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14.08.2019 | Reviews

Effect of antithrombotic drugs on bone health

Zeitschrift:
Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Autoren:
G. Dadwal, T. Schulte-Huxel, G. Kolb

Abstract

With the increasing consumption of antithrombotic drugs among old people, expected as well as unexpected side effects on bone health are considerable, e.g. osteoporosis, fragility fractures, etc. This review focuses on antithrombotic drugs and their effects on bone health. The following groups were reviewed: parenteral long-term use of unfractionated heparin (UFH) is associated with osteopenia. The oral intake of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) makes them more convenient than UFH but chronic use also results in osteopenia. Limited reports of bone loss have been associated with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) and indirect factor Xa inhibitors but in contrast to VKA and UFH they are less associated with osteopenia. There have been limited studies evaluating the effect of new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) on bones. Overall, they are considered safer than other drugs. There have been no reports about acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and clopidogrel causing osteopenia but their metabolism by the kidneys and liver can cause reduced 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels and can theoretically contribute to osteoporosis. Some reports suggested that high dosage clopidogrel can also negatively affect bones. After a detailed literature review long-term use of antithrombotic drugs can negatively affect the bones. Their role in bone health needs to be studied in detail and the clinical use in geriatric patients should be prudent.

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Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie

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