppl 1):e93–e174 PubMed Deakin CD, Morrison LJ, Morley PT et al (2010) Part 8: advanced life support: 2010 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 81(Suppl 1):e93–e174 PubMed
302.
Zurück zum Zitat Soar J, Callaway CW, Aibiki M et al (2015) Part 4: advanced life support: 2015 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 95:e71–e120 PubMed Soar J, Callaway CW, Aibiki M et al (2015) Part 4: advanced life support: 2015 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations. Resuscitation 95:e71–e120 PubMed
303.
Zurück zum Zitat Paiva EF, Paxton JH, O’Neil BJ (2018) The use of end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) measurement to guide management of cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 123:1–7 PubMed Paiva EF, Paxton JH, O’Neil BJ (2018) The use of end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) measurement to guide management of cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 123:1–7 PubMed
304.
Zurück zum Zitat Grmec S, Mally S (2004) Prehospital determination of tracheal tube placement in severe head injury. Emerg Med Clin North Am 21:518–520 Grmec S, Mally S (2004) Prehospital determination of tracheal tube placement in severe head injury. Emerg Med Clin North Am 21:518–520
305.
Zurück zum Zitat Knapp S, Kofler J, Stoiser B et al (1999) The assessment of four different methods to verify tracheal tube placement in the critical care setting. Anesth Analg 88:766–770 PubMed Knapp S, Kofler J, Stoiser B et al (1999) The assessment of four different methods to verify tracheal tube placement in the critical care setting. Anesth Analg 88:766–770 PubMed
306.
Zurück zum Zitat Takeda T, Tanigawa K, Tanaka H, Hayashi Y, Goto E, Tanaka K (2003) The assessment of three methods to verify tracheal tube placement in the emergency setting. Resuscitation 56:153–157 PubMed Takeda T, Tanigawa K, Tanaka H, Hayashi Y, Goto E, Tanaka K (2003) The assessment of three methods to verify tracheal tube placement in the emergency setting. Resuscitation 56:153–157 PubMed
307.
Zurück zum Zitat Cook TM, Harrop-Griffiths AW, Whitaker DK, McNarry AF, Patel A, McGuire B (2019) The “No Trace=Wrong Place” campaign. Br J Anaesth 122:e68–e69 PubMedPubMedCentral Cook TM, Harrop-Griffiths AW, Whitaker DK, McNarry AF, Patel A, McGuire B (2019) The “No Trace=Wrong Place” campaign. Br J Anaesth 122:e68–e69 PubMedPubMedCentral
308.
Zurück zum Zitat Salem MR, Khorasani A, Zeidan A, Crystal GJ (2017) Cricoid pressure controversies: narrative review. Anesthesiology 126:738–752 PubMed Salem MR, Khorasani A, Zeidan A, Crystal GJ (2017) Cricoid pressure controversies: narrative review. Anesthesiology 126:738–752 PubMed
309.
Zurück zum Zitat Higgs A, McGrath BA, Goddard C et al (2018) Guidelines for the management of tracheal intubation in critically ill adults. Br J Anaesth 120:323–352 PubMed Higgs A, McGrath BA, Goddard C et al (2018) Guidelines for the management of tracheal intubation in critically ill adults. Br J Anaesth 120:323–352 PubMed
310.
Zurück zum Zitat Granfeldt A, Avis SR, Lind PC et al (2020) Intravenous vs. intraosseous administration of drugs during cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 149:150–157 PubMed Granfeldt A, Avis SR, Lind PC et al (2020) Intravenous vs. intraosseous administration of drugs during cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 149:150–157 PubMed
311.
Zurück zum Zitat Feinstein BA, Stubbs BA, Rea T, Kudenchuk PJ (2017) Intraosseous compared to intravenous drug resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 117:91–96 PubMed Feinstein BA, Stubbs BA, Rea T, Kudenchuk PJ (2017) Intraosseous compared to intravenous drug resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 117:91–96 PubMed
312.
Zurück zum Zitat Kawano T, Grunau B, Scheuermeyer FX et al (2018) Intraosseous vascular access is associated with lower survival and neurologic recovery among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med 71:588–596 PubMed Kawano T, Grunau B, Scheuermeyer FX et al (2018) Intraosseous vascular access is associated with lower survival and neurologic recovery among patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med 71:588–596 PubMed
313.
Zurück zum Zitat Mody P, Brown SP, Kudenchuk PJ et al (2019) Intraosseous versus intravenous access in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: insights from the resuscitation outcomes consortium continuous chest compression trial. Resuscitation 134:69–75 PubMed Mody P, Brown SP, Kudenchuk PJ et al (2019) Intraosseous versus intravenous access in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: insights from the resuscitation outcomes consortium continuous chest compression trial. Resuscitation 134:69–75 PubMed
314.
Zurück zum Zitat Nolan JP, Deakin CD, Ji C et al (2020) Intraosseous versus intravenous administration of adrenaline in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a secondary analysis of the PARAMEDIC2 placebo-controlled trial. Intensive Care Med 46:954–962 PubMed Nolan JP, Deakin CD, Ji C et al (2020) Intraosseous versus intravenous administration of adrenaline in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a secondary analysis of the PARAMEDIC2 placebo-controlled trial. Intensive Care Med 46:954–962 PubMed
315.
Zurück zum Zitat Daya MR, Leroux BG, Dorian P et al (2020) Survival after intravenous versus intraosseous amiodarone, lidocaine, or placebo in out-of-hospital shock-refractory cardiac arrest. Circulation 141:188–198 PubMedPubMedCentral Daya MR, Leroux BG, Dorian P et al (2020) Survival after intravenous versus intraosseous amiodarone, lidocaine, or placebo in out-of-hospital shock-refractory cardiac arrest. Circulation 141:188–198 PubMedPubMedCentral
316.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Ji C, Deakin CD et al (2018) A randomized trial of epinephrine in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 379:711–721 PubMed Perkins GD, Ji C, Deakin CD et al (2018) A randomized trial of epinephrine in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 379:711–721 PubMed
317.
Zurück zum Zitat Finn J, Jacobs I, Williams TA, Gates S, Perkins GD (2019) Adrenaline and vasopressin for cardiac arrest. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1:CD3179 PubMed Finn J, Jacobs I, Williams TA, Gates S, Perkins GD (2019) Adrenaline and vasopressin for cardiac arrest. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1:CD3179 PubMed
318.
Zurück zum Zitat Holmberg MJ, Issa MS, Moskowitz A et al (2019) Vasopressors during adult cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation 139:106–121 PubMed Holmberg MJ, Issa MS, Moskowitz A et al (2019) Vasopressors during adult cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation 139:106–121 PubMed
319.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Kenna C, Ji C et al (2019) The effects of adrenaline in out of hospital cardiac arrest with shockable and non-shockable rhythms: findings from the PACA and PARAMEDIC‑2 randomised controlled trials. Resuscitation 140:55–63 PubMed Perkins GD, Kenna C, Ji C et al (2019) The effects of adrenaline in out of hospital cardiac arrest with shockable and non-shockable rhythms: findings from the PACA and PARAMEDIC‑2 randomised controlled trials. Resuscitation 140:55–63 PubMed
320.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Kenna C, Ji C et al (2020) The influence of time to adrenaline administration in the Paramedic 2 randomised controlled trial. Intensive Care Med 46:426–436 PubMedPubMedCentral Perkins GD, Kenna C, Ji C et al (2020) The influence of time to adrenaline administration in the Paramedic 2 randomised controlled trial. Intensive Care Med 46:426–436 PubMedPubMedCentral
321.
Zurück zum Zitat Soar J, Donnino MW, Maconochie I et al (2018) 2018 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations summary. Resuscitation 133:194–206 PubMed Soar J, Donnino MW, Maconochie I et al (2018) 2018 international consensus on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science with treatment recommendations summary. Resuscitation 133:194–206 PubMed
322.
Zurück zum Zitat Ali MU, Fitzpatrick-Lewis D, Kenny M et al (2018) Effectiveness of antiarrhythmic drugs for shockable cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 132:63–72 PubMed Ali MU, Fitzpatrick-Lewis D, Kenny M et al (2018) Effectiveness of antiarrhythmic drugs for shockable cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 132:63–72 PubMed
323.
Zurück zum Zitat Kudenchuk PJ, Brown SP, Daya M et al (2016) Amiodarone, lidocaine, or placebo in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 374:1711–1722 PubMed Kudenchuk PJ, Brown SP, Daya M et al (2016) Amiodarone, lidocaine, or placebo in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 374:1711–1722 PubMed
324.
Zurück zum Zitat Soar J, Perkins GD, Maconochie I et al (2019) European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation: 2018 update—antiarrhythmic drugs for cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 134:99–103 PubMed Soar J, Perkins GD, Maconochie I et al (2019) European Resuscitation Council guidelines for resuscitation: 2018 update—antiarrhythmic drugs for cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 134:99–103 PubMed
325.
Zurück zum Zitat Böttiger BW, Arntz HR, Chamberlain DA et al (2008) Thrombolysis during resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 359:2651–2662 PubMed Böttiger BW, Arntz HR, Chamberlain DA et al (2008) Thrombolysis during resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 359:2651–2662 PubMed
326.
Zurück zum Zitat Yousuf T, Brinton T, Ahmed K et al (2016) Tissue plasminogen activator use in cardiac arrest secondary to fulminant pulmonary embolism. J Clin Med Res 8:190–195 PubMedPubMedCentral Yousuf T, Brinton T, Ahmed K et al (2016) Tissue plasminogen activator use in cardiac arrest secondary to fulminant pulmonary embolism. J Clin Med Res 8:190–195 PubMedPubMedCentral
327.
Zurück zum Zitat Kurkciyan I, Meron G, Sterz F et al (2000) Pulmonary embolism as a cause of cardiac arrest: presentation and outcome. Arch Intern Med 160:1529–1535 PubMed Kurkciyan I, Meron G, Sterz F et al (2000) Pulmonary embolism as a cause of cardiac arrest: presentation and outcome. Arch Intern Med 160:1529–1535 PubMed
328.
Zurück zum Zitat Janata K, Holzer M, Kurkciyan I et al (2003) Major bleeding complications in cardiopulmonary resuscitation: the place of thrombolytic therapy in cardiac arrest due to massive pulmonary embolism. Resuscitation 57:49–55 PubMed Janata K, Holzer M, Kurkciyan I et al (2003) Major bleeding complications in cardiopulmonary resuscitation: the place of thrombolytic therapy in cardiac arrest due to massive pulmonary embolism. Resuscitation 57:49–55 PubMed
329.
Zurück zum Zitat Javaudin F, Lascarrou JB, Le Bastard Q et al (2019) Thrombolysis during resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by pulmonary embolism increases 30-day survival: findings from the French National Cardiac Arrest Registry. Chest 156:1167–1175 PubMed Javaudin F, Lascarrou JB, Le Bastard Q et al (2019) Thrombolysis during resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by pulmonary embolism increases 30-day survival: findings from the French National Cardiac Arrest Registry. Chest 156:1167–1175 PubMed
330.
Zurück zum Zitat Böttiger BW, Böhrer H, Bach A, Motsch J, Martin E (1994) Bolus injection of thrombolytic agents during cardiopulmonary resuscitation for massive pulmonary embolism. Resuscitation 28:45–54 PubMed Böttiger BW, Böhrer H, Bach A, Motsch J, Martin E (1994) Bolus injection of thrombolytic agents during cardiopulmonary resuscitation for massive pulmonary embolism. Resuscitation 28:45–54 PubMed
331.
Zurück zum Zitat Wu JP, Gu DY, Wang S, Zhang ZJ, Zhou JC, Zhang RF (2014) Good neurological recovery after rescue thrombolysis of presumed pulmonary embolism despite prior 100 min CPR. J Thorac Dis 6:E289–E293 PubMedPubMedCentral Wu JP, Gu DY, Wang S, Zhang ZJ, Zhou JC, Zhang RF (2014) Good neurological recovery after rescue thrombolysis of presumed pulmonary embolism despite prior 100 min CPR. J Thorac Dis 6:E289–E293 PubMedPubMedCentral
332.
Zurück zum Zitat Summers K, Schultheis J, Raiff D, Dahhan T (2019) Evaluation of rescue thrombolysis in cardiac arrest secondary to suspected or confirmed pulmonary embolism. Ann Pharmacother 53:711–715 PubMed Summers K, Schultheis J, Raiff D, Dahhan T (2019) Evaluation of rescue thrombolysis in cardiac arrest secondary to suspected or confirmed pulmonary embolism. Ann Pharmacother 53:711–715 PubMed
333.
Zurück zum Zitat Bernard SA, Smith K, Finn J et al (2016) Induction of therapeutic hypothermia during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using a rapid infusion of cold saline: the RINSE trial (rapid infusion of cold normal saline). Circulation 134:797–805 PubMed Bernard SA, Smith K, Finn J et al (2016) Induction of therapeutic hypothermia during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using a rapid infusion of cold saline: the RINSE trial (rapid infusion of cold normal saline). Circulation 134:797–805 PubMed
334.
Zurück zum Zitat Kim F, Nichol G, Maynard C et al (2014) Effect of prehospital induction of mild hypothermia on survival and neurological status among adults with cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 311:45–52 PubMed Kim F, Nichol G, Maynard C et al (2014) Effect of prehospital induction of mild hypothermia on survival and neurological status among adults with cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 311:45–52 PubMed
335.
Zurück zum Zitat Maynard C, Longstreth WT Jr, Nichol G et al (2015) Effect of prehospital induction of mild hypothermia on 3‑month neurological status and 1‑year survival among adults with cardiac arrest: long-term follow-up of a randomized, clinical trial. J Am Heart Assoc 4:e1693 PubMedPubMedCentral Maynard C, Longstreth WT Jr, Nichol G et al (2015) Effect of prehospital induction of mild hypothermia on 3‑month neurological status and 1‑year survival among adults with cardiac arrest: long-term follow-up of a randomized, clinical trial. J Am Heart Assoc 4:e1693 PubMedPubMedCentral
336.
Zurück zum Zitat Soar J, Foster J, Breitkreutz R (2009) Fluid infusion during CPR and after ROSC—Is it safe? Resuscitation 80:1221–1222 PubMed Soar J, Foster J, Breitkreutz R (2009) Fluid infusion during CPR and after ROSC—Is it safe? Resuscitation 80:1221–1222 PubMed
337.
Zurück zum Zitat Sandroni C, De Santis P, D’Arrigo S (2018) Capnography during cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 132:73–77 PubMed Sandroni C, De Santis P, D’Arrigo S (2018) Capnography during cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 132:73–77 PubMed
338.
Zurück zum Zitat Gutiérrez JJ, Ruiz JM, Ruiz de Gauna S et al (2020) Modeling the impact of ventilations on the capnogram in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. PLoS ONE 15:e228395 PubMedPubMedCentral Gutiérrez JJ, Ruiz JM, Ruiz de Gauna S et al (2020) Modeling the impact of ventilations on the capnogram in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. PLoS ONE 15:e228395 PubMedPubMedCentral
339.
Zurück zum Zitat Hamrick JL, Hamrick JT, Lee JK, Lee BH, Koehler RC, Shaffner DH (2014) Efficacy of chest compressions directed by end-tidal CO2 feedback in a pediatric resuscitation model of basic life support. J Am Heart Assoc 3:e450 PubMedPubMedCentral Hamrick JL, Hamrick JT, Lee JK, Lee BH, Koehler RC, Shaffner DH (2014) Efficacy of chest compressions directed by end-tidal CO2 feedback in a pediatric resuscitation model of basic life support. J Am Heart Assoc 3:e450 PubMedPubMedCentral
340.
Zurück zum Zitat Sheak KR, Wiebe DJ, Leary M et al (2015) Quantitative relationship between end-tidal carbon dioxide and CPR quality during both in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 89:149–154 PubMed Sheak KR, Wiebe DJ, Leary M et al (2015) Quantitative relationship between end-tidal carbon dioxide and CPR quality during both in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 89:149–154 PubMed
341.
Zurück zum Zitat Garnett AR, Ornato JP, Gonzalez ER, Johnson EB (1987) End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. JAMA 257:512–515 PubMed Garnett AR, Ornato JP, Gonzalez ER, Johnson EB (1987) End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. JAMA 257:512–515 PubMed
342.
Zurück zum Zitat Pokorna M, Necas E, Kratochvil J, Skripsky R, Andrlik M, Franek O (2010) A sudden increase in partial pressure end-tidal carbon dioxide P ETCO 2 at the moment of return of spontaneous circulation. J Emerg Med 38:614–621 PubMed Pokorna M, Necas E, Kratochvil J, Skripsky R, Andrlik M, Franek O (2010) A sudden increase in partial pressure end-tidal carbon dioxide P ETCO 2 at the moment of return of spontaneous circulation. J Emerg Med 38:614–621 PubMed
343.
Zurück zum Zitat Lui CT, Poon KM, Tsui KL (2016) Abrupt rise of end tidal carbon dioxide level was a specific but non-sensitive marker of return of spontaneous circulation in patient with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 104:53–58 PubMed Lui CT, Poon KM, Tsui KL (2016) Abrupt rise of end tidal carbon dioxide level was a specific but non-sensitive marker of return of spontaneous circulation in patient with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 104:53–58 PubMed
344.
Zurück zum Zitat Sandroni C, Ristagno G (2016) End-tidal CO 2 to detect recovery of spontaneous circulation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: we are not ready yet. Resuscitation 104:A5–A6 PubMed Sandroni C, Ristagno G (2016) End-tidal CO 2 to detect recovery of spontaneous circulation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: we are not ready yet. Resuscitation 104:A5–A6 PubMed
345.
Zurück zum Zitat Levine RL, Wayne MA, Miller CC (1997) End-tidal carbon dioxide and outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 337:301–306 PubMed Levine RL, Wayne MA, Miller CC (1997) End-tidal carbon dioxide and outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 337:301–306 PubMed
346.
Zurück zum Zitat Sutton RM, French B, Meaney PA et al (2016) Physiologic monitoring of CPR quality during adult cardiac arrest: a propensity-matched cohort study. Resuscitation 106:76–82 PubMedPubMedCentral Sutton RM, French B, Meaney PA et al (2016) Physiologic monitoring of CPR quality during adult cardiac arrest: a propensity-matched cohort study. Resuscitation 106:76–82 PubMedPubMedCentral
347.
Zurück zum Zitat Conseil français de réanimation cardiopulmonaire, Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation, Société française de cardiologie et al (2009) Guidelines for indications for the use of extracorporeal life support in refractory cardiac arrest. French Ministry of Health. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 28:182–190 Conseil français de réanimation cardiopulmonaire, Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation, Société française de cardiologie et al (2009) Guidelines for indications for the use of extracorporeal life support in refractory cardiac arrest. French Ministry of Health. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 28:182–190
348.
Zurück zum Zitat Kolar M, Krizmaric M, Klemen P, Grmec S (2008) Partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide successful predicts cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the field: a prospective observational study. Crit Care 12:R115 PubMedPubMedCentral Kolar M, Krizmaric M, Klemen P, Grmec S (2008) Partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide successful predicts cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the field: a prospective observational study. Crit Care 12:R115 PubMedPubMedCentral
349.
Zurück zum Zitat Poppe M, Stratil P, Clodi C et al (2019) Initial end-tidal carbon dioxide as a predictive factor for return of spontaneous circulation in nonshockable out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: a retrospective observational study. Eur J Anaesthesiol 36:524–530 PubMed Poppe M, Stratil P, Clodi C et al (2019) Initial end-tidal carbon dioxide as a predictive factor for return of spontaneous circulation in nonshockable out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: a retrospective observational study. Eur J Anaesthesiol 36:524–530 PubMed
350.
Zurück zum Zitat Grmec S, Lah K, Tusek-Bunc K (2003) Difference in end-tidal CO 2 between asphyxia cardiac arrest and ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia cardiac arrest in the prehospital setting. Crit Care 7:R139–R144 PubMedPubMedCentral Grmec S, Lah K, Tusek-Bunc K (2003) Difference in end-tidal CO 2 between asphyxia cardiac arrest and ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia cardiac arrest in the prehospital setting. Crit Care 7:R139–R144 PubMedPubMedCentral
351.
Zurück zum Zitat Heradstveit BE, Sunde K, Sunde GA, Wentzel-Larsen T, Heltne JK (2012) Factors complicating interpretation of capnography during advanced life support in cardiac arrest—a clinical retrospective study in 575 patients. Resuscitation 83:813–818 PubMed Heradstveit BE, Sunde K, Sunde GA, Wentzel-Larsen T, Heltne JK (2012) Factors complicating interpretation of capnography during advanced life support in cardiac arrest—a clinical retrospective study in 575 patients. Resuscitation 83:813–818 PubMed
352.
Zurück zum Zitat Gazmuri RJ, Ayoub IM, Radhakrishnan J, Motl J, Upadhyaya MP (2012) Clinically plausible hyperventilation does not exert adverse hemodynamic effects during CPR but markedly reduces end-tidal pCO 2. Resuscitation 83:259–264 PubMed Gazmuri RJ, Ayoub IM, Radhakrishnan J, Motl J, Upadhyaya MP (2012) Clinically plausible hyperventilation does not exert adverse hemodynamic effects during CPR but markedly reduces end-tidal pCO 2. Resuscitation 83:259–264 PubMed
353.
Zurück zum Zitat Grieco DL, Brochard LJ, Drouet A et al (2019) Intrathoracic airway closure impacts CO 2 signal and delivered ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 199:728–737 PubMed Grieco DL, Brochard LJ, Drouet A et al (2019) Intrathoracic airway closure impacts CO 2 signal and delivered ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 199:728–737 PubMed
354.
Zurück zum Zitat Callaham M, Barton C, Matthay M (1992) Effect of epinephrine on the ability of end-tidal carbon dioxide readings to predict initial resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 20:337–343 PubMed Callaham M, Barton C, Matthay M (1992) Effect of epinephrine on the ability of end-tidal carbon dioxide readings to predict initial resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Crit Care Med 20:337–343 PubMed
355.
Zurück zum Zitat Hardig BM, Götberg M, Rundgren M et al (2016) Physiologic effect of repeated adrenaline (epinephrine) doses during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the cath lab setting: a randomised porcine study. Resuscitation 101:77–83 PubMed Hardig BM, Götberg M, Rundgren M et al (2016) Physiologic effect of repeated adrenaline (epinephrine) doses during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the cath lab setting: a randomised porcine study. Resuscitation 101:77–83 PubMed
356.
Zurück zum Zitat Brinkrolf P, Borowski M, Metelmann C, Lukas RP, Pidde-Kullenberg L, Bohn A (2018) Predicting ROSC in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using expiratory carbon dioxide concentration: Is trend-detection instead of absolute threshold values the key? Resuscitation 122:19–24 PubMed Brinkrolf P, Borowski M, Metelmann C, Lukas RP, Pidde-Kullenberg L, Bohn A (2018) Predicting ROSC in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using expiratory carbon dioxide concentration: Is trend-detection instead of absolute threshold values the key? Resuscitation 122:19–24 PubMed
357.
Zurück zum Zitat Reynolds JC, Issa MS, Nicholson TC et al (2020) Prognostication with point-of-care echocardiography during cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 152:56–68 PubMed Reynolds JC, Issa MS, Nicholson TC et al (2020) Prognostication with point-of-care echocardiography during cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 152:56–68 PubMed
358.
Zurück zum Zitat Huis In ’t Veld MA, Allison MG, Bostick DS et al (2017) Ultrasound use during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with delays in chest compressions. Resuscitation 119:95–98 PubMed Huis In ’t Veld MA, Allison MG, Bostick DS et al (2017) Ultrasound use during cardiopulmonary resuscitation is associated with delays in chest compressions. Resuscitation 119:95–98 PubMed
359.
Zurück zum Zitat Clattenburg EJ, Wroe P, Brown S et al (2018) Point-of-care ultrasound use in patients with cardiac arrest is associated prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation pauses: a prospective cohort study. Resuscitation 122:65–68 PubMed Clattenburg EJ, Wroe P, Brown S et al (2018) Point-of-care ultrasound use in patients with cardiac arrest is associated prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation pauses: a prospective cohort study. Resuscitation 122:65–68 PubMed
360.
Zurück zum Zitat Berg RA, Sorrell VL, Kern KB et al (2005) Magnetic resonance imaging during untreated ventricular fibrillation reveals prompt right ventricular overdistention without left ventricular volume loss. Circulation 111:1136–1140 PubMed Berg RA, Sorrell VL, Kern KB et al (2005) Magnetic resonance imaging during untreated ventricular fibrillation reveals prompt right ventricular overdistention without left ventricular volume loss. Circulation 111:1136–1140 PubMed
361.
Zurück zum Zitat Querellou E, Leyral J, Brun C et al (2009) In and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and echography: a review. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 28:769–778 PubMed Querellou E, Leyral J, Brun C et al (2009) In and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and echography: a review. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 28:769–778 PubMed
362.
Zurück zum Zitat Blanco P, Volpicelli G (2016) Common pitfalls in point-of-care ultrasound: a practical guide for emergency and critical care physicians. Crit Ultrasound J 8:15 PubMedPubMedCentral Blanco P, Volpicelli G (2016) Common pitfalls in point-of-care ultrasound: a practical guide for emergency and critical care physicians. Crit Ultrasound J 8:15 PubMedPubMedCentral
363.
Zurück zum Zitat Aagaard R, Granfeldt A, Botker MT, Mygind-Klausen T, Kirkegaard H, Lofgren B (2017) The right ventricle is dilated during resuscitation from cardiac arrest caused by hypovolemia: a porcine ultrasound study. Crit Care Med 45:e963–e970 PubMed Aagaard R, Granfeldt A, Botker MT, Mygind-Klausen T, Kirkegaard H, Lofgren B (2017) The right ventricle is dilated during resuscitation from cardiac arrest caused by hypovolemia: a porcine ultrasound study. Crit Care Med 45:e963–e970 PubMed
364.
Zurück zum Zitat Teran F (2019) Resuscitative cardiopulmonary ultrasound and transesophageal echocardiography in the emergency department. Emerg Med Clin North Am 37:409–430 PubMed Teran F (2019) Resuscitative cardiopulmonary ultrasound and transesophageal echocardiography in the emergency department. Emerg Med Clin North Am 37:409–430 PubMed
365.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Lall R, Quinn T et al (2015) Mechanical versus manual chest compression for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (PARAMEDIC): a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet 385:947–955 PubMed Perkins GD, Lall R, Quinn T et al (2015) Mechanical versus manual chest compression for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (PARAMEDIC): a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial. Lancet 385:947–955 PubMed
366.
Zurück zum Zitat Rubertsson S, Lindgren E, Smekal D et al (2014) Mechanical chest compressions and simultaneous defibrillation vs conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the LINC randomized trial. JAMA 311:53–61 PubMed Rubertsson S, Lindgren E, Smekal D et al (2014) Mechanical chest compressions and simultaneous defibrillation vs conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the LINC randomized trial. JAMA 311:53–61 PubMed
367.
Zurück zum Zitat Hallstrom A, Rea TD, Sayre MR et al (2006) Manual chest compression vs use of an automated chest compression device during resuscitation following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized trial. JAMA 295:2620–2628 PubMed Hallstrom A, Rea TD, Sayre MR et al (2006) Manual chest compression vs use of an automated chest compression device during resuscitation following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized trial. JAMA 295:2620–2628 PubMed
368.
Zurück zum Zitat Wik L, Olsen JA, Persse D et al (2014) Manual vs. integrated automatic load-distributing band CPR with equal survival after out of hospital cardiac arrest. The randomized CIRC trial. Resuscitation 85:741–748 PubMed Wik L, Olsen JA, Persse D et al (2014) Manual vs. integrated automatic load-distributing band CPR with equal survival after out of hospital cardiac arrest. The randomized CIRC trial. Resuscitation 85:741–748 PubMed
369.
Zurück zum Zitat Lu XG, Kang X, Gong DB (2010) The clinical efficacy of Thumper modal 1007 cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a prospective randomized control trial. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 22:496–497 PubMed Lu XG, Kang X, Gong DB (2010) The clinical efficacy of Thumper modal 1007 cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a prospective randomized control trial. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 22:496–497 PubMed
370.
Zurück zum Zitat Smekal D, Johansson J, Huzevka T, Rubertsson S (2011) A pilot study of mechanical chest compressions with the LUCAS device in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 82:702–706 PubMed Smekal D, Johansson J, Huzevka T, Rubertsson S (2011) A pilot study of mechanical chest compressions with the LUCAS device in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 82:702–706 PubMed
371.
Zurück zum Zitat Dickinson ET, Verdile VP, Schneider RM, Salluzzo RF (1998) Effectiveness of mechanical versus manual chest compressions in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation: a pilot study. Am J Emerg Med 16:289–292 PubMed Dickinson ET, Verdile VP, Schneider RM, Salluzzo RF (1998) Effectiveness of mechanical versus manual chest compressions in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation: a pilot study. Am J Emerg Med 16:289–292 PubMed
372.
Zurück zum Zitat Halperin HR, Tsitlik JE, Gelfand M et al (1993) A preliminary study of cardiopulmonary resuscitation by circumferential compression of the chest with use of a pneumatic vest. N Engl J Med 329:762–768 PubMed Halperin HR, Tsitlik JE, Gelfand M et al (1993) A preliminary study of cardiopulmonary resuscitation by circumferential compression of the chest with use of a pneumatic vest. N Engl J Med 329:762–768 PubMed
373.
Zurück zum Zitat Koster RW, Beenen LF, van der Boom EB et al (2017) Safety of mechanical chest compression devices AutoPulse and LUCAS in cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial for non-inferiority. Eur Heart J 38:3006–3013 PubMedPubMedCentral Koster RW, Beenen LF, van der Boom EB et al (2017) Safety of mechanical chest compression devices AutoPulse and LUCAS in cardiac arrest: a randomized clinical trial for non-inferiority. Eur Heart J 38:3006–3013 PubMedPubMedCentral
374.
Zurück zum Zitat Gao C, Chen Y, Peng H, Chen Y, Zhuang Y, Zhou S (2016) Clinical evaluation of the AutoPulse automated chest compression device for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the northern district of Shanghai, China. Arch Med Sci 12:563–570 PubMedPubMedCentral Gao C, Chen Y, Peng H, Chen Y, Zhuang Y, Zhou S (2016) Clinical evaluation of the AutoPulse automated chest compression device for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the northern district of Shanghai, China. Arch Med Sci 12:563–570 PubMedPubMedCentral
375.
Zurück zum Zitat Liu M, Shuai Z, Ai J et al (2019) Mechanical chest compression with LUCAS device does not improve clinical outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 98:e17550 Liu M, Shuai Z, Ai J et al (2019) Mechanical chest compression with LUCAS device does not improve clinical outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 98:e17550
376.
Zurück zum Zitat Zhu N, Chen Q, Jiang Z et al (2019) A meta-analysis of the resuscitative effects of mechanical and manual chest compression in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. Crit Care 23:100 PubMedPubMedCentral Zhu N, Chen Q, Jiang Z et al (2019) A meta-analysis of the resuscitative effects of mechanical and manual chest compression in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. Crit Care 23:100 PubMedPubMedCentral
377.
Zurück zum Zitat Wang PL, Brooks SC (2018) Mechanical versus manual chest compressions for cardiac arrest. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8:CD7260 PubMed Wang PL, Brooks SC (2018) Mechanical versus manual chest compressions for cardiac arrest. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8:CD7260 PubMed
378.
Zurück zum Zitat Gates S, Quinn T, Deakin CD, Blair L, Couper K, Perkins GD (2015) Mechanical chest compression for out of hospital cardiac arrest: systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation 94:91–97 PubMed Gates S, Quinn T, Deakin CD, Blair L, Couper K, Perkins GD (2015) Mechanical chest compression for out of hospital cardiac arrest: systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation 94:91–97 PubMed
379.
Zurück zum Zitat Couper K, Yeung J, Nicholson T, Quinn T, Lall R, Perkins GD (2016) Mechanical chest compression devices at in-hospital cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation 103:24–31 PubMed Couper K, Yeung J, Nicholson T, Quinn T, Lall R, Perkins GD (2016) Mechanical chest compression devices at in-hospital cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation 103:24–31 PubMed
380.
Zurück zum Zitat Khan SU, Lone AN, Talluri S, Khan MZ, Khan MU, Kaluski E (2018) Efficacy and safety of mechanical versus manual compression in cardiac arrest—a Bayesian network meta-analysis. Resuscitation 130:182–188 PubMedPubMedCentral Khan SU, Lone AN, Talluri S, Khan MZ, Khan MU, Kaluski E (2018) Efficacy and safety of mechanical versus manual compression in cardiac arrest—a Bayesian network meta-analysis. Resuscitation 130:182–188 PubMedPubMedCentral
381.
Zurück zum Zitat Li H, Wang D, Yu Y, Zhao X, Jing X (2016) Mechanical versus manual chest compressions for cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 24:10 PubMedPubMedCentral Li H, Wang D, Yu Y, Zhao X, Jing X (2016) Mechanical versus manual chest compressions for cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 24:10 PubMedPubMedCentral
382.
383.
Zurück zum Zitat Brouwer TF, Walker RG, Chapman FW, Koster RW (2015) Association between chest compression interruptions and clinical outcomes of ventricular fibrillation out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 132:1030–1037 PubMed Brouwer TF, Walker RG, Chapman FW, Koster RW (2015) Association between chest compression interruptions and clinical outcomes of ventricular fibrillation out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 132:1030–1037 PubMed
384.
Zurück zum Zitat Yost D, Phillips RH, Gonzales L et al (2012) Assessment of CPR interruptions from transthoracic impedance during use of the LUCAS mechanical chest compression system. Resuscitation 83:961–965 PubMed Yost D, Phillips RH, Gonzales L et al (2012) Assessment of CPR interruptions from transthoracic impedance during use of the LUCAS mechanical chest compression system. Resuscitation 83:961–965 PubMed
385.
Zurück zum Zitat Levy M, Yost D, Walker RG, Scheunemann E, Mendive SR (2015) A quality improvement initiative to optimize use of a mechanical chest compression device within a high-performance CPR approach to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation. Resuscitation 92:32–37 PubMed Levy M, Yost D, Walker RG, Scheunemann E, Mendive SR (2015) A quality improvement initiative to optimize use of a mechanical chest compression device within a high-performance CPR approach to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest resuscitation. Resuscitation 92:32–37 PubMed
386.
Zurück zum Zitat Esibov A, Banville I, Chapman FW, Boomars R, Box M, Rubertsson S (2015) Mechanical chest compressions improved aspects of CPR in the LINC trial. Resuscitation 91:116–121 PubMed Esibov A, Banville I, Chapman FW, Boomars R, Box M, Rubertsson S (2015) Mechanical chest compressions improved aspects of CPR in the LINC trial. Resuscitation 91:116–121 PubMed
387.
Zurück zum Zitat Couper K, Velho RM, Quinn T et al (2018) Training approaches for the deployment of a mechanical chest compression device: a randomised controlled manikin study. BMJ Open 8:e19009 PubMedPubMedCentral Couper K, Velho RM, Quinn T et al (2018) Training approaches for the deployment of a mechanical chest compression device: a randomised controlled manikin study. BMJ Open 8:e19009 PubMedPubMedCentral
388.
Zurück zum Zitat Richardson AS, Schmidt M, Bailey M, Pellegrino VA, Rycus PT, Pilcher DV (2017) ECMO Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (ECPR), trends in survival from an international multicentre cohort study over 12-years. Resuscitation 112:34–40 PubMed Richardson AS, Schmidt M, Bailey M, Pellegrino VA, Rycus PT, Pilcher DV (2017) ECMO Cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (ECPR), trends in survival from an international multicentre cohort study over 12-years. Resuscitation 112:34–40 PubMed
389.
Zurück zum Zitat Hutin A, Abu-Habsa M, Burns B et al (2018) Early ECPR for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: best practice in 2018. Resuscitation 130:44–48 PubMed Hutin A, Abu-Habsa M, Burns B et al (2018) Early ECPR for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: best practice in 2018. Resuscitation 130:44–48 PubMed
390.
Zurück zum Zitat Swol J, Belohlavek J, Brodie D et al (2018) Extracorporeal life support in the emergency department: a narrative review for the emergency physician. Resuscitation 133:108–117 PubMed Swol J, Belohlavek J, Brodie D et al (2018) Extracorporeal life support in the emergency department: a narrative review for the emergency physician. Resuscitation 133:108–117 PubMed
391.
Zurück zum Zitat Dennis M, Lal S, Forrest P et al (2020) In-depth extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. J Am Heart Assoc 9:e16521 PubMedPubMedCentral Dennis M, Lal S, Forrest P et al (2020) In-depth extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. J Am Heart Assoc 9:e16521 PubMedPubMedCentral
392.
Zurück zum Zitat Holmberg MJ, Geri G, Wiberg S et al (2018) Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 131:91–100 PubMedPubMedCentral Holmberg MJ, Geri G, Wiberg S et al (2018) Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for cardiac arrest: a systematic review. Resuscitation 131:91–100 PubMedPubMedCentral
393.
Zurück zum Zitat Yannopoulos D, Bartos J, Raveendran G et al (2020) Advanced reperfusion strategies for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and refractory ventricular fibrillation (ARREST): a phase 2, single centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 396:1807–1816 PubMedPubMedCentral Yannopoulos D, Bartos J, Raveendran G et al (2020) Advanced reperfusion strategies for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and refractory ventricular fibrillation (ARREST): a phase 2, single centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 396:1807–1816 PubMedPubMedCentral
394.
Zurück zum Zitat Guglin M, Zucker MJ, Bazan VM et al (2019) Venoarterial ECMO for adults: JACC scientific expert panel. J Am Coll Cardiol 73:698–716 PubMed Guglin M, Zucker MJ, Bazan VM et al (2019) Venoarterial ECMO for adults: JACC scientific expert panel. J Am Coll Cardiol 73:698–716 PubMed
395.
Zurück zum Zitat Debaty G, Babaz V, Durand M et al (2017) Prognostic factors for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation recipients following out-of-hospital refractory cardiac arrest. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation 112:1–10 PubMed Debaty G, Babaz V, Durand M et al (2017) Prognostic factors for extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation recipients following out-of-hospital refractory cardiac arrest. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Resuscitation 112:1–10 PubMed
396.
Zurück zum Zitat Yu HY, Wang CH, Chi NH et al (2019) Effect of interplay between age and low-flow duration on neurologic outcomes of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Intensive Care Med 45:44–54 PubMed Yu HY, Wang CH, Chi NH et al (2019) Effect of interplay between age and low-flow duration on neurologic outcomes of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Intensive Care Med 45:44–54 PubMed
398.
Zurück zum Zitat Dennis M, Zmudzki F, Burns B et al (2019) Cost effectiveness and quality of life analysis of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) for refractory cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 139:49–56 PubMed Dennis M, Zmudzki F, Burns B et al (2019) Cost effectiveness and quality of life analysis of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) for refractory cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 139:49–56 PubMed
399.
Zurück zum Zitat Kawashima T, Uehara H, Miyagi N et al (2019) Impact of first documented rhythm on cost-effectiveness of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 140:74–80 PubMed Kawashima T, Uehara H, Miyagi N et al (2019) Impact of first documented rhythm on cost-effectiveness of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 140:74–80 PubMed
400.
Zurück zum Zitat Bharmal MI, Venturini JM, Chua RFM et al (2019) Cost-utility of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients with cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 136:126–130 PubMed Bharmal MI, Venturini JM, Chua RFM et al (2019) Cost-utility of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients with cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 136:126–130 PubMed
401.
Zurück zum Zitat Page RL, Joglar JA, Caldwell MA et al (2016) 2015 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline for the management of adult patients with supraventricular tachycardia: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol 67:e27–e115 PubMed Page RL, Joglar JA, Caldwell MA et al (2016) 2015 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline for the management of adult patients with supraventricular tachycardia: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol 67:e27–e115 PubMed
402.
Zurück zum Zitat Kirchhof P, Benussi S, Kotecha D et al (2016) 2016 ESC guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with EACTS. Eur Heart J 37:2893–2962 PubMed Kirchhof P, Benussi S, Kotecha D et al (2016) 2016 ESC guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with EACTS. Eur Heart J 37:2893–2962 PubMed
403.
Zurück zum Zitat January CT, Wann LS, Calkins H et al (2019) 2019 AHA/ACC/HRS focused update of the 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol 74:104–132 PubMed January CT, Wann LS, Calkins H et al (2019) 2019 AHA/ACC/HRS focused update of the 2014 AHA/ACC/HRS guideline for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol 74:104–132 PubMed
404.
Zurück zum Zitat Kusumoto FM, Schoenfeld MH, Barrett C et al (2019) 2018 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline on the evaluation and management of patients with bradycardia and cardiac conduction delay: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol 74:e51–e156 PubMed Kusumoto FM, Schoenfeld MH, Barrett C et al (2019) 2018 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline on the evaluation and management of patients with bradycardia and cardiac conduction delay: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol 74:e51–e156 PubMed
405.
Zurück zum Zitat Hindricks G, Potpara T, Dagres N et al (2021) 2020 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with the European Association of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Eur Heart J 42(5):373–498 PubMed Hindricks G, Potpara T, Dagres N et al (2021) 2020 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with the European Association of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Eur Heart J 42(5):373–498 PubMed
406.
Zurück zum Zitat Bernheim A, Fatio R, Kiowski W, Weilenmann D, Rickli H, Rocca HP (2004) Atropine often results in complete atrioventricular block or sinus arrest after cardiac transplantation: an unpredictable and dose-independent phenomenon. Transplantation 77:1181–1185 PubMed Bernheim A, Fatio R, Kiowski W, Weilenmann D, Rickli H, Rocca HP (2004) Atropine often results in complete atrioventricular block or sinus arrest after cardiac transplantation: an unpredictable and dose-independent phenomenon. Transplantation 77:1181–1185 PubMed
407.
Zurück zum Zitat Roth A, Elkayam I, Shapira I et al (2003) Effectiveness of prehospital synchronous direct-current cardioversion for supraventricular tachyarrhythmias causing unstable hemodynamic states. Am J Cardiol 91:489–491 PubMed Roth A, Elkayam I, Shapira I et al (2003) Effectiveness of prehospital synchronous direct-current cardioversion for supraventricular tachyarrhythmias causing unstable hemodynamic states. Am J Cardiol 91:489–491 PubMed
408.
Zurück zum Zitat Wittwer MR, Rajendran S, Kealley J, Arstall MA (2015) A South Australian registry of biphasic cardioversions of atrial arrhythmias: efficacy and predictors of success. Heart Lung Circ 24:342–347 PubMed Wittwer MR, Rajendran S, Kealley J, Arstall MA (2015) A South Australian registry of biphasic cardioversions of atrial arrhythmias: efficacy and predictors of success. Heart Lung Circ 24:342–347 PubMed
409.
Zurück zum Zitat Reisinger J, Gstrein C, Winter T et al (2010) Optimization of initial energy for cardioversion of atrial tachyarrhythmias with biphasic shocks. Am J Emerg Med 28:159–165 PubMed Reisinger J, Gstrein C, Winter T et al (2010) Optimization of initial energy for cardioversion of atrial tachyarrhythmias with biphasic shocks. Am J Emerg Med 28:159–165 PubMed
411.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakin CD, Connelly S, Wharton R, Yuen HM (2013) A comparison of rectilinear and truncated exponential biphasic waveforms in elective cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Resuscitation 84:286–291 PubMed Deakin CD, Connelly S, Wharton R, Yuen HM (2013) A comparison of rectilinear and truncated exponential biphasic waveforms in elective cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Resuscitation 84:286–291 PubMed
412.
Zurück zum Zitat Schmidt AS, Lauridsen KG, Torp P, Bach LF, Rickers H, Lofgren B (2020) Maximum-fixed energy shocks for cardioverting atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 41:626–631 PubMed Schmidt AS, Lauridsen KG, Torp P, Bach LF, Rickers H, Lofgren B (2020) Maximum-fixed energy shocks for cardioverting atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 41:626–631 PubMed
413.
Zurück zum Zitat Pinski SL, Sgarbossa EB, Ching E, Trohman RG (1999) A comparison of 50‑J versus 100‑J shocks for direct-current cardioversion of atrial flutter. Am Heart J 137:439–442 PubMed Pinski SL, Sgarbossa EB, Ching E, Trohman RG (1999) A comparison of 50‑J versus 100‑J shocks for direct-current cardioversion of atrial flutter. Am Heart J 137:439–442 PubMed
414.
Zurück zum Zitat Kerber RE, Kienzle MG, Olshansky B et al (1992) Ventricular tachycardia rate and morphology determine energy and current requirements for transthoracic cardioversion. Circulation 85:158–163 PubMed Kerber RE, Kienzle MG, Olshansky B et al (1992) Ventricular tachycardia rate and morphology determine energy and current requirements for transthoracic cardioversion. Circulation 85:158–163 PubMed
415.
Zurück zum Zitat Hedges JR, Syverud SA, Dalsey WC, Feero S, Easter R, Shultz B (1987) Prehospital trial of emergency transcutaneous cardiac pacing. Circulation 76:1337–1343 PubMed Hedges JR, Syverud SA, Dalsey WC, Feero S, Easter R, Shultz B (1987) Prehospital trial of emergency transcutaneous cardiac pacing. Circulation 76:1337–1343 PubMed
416.
Zurück zum Zitat Barthell E, Troiano P, Olson D, Stueven HA, Hendley G (1988) Prehospital external cardiac pacing: a prospective, controlled clinical trial. Ann Emerg Med 17:1221–1226 PubMed Barthell E, Troiano P, Olson D, Stueven HA, Hendley G (1988) Prehospital external cardiac pacing: a prospective, controlled clinical trial. Ann Emerg Med 17:1221–1226 PubMed
417.
Zurück zum Zitat Cummins RO, Graves JR, Larsen MP et al (1993) Out-of-hospital transcutaneous pacing by emergency medical technicians in patients with asystolic cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 328:1377–1382 PubMed Cummins RO, Graves JR, Larsen MP et al (1993) Out-of-hospital transcutaneous pacing by emergency medical technicians in patients with asystolic cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 328:1377–1382 PubMed
418.
Zurück zum Zitat Ornato JP, Peberdy MA (1996) The mystery of bradyasystole during cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med 27:576–587 PubMed Ornato JP, Peberdy MA (1996) The mystery of bradyasystole during cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med 27:576–587 PubMed
419.
Zurück zum Zitat Niemann JT, Adomian GE, Garner D, Rosborough JP (1985) Endocardial and transcutaneous cardiac pacing, calcium chloride, and epinephrine in postcountershock asystole and bradycardias. Crit Care Med 13:699–704 PubMed Niemann JT, Adomian GE, Garner D, Rosborough JP (1985) Endocardial and transcutaneous cardiac pacing, calcium chloride, and epinephrine in postcountershock asystole and bradycardias. Crit Care Med 13:699–704 PubMed
420.
Zurück zum Zitat Quan L, Graves JR, Kinder DR, Horan S, Cummins RO (1992) Transcutaneous cardiac pacing in the treatment of out-of-hospital pediatric cardiac arrests. Ann Emerg Med 21:905–909 PubMed Quan L, Graves JR, Kinder DR, Horan S, Cummins RO (1992) Transcutaneous cardiac pacing in the treatment of out-of-hospital pediatric cardiac arrests. Ann Emerg Med 21:905–909 PubMed
421.
Zurück zum Zitat Dalsey WC, Syverud SA, Hedges JR (1985) Emergency department use of transcutaneous pacing for cardiac arrests. Crit Care Med 13:399–401 PubMed Dalsey WC, Syverud SA, Hedges JR (1985) Emergency department use of transcutaneous pacing for cardiac arrests. Crit Care Med 13:399–401 PubMed
422.
Zurück zum Zitat Knowlton AA, Falk RH (1986) External cardiac pacing during in-hospital cardiac arrest. Am J Cardiol 57:1295–1298 PubMed Knowlton AA, Falk RH (1986) External cardiac pacing during in-hospital cardiac arrest. Am J Cardiol 57:1295–1298 PubMed
423.
Zurück zum Zitat Ornato JP, Carveth WL, Windle JR (1984) Pacemaker insertion for prehospital bradyasystolic cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med 13:101–103 PubMed Ornato JP, Carveth WL, Windle JR (1984) Pacemaker insertion for prehospital bradyasystolic cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med 13:101–103 PubMed
424.
Zurück zum Zitat Chan L, Reid C, Taylor B (2002) Effect of three emergency pacing modalities on cardiac output in cardiac arrest due to ventricular asystole. Resuscitation 52:117–119 PubMed Chan L, Reid C, Taylor B (2002) Effect of three emergency pacing modalities on cardiac output in cardiac arrest due to ventricular asystole. Resuscitation 52:117–119 PubMed
425.
Zurück zum Zitat Eich C, Bleckmann A, Schwarz SK (2007) Percussion pacing—an almost forgotten procedure for haemodynamically unstable bradycardias? A report of three case studies and review of the literature. Br J Anaesth 98:429–433 PubMed Eich C, Bleckmann A, Schwarz SK (2007) Percussion pacing—an almost forgotten procedure for haemodynamically unstable bradycardias? A report of three case studies and review of the literature. Br J Anaesth 98:429–433 PubMed
426.
Zurück zum Zitat Manara AR, Dominguez-Gil B, Perez-Villares JM, Soar J (2016) What follows refractory cardiac arrest: death, extra-corporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR), or uncontrolled donation after circulatory death? Resuscitation 108:A3–A5 PubMed Manara AR, Dominguez-Gil B, Perez-Villares JM, Soar J (2016) What follows refractory cardiac arrest: death, extra-corporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR), or uncontrolled donation after circulatory death? Resuscitation 108:A3–A5 PubMed
427.
Zurück zum Zitat Thuong M, Ruiz A, Evrard P et al (2016) New classification of donation after circulatory death donors definitions and terminology. Transpl Int 29:749–759 PubMed Thuong M, Ruiz A, Evrard P et al (2016) New classification of donation after circulatory death donors definitions and terminology. Transpl Int 29:749–759 PubMed
428.
Zurück zum Zitat Champigneulle B, Fieux F, Cheisson G et al (2015) French survey of the first three-years of liver transplantation activity from uncontrolled donors deceased after cardiac death. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med 34:35–39 PubMed Champigneulle B, Fieux F, Cheisson G et al (2015) French survey of the first three-years of liver transplantation activity from uncontrolled donors deceased after cardiac death. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med 34:35–39 PubMed
429.
Zurück zum Zitat Dupriez F, De Pauw L, Darius T et al (2014) Fourteen years of experience in uncontrolled organ donation after cardio-circulatory death. Transplant Proc 46:3134–3137 PubMed Dupriez F, De Pauw L, Darius T et al (2014) Fourteen years of experience in uncontrolled organ donation after cardio-circulatory death. Transplant Proc 46:3134–3137 PubMed
430.
Zurück zum Zitat Fieux F, Losser MR, Bourgeois E et al (2009) Kidney retrieval after sudden out of hospital refractory cardiac arrest: a cohort of uncontrolled non heart beating donors. Crit Care 13:R141 PubMedPubMedCentral Fieux F, Losser MR, Bourgeois E et al (2009) Kidney retrieval after sudden out of hospital refractory cardiac arrest: a cohort of uncontrolled non heart beating donors. Crit Care 13:R141 PubMedPubMedCentral
431.
Zurück zum Zitat Fondevila C, Hessheimer AJ, Flores E et al (2012) Applicability and results of Maastricht type 2 donation after cardiac death liver transplantation. Am J Transplant 12:162–170 PubMed Fondevila C, Hessheimer AJ, Flores E et al (2012) Applicability and results of Maastricht type 2 donation after cardiac death liver transplantation. Am J Transplant 12:162–170 PubMed
432.
Zurück zum Zitat Gamez P, Cordoba M, Ussetti P et al (2005) Lung transplantation from out-of-hospital non-heart-beating lung donors. one-year experience and results. J Heart Lung Transplant 24:1098–1102 PubMed Gamez P, Cordoba M, Ussetti P et al (2005) Lung transplantation from out-of-hospital non-heart-beating lung donors. one-year experience and results. J Heart Lung Transplant 24:1098–1102 PubMed
433.
Zurück zum Zitat Mateos-Rodríguez AA, Navalpotro-Pascual JM, Del Rio Gallegos F, Andrés-Belmonte A (2012) Out-hospital donors after cardiac death in Madrid, Spain: a 5-year review. Australas Emerg Nurs J 15:164–169 PubMed Mateos-Rodríguez AA, Navalpotro-Pascual JM, Del Rio Gallegos F, Andrés-Belmonte A (2012) Out-hospital donors after cardiac death in Madrid, Spain: a 5-year review. Australas Emerg Nurs J 15:164–169 PubMed
434.
Zurück zum Zitat Ortega-Deballon I, Hornby L, Shemie SD (2015) Protocols for uncontrolled donation after circulatory death: a systematic review of international guidelines, practices and transplant outcomes. Crit Care 19:268 PubMedPubMedCentral Ortega-Deballon I, Hornby L, Shemie SD (2015) Protocols for uncontrolled donation after circulatory death: a systematic review of international guidelines, practices and transplant outcomes. Crit Care 19:268 PubMedPubMedCentral
435.
Zurück zum Zitat Peters-Sengers H, Homan van der Heide JJ, Heemskerk MBA et al (2017) Similar 5‑year estimated glomerular filtration rate between kidney transplants from uncontrolled and controlled donors after circulatory death—a Dutch cohort study. Transplantation 101:1144–1151 PubMed Peters-Sengers H, Homan van der Heide JJ, Heemskerk MBA et al (2017) Similar 5‑year estimated glomerular filtration rate between kidney transplants from uncontrolled and controlled donors after circulatory death—a Dutch cohort study. Transplantation 101:1144–1151 PubMed
436.
Zurück zum Zitat Mateos-Rodríguez A, Pardillos-Ferrer L, Navalpotro-Pascual JM, Barba-Alonso C, Martin-Maldonado ME, Andrés-Belmonte A (2010) Kidney transplant function using organs from non-heart-beating donors maintained by mechanical chest compressions. Resuscitation 81:904–907 PubMed Mateos-Rodríguez A, Pardillos-Ferrer L, Navalpotro-Pascual JM, Barba-Alonso C, Martin-Maldonado ME, Andrés-Belmonte A (2010) Kidney transplant function using organs from non-heart-beating donors maintained by mechanical chest compressions. Resuscitation 81:904–907 PubMed
437.
Zurück zum Zitat Sánchez-Fructuoso AI, Marques M, Prats D et al (2006) Victims of cardiac arrest occurring outside the hospital: a source of transplantable kidneys. Ann Intern Med 145:157–164 PubMed Sánchez-Fructuoso AI, Marques M, Prats D et al (2006) Victims of cardiac arrest occurring outside the hospital: a source of transplantable kidneys. Ann Intern Med 145:157–164 PubMed
438.
Zurück zum Zitat Miñambres E, Rubio JJ, Coll E, Domínguez-Gil B (2018) Donation after circulatory death and its expansion in Spain. Curr Opin Organ Transplant 23:120–129 PubMed Miñambres E, Rubio JJ, Coll E, Domínguez-Gil B (2018) Donation after circulatory death and its expansion in Spain. Curr Opin Organ Transplant 23:120–129 PubMed
439.
Zurück zum Zitat West S, Soar J, Callaway CW (2016) The viability of transplanting organs from donors who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a systematic review. Resuscitation 108:27–33 PubMed West S, Soar J, Callaway CW (2016) The viability of transplanting organs from donors who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a systematic review. Resuscitation 108:27–33 PubMed
440.
Zurück zum Zitat Domínguez-Gil B, Duranteau J, Mateos A et al (2016) Uncontrolled donation after circulatory death: European practices and recommendations for the development and optimization of an effective programme. Transpl Int 29:842–859 PubMed Domínguez-Gil B, Duranteau J, Mateos A et al (2016) Uncontrolled donation after circulatory death: European practices and recommendations for the development and optimization of an effective programme. Transpl Int 29:842–859 PubMed
441.
Zurück zum Zitat Dalle Ave AL, Bernat JL (2018) Uncontrolled donation after circulatory determination of death: a systematic ethical analysis. J Intensive Care Med 33:624–634 Dalle Ave AL, Bernat JL (2018) Uncontrolled donation after circulatory determination of death: a systematic ethical analysis. J Intensive Care Med 33:624–634
442.
Zurück zum Zitat Molina M, Domínguez-Gil B, Pérez-Villares JM, Andrés A (2019) Uncontrolled donation after circulatory death: ethics of implementation. Curr Opin Organ Transplant 24:358–363 PubMed Molina M, Domínguez-Gil B, Pérez-Villares JM, Andrés A (2019) Uncontrolled donation after circulatory death: ethics of implementation. Curr Opin Organ Transplant 24:358–363 PubMed
443.
Zurück zum Zitat Gordon L, Pasquier M, Brugger H, Paal P (2020) Autoresuscitation (Lazarus phenomenon) after termination of cardiopulmonary resuscitation—a scoping review. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 28:14 PubMedPubMedCentral Gordon L, Pasquier M, Brugger H, Paal P (2020) Autoresuscitation (Lazarus phenomenon) after termination of cardiopulmonary resuscitation—a scoping review. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 28:14 PubMedPubMedCentral
444.
Zurück zum Zitat Bruce CM, Reed MJ, MacDougall M (2013) Are the public ready for organ donation after out of hospital cardiac arrest? Emerg Med J 30:226–231 PubMed Bruce CM, Reed MJ, MacDougall M (2013) Are the public ready for organ donation after out of hospital cardiac arrest? Emerg Med J 30:226–231 PubMed
445.
Zurück zum Zitat Joffe AR, Carcillo J, Anton N et al (2011) Donation after cardiocirculatory death: a call for a moratorium pending full public disclosure and fully informed consent. Philos Ethics Humanit Med 6:17 PubMedPubMedCentral Joffe AR, Carcillo J, Anton N et al (2011) Donation after cardiocirculatory death: a call for a moratorium pending full public disclosure and fully informed consent. Philos Ethics Humanit Med 6:17 PubMedPubMedCentral
446.
Zurück zum Zitat Rodríguez-Arias D, Tortosa JC, Burant CJ, Aubert P, Aulisio MP, Youngner SJ (2013) One or two types of death? Attitudes of health professionals towards brain death and donation after circulatory death in three countries. Med Health Care Philos 16:457–467 PubMed Rodríguez-Arias D, Tortosa JC, Burant CJ, Aubert P, Aulisio MP, Youngner SJ (2013) One or two types of death? Attitudes of health professionals towards brain death and donation after circulatory death in three countries. Med Health Care Philos 16:457–467 PubMed
447.
Zurück zum Zitat Manara A, Shemie SD, Large S et al (2020) Maintaining the permanence principle for death during in situ normothermic regional perfusion for donation after circulatory death organ recovery: A United Kingdom and Canadian proposal. Am J Transplant 20:2017–2025 PubMedPubMedCentral Manara A, Shemie SD, Large S et al (2020) Maintaining the permanence principle for death during in situ normothermic regional perfusion for donation after circulatory death organ recovery: A United Kingdom and Canadian proposal. Am J Transplant 20:2017–2025 PubMedPubMedCentral
449.
Zurück zum Zitat Mentzelopoulos SD, Couper K, Van de Voorde P et al (2021) European Resuscitation Council guidelines 2021: ethics of resuscitation and end of life decisions. Resuscitation 161:408–432 PubMed Mentzelopoulos SD, Couper K, Van de Voorde P et al (2021) European Resuscitation Council guidelines 2021: ethics of resuscitation and end of life decisions. Resuscitation 161:408–432 PubMed
450.
Zurück zum Zitat Bleijenberg E, Koster RW, de Vries H, Beesems SG (2017) The impact of post-resuscitation feedback for paramedics on the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 110:1–5 PubMed Bleijenberg E, Koster RW, de Vries H, Beesems SG (2017) The impact of post-resuscitation feedback for paramedics on the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 110:1–5 PubMed
451.
Zurück zum Zitat Couper K, Kimani PK, Davies RP et al (2016) An evaluation of three methods of in-hospital cardiac arrest educational debriefing: the cardiopulmonary resuscitation debriefing study. Resuscitation 105:130–137 PubMed Couper K, Kimani PK, Davies RP et al (2016) An evaluation of three methods of in-hospital cardiac arrest educational debriefing: the cardiopulmonary resuscitation debriefing study. Resuscitation 105:130–137 PubMed
452.
Zurück zum Zitat Edelson DP, Litzinger B, Arora V et al (2008) Improving in-hospital cardiac arrest process and outcomes with performance debriefing. Arch Intern Med 168:1063–1069 PubMed Edelson DP, Litzinger B, Arora V et al (2008) Improving in-hospital cardiac arrest process and outcomes with performance debriefing. Arch Intern Med 168:1063–1069 PubMed
453.
Zurück zum Zitat Wolfe H, Zebuhr C, Topjian AA et al (2014) Interdisciplinary ICU cardiac arrest debriefing improves survival outcomes. Crit Care Med 42:1688–1695 PubMedPubMedCentral Wolfe H, Zebuhr C, Topjian AA et al (2014) Interdisciplinary ICU cardiac arrest debriefing improves survival outcomes. Crit Care Med 42:1688–1695 PubMedPubMedCentral
454.
Zurück zum Zitat Couper K, Perkins GD (2013) Debriefing after resuscitation. Curr Opin Crit Care 19:188–194 PubMed Couper K, Perkins GD (2013) Debriefing after resuscitation. Curr Opin Crit Care 19:188–194 PubMed
Metadaten
Titel
Erweiterte lebensrettende Maßnahmen für Erwachsene
Leitlinien des European Resuscitation Council 2021
verfasst von
Jasmeet Soar
Bernd W. Böttiger
Pierre Carli
Keith Couper
Charles D. Deakin
Therese Djärv
Carsten Lott
Theresa Olasveengen
Peter Paal
Tommaso Pellis
Gavin D. Perkins
Claudio Sandroni
Jerry P. Nolan
Publikationsdatum
08.06.2021
Verlag
Springer Medizin
Erschienen in
Notfall + Rettungsmedizin / Ausgabe 4/2021
Print ISSN: 1434-6222
Elektronische ISSN: 1436-0578
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10049-021-00893-x