Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen

Erschienen in: Notfall +  Rettungsmedizin 7/2010

01.11.2010 | ERC-Leitlinien

Basismaßnahmen zur Wiederbelebung Erwachsener und Verwendung automatisierter externer Defibrillatoren

Sektion 2 der Leitlinien zur Reanimation 2010 des European Resuscitation Council

verfasst von: R.W. Koster, M.A. Baubin, L.L. Bossaert, A. Caballero, P. Cassan, M. Castrén, C. Granja, A.J. Handley, K.G. Monsieurs, G.D. Perkins, V. Raffay, C. Sandroni

Erschienen in: Notfall + Rettungsmedizin | Ausgabe 7/2010

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten

Auszug

Die Basismaßnahmen zur Wiederbelebung („basic life support“, BLS) beziehen sich auf das Freihalten der Atemwege sowie das Aufrechterhalten von Atmung und Kreislauf ohne Verwendung von Hilfsmitteln, abgesehen von einfachen Mitteln zum Eigenschutz [ 1]. …
Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat (o A) (1991) Recommended guidelines for uniform reporting of data from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the ‚Utstein style’. Prepared by a Task Force Of Representatives from the European Resuscitation Council, American Heart Association, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Australian Resuscitation Council. Resuscitation 22:1–26 (o A) (1991) Recommended guidelines for uniform reporting of data from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the ‚Utstein style’. Prepared by a Task Force Of Representatives from the European Resuscitation Council, American Heart Association, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, Australian Resuscitation Council. Resuscitation 22:1–26
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakin CD, Nolan JP, Sunde K, Koster RW (2010) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010. Section 3. Electrical therapies: Automated external defibrillators, defibrillation, cardioversion and pacing. Resuscitation 81 Deakin CD, Nolan JP, Sunde K, Koster RW (2010) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010. Section 3. Electrical therapies: Automated external defibrillators, defibrillation, cardioversion and pacing. Resuscitation 81
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Deakin CD, Nolan JP, Soar J et al (2010) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010. Section 4. Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation 81 Deakin CD, Nolan JP, Soar J et al (2010) European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010. Section 4. Adult advanced life support. Resuscitation 81
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Sans S, Kesteloot H, Kromhout D (1997) The burden of cardiovascular diseases mortality in Europe. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology on Cardiovascular Mortality and Morbidity Statistics in Europe. Eur Heart J 18:1231–1248 Sans S, Kesteloot H, Kromhout D (1997) The burden of cardiovascular diseases mortality in Europe. Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology on Cardiovascular Mortality and Morbidity Statistics in Europe. Eur Heart J 18:1231–1248
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Atwood C, Eisenberg MS, Herlitz J, Rea TD (2005) Incidence of EMS-treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Europe. Resuscitation 67:75–80 PubMed Atwood C, Eisenberg MS, Herlitz J, Rea TD (2005) Incidence of EMS-treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Europe. Resuscitation 67:75–80 PubMed
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Cobb LA, Fahrenbruch CE, Olsufka M, Copass MK (2002) Changing incidence of out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation, 1980–2000. JAMA 288:3008–3013 PubMed Cobb LA, Fahrenbruch CE, Olsufka M, Copass MK (2002) Changing incidence of out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation, 1980–2000. JAMA 288:3008–3013 PubMed
7.
Zurück zum Zitat Rea TD, Pearce RM, Raghunathan TE et al (2004) Incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Am J Cardiol 93:1455–1460 PubMed Rea TD, Pearce RM, Raghunathan TE et al (2004) Incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Am J Cardiol 93:1455–1460 PubMed
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Vaillancourt C, Verma A, Trickett J et al (2007) Evaluating the effectiveness of dispatch-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructions. Acad Emerg Med 14:877–883 PubMed Vaillancourt C, Verma A, Trickett J et al (2007) Evaluating the effectiveness of dispatch-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation instructions. Acad Emerg Med 14:877–883 PubMed
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Agarwal DA, Hess EP, Atkinson EJ, White RD (2009) Ventricular fibrillation in Rochester, Minnesota: experience over 18 years. Resuscitation 80:1253–1258 PubMed Agarwal DA, Hess EP, Atkinson EJ, White RD (2009) Ventricular fibrillation in Rochester, Minnesota: experience over 18 years. Resuscitation 80:1253–1258 PubMed
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Ringh M, Herlitz J, Hollenberg J et al (2009) Out of hospital cardiac arrest outside home in Sweden, change in characteristics, outcome and availability for public access defibrillation. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 17:18 PubMed Ringh M, Herlitz J, Hollenberg J et al (2009) Out of hospital cardiac arrest outside home in Sweden, change in characteristics, outcome and availability for public access defibrillation. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 17:18 PubMed
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Cummins R, Thies W (1991) Automated external defibrillators and the advanced cardiac life support program: a new initiative from the American Heart Association. Am J Emerg Med 9:91–93 Cummins R, Thies W (1991) Automated external defibrillators and the advanced cardiac life support program: a new initiative from the American Heart Association. Am J Emerg Med 9:91–93
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Waalewijn RA, Nijpels MA, Tijssen JG, Koster RW (2002) Prevention of deterioration of ventricular fibrillation by basic life support during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 54:31–36 PubMed Waalewijn RA, Nijpels MA, Tijssen JG, Koster RW (2002) Prevention of deterioration of ventricular fibrillation by basic life support during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 54:31–36 PubMed
13.
Zurück zum Zitat Weisfeldt ML, Sitlani CM, Ornato JP et al (2010) Survival after application of automatic external defibrillators before arrival of the emergency medical system: evaluation in the resuscitation outcomes consortium population of 21 million. J Am Coll Cardiol 55:1713-1720 PubMed Weisfeldt ML, Sitlani CM, Ornato JP et al (2010) Survival after application of automatic external defibrillators before arrival of the emergency medical system: evaluation in the resuscitation outcomes consortium population of 21 million. J Am Coll Cardiol 55:1713-1720 PubMed
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Alem AP van, Vrenken RH de, Vos R et al (2003) Use of automated external defibrillator by first responders in out of hospital cardiac arrest: prospective controlled trial. BMJ 327:1312 PubMed Alem AP van, Vrenken RH de, Vos R et al (2003) Use of automated external defibrillator by first responders in out of hospital cardiac arrest: prospective controlled trial. BMJ 327:1312 PubMed
15.
Zurück zum Zitat Nolan J, Soar J, Eikeland H (2006) The chain of survival. Resuscitation 71:270–271 PubMed Nolan J, Soar J, Eikeland H (2006) The chain of survival. Resuscitation 71:270–271 PubMed
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Muller D, Agrawal R, Arntz HR (2006) How sudden is sudden cardiac death? Circulation 114:1146–1150 PubMed Muller D, Agrawal R, Arntz HR (2006) How sudden is sudden cardiac death? Circulation 114:1146–1150 PubMed
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Lowel H, Lewis M, Hormann A (1991) Prognostic significance of prehospital phase in acute myocardial infarct. Results of the Augsburg Myocardial Infarct Registry, 1985–1988. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 116:729–733 PubMed Lowel H, Lewis M, Hormann A (1991) Prognostic significance of prehospital phase in acute myocardial infarct. Results of the Augsburg Myocardial Infarct Registry, 1985–1988. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 116:729–733 PubMed
18.
Zurück zum Zitat Waalewijn RA, Tijssen JG, Koster RW (2001) Bystander initiated actions in out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results from the Amsterdam Resuscitation Study (ARREST). Resuscitation 50:273–279 PubMed Waalewijn RA, Tijssen JG, Koster RW (2001) Bystander initiated actions in out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results from the Amsterdam Resuscitation Study (ARREST). Resuscitation 50:273–279 PubMed
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Valenzuela TD, Roe DJ, Cretin S et al (1997) Estimating effectiveness of cardiac arrest interventions: a logistic regression survival model. Circulation 96:3308–3313 PubMed Valenzuela TD, Roe DJ, Cretin S et al (1997) Estimating effectiveness of cardiac arrest interventions: a logistic regression survival model. Circulation 96:3308–3313 PubMed
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Holmberg M, Holmberg S, Herlitz J (2001) Factors modifying the effect of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation on survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in Sweden. Eur Heart J 22:511–519 PubMed Holmberg M, Holmberg S, Herlitz J (2001) Factors modifying the effect of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation on survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in Sweden. Eur Heart J 22:511–519 PubMed
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Holmberg M, Holmberg S, Herlitz J, Gardelov B (1998) Survival after cardiac arrest outside hospital in Sweden. Swedish cardiac arrest registry. Resuscitation 36:29–36 PubMed Holmberg M, Holmberg S, Herlitz J, Gardelov B (1998) Survival after cardiac arrest outside hospital in Sweden. Swedish cardiac arrest registry. Resuscitation 36:29–36 PubMed
22.
Zurück zum Zitat SOS-KANTO Study Group (2007) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders with chest compression only (SOS-KANTO): an observational study. Lancet 369:920–926 SOS-KANTO Study Group (2007) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders with chest compression only (SOS-KANTO): an observational study. Lancet 369:920–926
23.
Zurück zum Zitat Iwami T, Kawamura T, Hiraide A et al (2007) Effectiveness of bystander-initiated cardiac only resuscitation for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 116:2900–2907 PubMed Iwami T, Kawamura T, Hiraide A et al (2007) Effectiveness of bystander-initiated cardiac only resuscitation for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 116:2900–2907 PubMed
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Rea TD, Eisenberg MS, Culley LL, Becker L (2001) Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival in cardiac arrest. Circulation 104:2513–2516 PubMed Rea TD, Eisenberg MS, Culley LL, Becker L (2001) Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival in cardiac arrest. Circulation 104:2513–2516 PubMed
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Kuisma M, Boyd J, Vayrynen T et al (2005) Emergency call processing and survival from out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation 67:89–93 PubMed Kuisma M, Boyd J, Vayrynen T et al (2005) Emergency call processing and survival from out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Resuscitation 67:89–93 PubMed
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Rea TD, Fahrenbruch C, Culley L et al (2010) Wiederbelebung with chest compresssions alone or with rescue breathing. N Engl J Med 363:423–433 PubMed Rea TD, Fahrenbruch C, Culley L et al (2010) Wiederbelebung with chest compresssions alone or with rescue breathing. N Engl J Med 363:423–433 PubMed
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Svensson L, Bohm K, Castren M et al (2010) Compression-only Wiederbelebung or standard Wiederbelebung in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 363:434–442 PubMed Svensson L, Bohm K, Castren M et al (2010) Compression-only Wiederbelebung or standard Wiederbelebung in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 363:434–442 PubMed
28.
Zurück zum Zitat Weaver WD, Hill D, Fahrenbruch CE et al (1988) Use of the automatic external defibrillator in the management of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 319:661–666 PubMed Weaver WD, Hill D, Fahrenbruch CE et al (1988) Use of the automatic external defibrillator in the management of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 319:661–666 PubMed
29.
Zurück zum Zitat Auble TE, Menegazzi JJ, Paris PM (1995) Effect of out-of-hospital defibrillation by basic life support providers on cardiac arrest mortality: a metaanalysis. Ann Emerg Med 25:642-658 PubMed Auble TE, Menegazzi JJ, Paris PM (1995) Effect of out-of-hospital defibrillation by basic life support providers on cardiac arrest mortality: a metaanalysis. Ann Emerg Med 25:642-658 PubMed
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Stiell IG, Wells GA, Field BJ et al (1999) Improved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival through the inexpensive optimization of an existing defibrillation program: OPALS study phase II. Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support. JAMA 281:1175–1181 PubMed Stiell IG, Wells GA, Field BJ et al (1999) Improved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival through the inexpensive optimization of an existing defibrillation program: OPALS study phase II. Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support. JAMA 281:1175–1181 PubMed
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Stiell IG, Wells GA, DeMaio VJ et al (1999) Modifiable factors associated with improved cardiac arrest survival in a multicenter basic life support/defibrillation system: OPALS Study Phase I results. Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support. Ann Emerg Med 33:44–50 PubMed Stiell IG, Wells GA, DeMaio VJ et al (1999) Modifiable factors associated with improved cardiac arrest survival in a multicenter basic life support/defibrillation system: OPALS Study Phase I results. Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support. Ann Emerg Med 33:44–50 PubMed
32.
Zurück zum Zitat Caffrey S (2002) Feasibility of public access to defibrillation. Curr Opin Crit Care 8:195–198 PubMed Caffrey S (2002) Feasibility of public access to defibrillation. Curr Opin Crit Care 8:195–198 PubMed
33.
Zurück zum Zitat O’Rourke MF, Donaldson E, Geddes JS (1997) An airline cardiac arrest program. Circulation 96:2849–2853 O’Rourke MF, Donaldson E, Geddes JS (1997) An airline cardiac arrest program. Circulation 96:2849–2853
34.
Zurück zum Zitat Page RL, Hamdan MH, McKenas DK (1998) Defibrillation aboard a commercial aircraft. Circulation 97:1429–1430 PubMed Page RL, Hamdan MH, McKenas DK (1998) Defibrillation aboard a commercial aircraft. Circulation 97:1429–1430 PubMed
35.
Zurück zum Zitat Valenzuela TD, Roe DJ, Nichol G et al (2000) Outcomes of rapid defibrillation by security officers after cardiac arrest in casinos. N Engl J Med 343:1206–1209 PubMed Valenzuela TD, Roe DJ, Nichol G et al (2000) Outcomes of rapid defibrillation by security officers after cardiac arrest in casinos. N Engl J Med 343:1206–1209 PubMed
36.
Zurück zum Zitat Waalewijn RA, Vos R de, Tijssen JG, Koster RW (2001) Survival models for out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation from the perspectives of the bystander, the first responder, and the paramedic. Resuscitation 51:113–122 PubMed Waalewijn RA, Vos R de, Tijssen JG, Koster RW (2001) Survival models for out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation from the perspectives of the bystander, the first responder, and the paramedic. Resuscitation 51:113–122 PubMed
37.
Zurück zum Zitat Carr BG, Kahn JM, Merchant RM et al (2009) Inter-hospital variability in post-cardiac arrest mortality. Resuscitation 80:30–34 PubMed Carr BG, Kahn JM, Merchant RM et al (2009) Inter-hospital variability in post-cardiac arrest mortality. Resuscitation 80:30–34 PubMed
38.
Zurück zum Zitat Neumar RW, Nolan JP, Adrie C et al (2008) Post-cardiac arrest syndrome: epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognostication. A consensus statement from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (American Heart Association, Australian and New Zealand Council on Resuscitation, European Resuscitation Council, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, InterAmerican Heart Foundation, Resuscitation Council of Asia, and the Resuscitation Council of Southern Africa); the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee; the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Perioperative, and Critical Care; the Council on Clinical Cardiology; and the Stroke Council. Circulation 118:2452–2483 PubMed Neumar RW, Nolan JP, Adrie C et al (2008) Post-cardiac arrest syndrome: epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment, and prognostication. A consensus statement from the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (American Heart Association, Australian and New Zealand Council on Resuscitation, European Resuscitation Council, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, InterAmerican Heart Foundation, Resuscitation Council of Asia, and the Resuscitation Council of Southern Africa); the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee; the Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; the Council on Cardiopulmonary, Perioperative, and Critical Care; the Council on Clinical Cardiology; and the Stroke Council. Circulation 118:2452–2483 PubMed
39.
Zurück zum Zitat Sunde K, Pytte M, Jacobsen D et al (2007) Implementation of a standardised treatment protocol for post-resuscitation care after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 73:29–39 PubMed Sunde K, Pytte M, Jacobsen D et al (2007) Implementation of a standardised treatment protocol for post-resuscitation care after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 73:29–39 PubMed
40.
Zurück zum Zitat Bernard SA, Gray TW, Buist MD et al (2002) Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia. N Engl J Med 346:557–563 PubMed Bernard SA, Gray TW, Buist MD et al (2002) Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia. N Engl J Med 346:557–563 PubMed
41.
Zurück zum Zitat (o A) (2002) Mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 346:549–556 (o A) (2002) Mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 346:549–556
42.
Zurück zum Zitat Arrich J, Holzer M, Herkner H, Mullner M (2009) Hypothermia for neuroprotection in adults after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD004128 Arrich J, Holzer M, Herkner H, Mullner M (2009) Hypothermia for neuroprotection in adults after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD004128
43.
Zurück zum Zitat Kitamura T, Iwami T, Kawamura T et al (2010) Nationwide public access defibrillation in Japan. N Engl J Med 362:994–1004 PubMed Kitamura T, Iwami T, Kawamura T et al (2010) Nationwide public access defibrillation in Japan. N Engl J Med 362:994–1004 PubMed
44.
Zurück zum Zitat Weisfeldt ML, Becker LB (2002) Resuscitation after cardiac arrest: a 3-phase time-sensitive model. JAMA 288:3035–3038 PubMed Weisfeldt ML, Becker LB (2002) Resuscitation after cardiac arrest: a 3-phase time-sensitive model. JAMA 288:3035–3038 PubMed
45.
Zurück zum Zitat White RD, Russell JK (2002) Refibrillation, resuscitation and survival in out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest victims treated with biphasic automated external defibrillators. Resuscitation 55:17–23 PubMed White RD, Russell JK (2002) Refibrillation, resuscitation and survival in out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest victims treated with biphasic automated external defibrillators. Resuscitation 55:17–23 PubMed
46.
Zurück zum Zitat Kerber RE, Becker LB, Bourland JD et al (1997) Automatic external defibrillators for public access defibrillation: recommendations for specifying and reporting arrhythmia analysis algorithm performance, incorporating new waveforms, and enhancing safety. A statement for health professionals from the American Heart Association Task Force on Automatic External Defibrillation, Subcommittee on AED Safety and Efficacy. Circulation 95:1677–1682 PubMed Kerber RE, Becker LB, Bourland JD et al (1997) Automatic external defibrillators for public access defibrillation: recommendations for specifying and reporting arrhythmia analysis algorithm performance, incorporating new waveforms, and enhancing safety. A statement for health professionals from the American Heart Association Task Force on Automatic External Defibrillation, Subcommittee on AED Safety and Efficacy. Circulation 95:1677–1682 PubMed
47.
Zurück zum Zitat Larsen MP, Eisenberg MS, Cummins RO, Hallstrom AP (1993) Predicting survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a graphic model. Ann Emerg Med 22:1652–1658 PubMed Larsen MP, Eisenberg MS, Cummins RO, Hallstrom AP (1993) Predicting survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a graphic model. Ann Emerg Med 22:1652–1658 PubMed
48.
Zurück zum Zitat Holmberg M, Holmberg S, Herlitz J (2000) Effect of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in Sweden. Resuscitation 47:59–70 PubMed Holmberg M, Holmberg S, Herlitz J (2000) Effect of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients in Sweden. Resuscitation 47:59–70 PubMed
49.
Zurück zum Zitat Aprahamian C, Thompson BM, Finger WA, Darin JC (1984) Experimental cervical spine injury model: evaluation of airway management and splinting techniques. Ann Emerg Med 13:584–587 PubMed Aprahamian C, Thompson BM, Finger WA, Darin JC (1984) Experimental cervical spine injury model: evaluation of airway management and splinting techniques. Ann Emerg Med 13:584–587 PubMed
50.
Zurück zum Zitat Bahr J, Klingler H, Panzer W et al (1997) Skills of lay people in checking the carotid pulse. Resuscitation 35:23–26 PubMed Bahr J, Klingler H, Panzer W et al (1997) Skills of lay people in checking the carotid pulse. Resuscitation 35:23–26 PubMed
51.
Zurück zum Zitat Nyman J, Sihvonen M (2000) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills in nurses and nursing students. Resuscitation 47:179–184 PubMed Nyman J, Sihvonen M (2000) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills in nurses and nursing students. Resuscitation 47:179–184 PubMed
52.
Zurück zum Zitat Tibballs J, Russell P (2009) Reliability of pulse palpation by healthcare personnel to diagnose paediatric cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 80:61–64 PubMed Tibballs J, Russell P (2009) Reliability of pulse palpation by healthcare personnel to diagnose paediatric cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 80:61–64 PubMed
53.
Zurück zum Zitat Ruppert M, Reith MW, Widmann JH et al (1999) Checking for breathing: evaluation of the diagnostic capability of emergency medical services personnel, physicians, medical students, and medical laypersons. Ann Emerg Med 34:720–729 PubMed Ruppert M, Reith MW, Widmann JH et al (1999) Checking for breathing: evaluation of the diagnostic capability of emergency medical services personnel, physicians, medical students, and medical laypersons. Ann Emerg Med 34:720–729 PubMed
54.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Stephenson B, Hulme J, Monsieurs KG (2005) Birmingham assessment of breathing study (BABS). Resuscitation 64:109–113 PubMed Perkins GD, Stephenson B, Hulme J, Monsieurs KG (2005) Birmingham assessment of breathing study (BABS). Resuscitation 64:109–113 PubMed
55.
Zurück zum Zitat Hauff SR, Rea TD, Culley LL et al (2003) Factors impeding dispatcher-assisted telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ann Emerg Med 42:731–737 PubMed Hauff SR, Rea TD, Culley LL et al (2003) Factors impeding dispatcher-assisted telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ann Emerg Med 42:731–737 PubMed
56.
Zurück zum Zitat Bobrow BJ, Zuercher M, Ewy GA et al (2008) Gasping during cardiac arrest in humans is frequent and associated with improved survival. Circulation 118:2550–2554 PubMed Bobrow BJ, Zuercher M, Ewy GA et al (2008) Gasping during cardiac arrest in humans is frequent and associated with improved survival. Circulation 118:2550–2554 PubMed
57.
Zurück zum Zitat Clark JJ, Larsen MP, Culley LL et al (1992) Incidence of agonal respirations in sudden cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med 21:1464–1467 PubMed Clark JJ, Larsen MP, Culley LL et al (1992) Incidence of agonal respirations in sudden cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med 21:1464–1467 PubMed
58.
Zurück zum Zitat Karlsten R, Elowsson P (2004) Who calls for the ambulance: implications for decision support. A descriptive study from a Swedish dispatch centre. Eur J Emerg Med 11:125–129 PubMed Karlsten R, Elowsson P (2004) Who calls for the ambulance: implications for decision support. A descriptive study from a Swedish dispatch centre. Eur J Emerg Med 11:125–129 PubMed
59.
Zurück zum Zitat Nurmi J, Pettila V, Biber B et al (2006) Effect of protocol compliance to cardiac arrest identification by emergency medical dispatchers. Resuscitation 70:463–469 PubMed Nurmi J, Pettila V, Biber B et al (2006) Effect of protocol compliance to cardiac arrest identification by emergency medical dispatchers. Resuscitation 70:463–469 PubMed
60.
Zurück zum Zitat Berdowski J, Beekhuis F, Zwinderman AH et al (2009) Importance of the first link: description and recognition of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in an emergency call. Circulation 119:2096–2102 PubMed Berdowski J, Beekhuis F, Zwinderman AH et al (2009) Importance of the first link: description and recognition of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in an emergency call. Circulation 119:2096–2102 PubMed
61.
Zurück zum Zitat Clawson J, Olola C, Heward A, Patterson B (2007) Cardiac arrest predictability in seizure patients based on emergency medical dispatcher identification of previous seizure or epilepsy history. Resuscitation 75:298–304 PubMed Clawson J, Olola C, Heward A, Patterson B (2007) Cardiac arrest predictability in seizure patients based on emergency medical dispatcher identification of previous seizure or epilepsy history. Resuscitation 75:298–304 PubMed
62.
Zurück zum Zitat Mithoefer JC, Mead G, Hughes JM et al (1967) A method of distinguishing death due to cardiac arrest from asphyxia. Lancet 2:654–656 PubMed Mithoefer JC, Mead G, Hughes JM et al (1967) A method of distinguishing death due to cardiac arrest from asphyxia. Lancet 2:654–656 PubMed
63.
Zurück zum Zitat Kern KB, Hilwig RW, Berg RA et al (2002) Importance of continuous chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: improved outcome during a simulated single lay-rescuer scenario. Circulation 105:645–649 PubMed Kern KB, Hilwig RW, Berg RA et al (2002) Importance of continuous chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: improved outcome during a simulated single lay-rescuer scenario. Circulation 105:645–649 PubMed
64.
Zurück zum Zitat Bobrow BJ, Clark LL, Ewy GA et al (2008) Minimally interrupted cardiac resuscitation by emergency medical services for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 299:1158–1165 PubMed Bobrow BJ, Clark LL, Ewy GA et al (2008) Minimally interrupted cardiac resuscitation by emergency medical services for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 299:1158–1165 PubMed
65.
Zurück zum Zitat Taylor RB, Brown CG, Bridges T et al (1988) A model for regional blood flow measurements during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a swine model. Resuscitation 16:107–118 PubMed Taylor RB, Brown CG, Bridges T et al (1988) A model for regional blood flow measurements during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a swine model. Resuscitation 16:107–118 PubMed
66.
Zurück zum Zitat Aufderheide TP, Sigurdsson G, Pirrallo RG et al (2004) Hyperventilation-induced hypotension during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 109:1960–1965 PubMed Aufderheide TP, Sigurdsson G, Pirrallo RG et al (2004) Hyperventilation-induced hypotension during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 109:1960–1965 PubMed
67.
Zurück zum Zitat Eftestol T, Sunde K, Steen PA (2002) Effects of interrupting precordial compressions on the calculated probability of defibrillation success during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 105:2270–2273 PubMed Eftestol T, Sunde K, Steen PA (2002) Effects of interrupting precordial compressions on the calculated probability of defibrillation success during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Circulation 105:2270–2273 PubMed
68.
Zurück zum Zitat Wenzel V, Idris AH, Banner MJ et al (1998) Influence of tidal volume on the distribution of gas between the lungs and stomach in the nonintubated patient receiving positive-pressure ventilation. Crit Care Med 26:364–368 PubMed Wenzel V, Idris AH, Banner MJ et al (1998) Influence of tidal volume on the distribution of gas between the lungs and stomach in the nonintubated patient receiving positive-pressure ventilation. Crit Care Med 26:364–368 PubMed
69.
Zurück zum Zitat Idris A, Gabrielli A, Caruso L (1999) Smaller tidal volume is safe and effective for bag-valve-ventilation, but not for mouth-to-mouth ventilation: an animal model for basic life support. Circulation 100:I-644 Idris A, Gabrielli A, Caruso L (1999) Smaller tidal volume is safe and effective for bag-valve-ventilation, but not for mouth-to-mouth ventilation: an animal model for basic life support. Circulation 100:I-644
70.
Zurück zum Zitat Idris A, Wenzel V, Banner MJ, Melker RJ (1995) Smaller tidal volumes minimize gastric inflation during Wiederbelebung with an unprotected airway. Circulation 92 (Suppl):I-759 Idris A, Wenzel V, Banner MJ, Melker RJ (1995) Smaller tidal volumes minimize gastric inflation during Wiederbelebung with an unprotected airway. Circulation 92 (Suppl):I-759
71.
Zurück zum Zitat Dorph E, Wik L, Steen PA (2004) Arterial blood gases with 700 ml tidal volumes during out-of-hospital Wiederbelebung. Resuscitation 61:23–27 PubMed Dorph E, Wik L, Steen PA (2004) Arterial blood gases with 700 ml tidal volumes during out-of-hospital Wiederbelebung. Resuscitation 61:23–27 PubMed
72.
Zurück zum Zitat Winkler M, Mauritz W, Hackl W et al (1998) Effects of half the tidal volume during cardiopulmonary resuscitation on acid-base balance and haemodynamics in pigs. Eur J Emerg Med 5:201–206 PubMed Winkler M, Mauritz W, Hackl W et al (1998) Effects of half the tidal volume during cardiopulmonary resuscitation on acid-base balance and haemodynamics in pigs. Eur J Emerg Med 5:201–206 PubMed
73.
Zurück zum Zitat Ruben H (1964) The immediate treatment of respiratory failure. Br J Anaesth 36:542–549 PubMed Ruben H (1964) The immediate treatment of respiratory failure. Br J Anaesth 36:542–549 PubMed
74.
Zurück zum Zitat Elam JO (1977) Bag-valve-mask O2 ventilation. In: Safar P, Elam JO (Hrsg) Advances in cardiopulmonary resuscitation: The Wolf Creek conference on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Springer, New York NY, S 73–79 Elam JO (1977) Bag-valve-mask O2 ventilation. In: Safar P, Elam JO (Hrsg) Advances in cardiopulmonary resuscitation: The Wolf Creek conference on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Springer, New York NY, S 73–79
75.
Zurück zum Zitat Dailey RH, Simon B, Young GP, Stewart RD (Hrsg) (1992) The airway: emergency management. Mosby Year Book, St. Louis Dailey RH, Simon B, Young GP, Stewart RD (Hrsg) (1992) The airway: emergency management. Mosby Year Book, St. Louis
76.
Zurück zum Zitat Paradis NA, Martin GB, Goetting MG et al (1989) Simultaneous aortic, jugular bulb, and right atrial pressures during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans. Insights into mechanisms. Circulation 80:361–368 PubMed Paradis NA, Martin GB, Goetting MG et al (1989) Simultaneous aortic, jugular bulb, and right atrial pressures during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans. Insights into mechanisms. Circulation 80:361–368 PubMed
77.
Zurück zum Zitat Kramer-Johansen J, Myklebust H, Wik L et al (2006) Quality of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation with real time automated feedback: a prospective interventional study. Resuscitation 71:283–292 PubMed Kramer-Johansen J, Myklebust H, Wik L et al (2006) Quality of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation with real time automated feedback: a prospective interventional study. Resuscitation 71:283–292 PubMed
78.
Zurück zum Zitat Edelson DP, Abella BS, Kramer-Johansen J et al (2006) Effects of compression depth and pre-shock pauses predict defibrillation failure during cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 71:137–145 PubMed Edelson DP, Abella BS, Kramer-Johansen J et al (2006) Effects of compression depth and pre-shock pauses predict defibrillation failure during cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 71:137–145 PubMed
79.
Zurück zum Zitat Wik L, Kramer-Johansen J, Myklebust H et al (2005) Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 293:299–304 PubMed Wik L, Kramer-Johansen J, Myklebust H et al (2005) Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 293:299–304 PubMed
80.
Zurück zum Zitat Abella BS, Alvarado JP, Myklebust H et al (2005) Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during in-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 293:305–310 PubMed Abella BS, Alvarado JP, Myklebust H et al (2005) Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation during in-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA 293:305–310 PubMed
81.
Zurück zum Zitat Christenson J, Andrusiek D, Everson-Stewart S et al (2009) Chest compression fraction determines survival in patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Circulation 120:1241–1247 PubMed Christenson J, Andrusiek D, Everson-Stewart S et al (2009) Chest compression fraction determines survival in patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. Circulation 120:1241–1247 PubMed
82.
Zurück zum Zitat Ochoa FJ, Ramalle-Gomara E, Carpintero JM et al (1998) Competence of health professionals to check the carotid pulse. Resuscitation 37:173–175 PubMed Ochoa FJ, Ramalle-Gomara E, Carpintero JM et al (1998) Competence of health professionals to check the carotid pulse. Resuscitation 37:173–175 PubMed
83.
Zurück zum Zitat Shin J, Rhee JE, Kim K (2007) Is the inter-nipple line the correct hand position for effective chest compression in adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation? Resuscitation 75:305–310 PubMed Shin J, Rhee JE, Kim K (2007) Is the inter-nipple line the correct hand position for effective chest compression in adult cardiopulmonary resuscitation? Resuscitation 75:305–310 PubMed
84.
Zurück zum Zitat Kusunoki S, Tanigawa K, Kondo T et al (2009) Safety of the inter-nipple line hand position landmark for chest compression. Resuscitation 80:1175–1180 PubMed Kusunoki S, Tanigawa K, Kondo T et al (2009) Safety of the inter-nipple line hand position landmark for chest compression. Resuscitation 80:1175–1180 PubMed
85.
Zurück zum Zitat Delvaux AB, Trombley MT, Rivet CJ et al (2009) Design and development of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation mattress. J Intensive Care Med 24:195–199 PubMed Delvaux AB, Trombley MT, Rivet CJ et al (2009) Design and development of a cardiopulmonary resuscitation mattress. J Intensive Care Med 24:195–199 PubMed
86.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Smith CM, Augre C et al (2006) Effects of a backboard, bed height, and operator position on compression depth during simulated resuscitation. Intensive Care Med 32:1632–1635 PubMed Perkins GD, Smith CM, Augre C et al (2006) Effects of a backboard, bed height, and operator position on compression depth during simulated resuscitation. Intensive Care Med 32:1632–1635 PubMed
87.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Kocierz L, Smith SC et al (2009) Compression feedback devices over estimate chest compression depth when performed on a bed. Resuscitation 80:79–82 PubMed Perkins GD, Kocierz L, Smith SC et al (2009) Compression feedback devices over estimate chest compression depth when performed on a bed. Resuscitation 80:79–82 PubMed
88.
Zurück zum Zitat Aufderheide TP, Pirrallo RG, Yannopoulos D et al (2005) Incomplete chest wall decompression: a clinical evaluation of Wiederbelebung performance by EMS personnel and assessment of alternative manual chest compression-decompression techniques. Resuscitation 64:353–362 PubMed Aufderheide TP, Pirrallo RG, Yannopoulos D et al (2005) Incomplete chest wall decompression: a clinical evaluation of Wiederbelebung performance by EMS personnel and assessment of alternative manual chest compression-decompression techniques. Resuscitation 64:353–362 PubMed
89.
Zurück zum Zitat Yannopoulos D, McKnite S, Aufderheide TP et al (2005) Effects of incomplete chest wall decompression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation on coronary and cerebral perfusion pressures in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 64:363–372 PubMed Yannopoulos D, McKnite S, Aufderheide TP et al (2005) Effects of incomplete chest wall decompression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation on coronary and cerebral perfusion pressures in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 64:363–372 PubMed
90.
Zurück zum Zitat Sanders AB, Kern KB, Berg RA et al (2002) Survival and neurologic outcome after cardiopulmonary resuscitation with four different chest compression:ventilation ratios. Ann Emerg Med 40:553–562 PubMed Sanders AB, Kern KB, Berg RA et al (2002) Survival and neurologic outcome after cardiopulmonary resuscitation with four different chest compression:ventilation ratios. Ann Emerg Med 40:553–562 PubMed
91.
Zurück zum Zitat Dorph E, Wik L, Stromme TA et al (2003) Quality of Wiederbelebung with three different ventilation:compression ratios. Resuscitation 58:193–201 PubMed Dorph E, Wik L, Stromme TA et al (2003) Quality of Wiederbelebung with three different ventilation:compression ratios. Resuscitation 58:193–201 PubMed
92.
Zurück zum Zitat Dorph E, Wik L, Stromme TA et al (2004) Oxygen delivery and return of spontaneous circulation with ventilation:compression ratio 2:30 versus chest compressions only Wiederbelebung in pigs. Resuscitation 60:309–318 PubMed Dorph E, Wik L, Stromme TA et al (2004) Oxygen delivery and return of spontaneous circulation with ventilation:compression ratio 2:30 versus chest compressions only Wiederbelebung in pigs. Resuscitation 60:309–318 PubMed
93.
Zurück zum Zitat Babbs CF, Kern KB (2002) Optimum compression to ventilation ratios in Wiederbelebung under realistic, practical conditions: a physiological and mathematical analysis. Resuscitation 54:147–157 PubMed Babbs CF, Kern KB (2002) Optimum compression to ventilation ratios in Wiederbelebung under realistic, practical conditions: a physiological and mathematical analysis. Resuscitation 54:147–157 PubMed
94.
Zurück zum Zitat Fenici P, Idris AH, Lurie KG et al (2005) What is the optimal chest compression-ventilation ratio? Curr Opin Crit Care 11:204–211 PubMed Fenici P, Idris AH, Lurie KG et al (2005) What is the optimal chest compression-ventilation ratio? Curr Opin Crit Care 11:204–211 PubMed
95.
Zurück zum Zitat Sayre MR, Cantrell SA, White LJ et al (2009) Impact of the 2005 American Heart Association cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care guidelines on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival. Prehosp Emerg Care 13:469–477 PubMed Sayre MR, Cantrell SA, White LJ et al (2009) Impact of the 2005 American Heart Association cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care guidelines on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival. Prehosp Emerg Care 13:469–477 PubMed
96.
Zurück zum Zitat Olasveengen TM, Vik E, Kuzovlev A, Sunde K (2009) Effect of implementation of new resuscitation guidelines on quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival. Resuscitation 80:407–411 PubMed Olasveengen TM, Vik E, Kuzovlev A, Sunde K (2009) Effect of implementation of new resuscitation guidelines on quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival. Resuscitation 80:407–411 PubMed
97.
Zurück zum Zitat Aufderheide TP, Lurie KG (2004) Death by hyperventilation: a common and life-threatening problem during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Crit Care Med 32:S345–S351 PubMed Aufderheide TP, Lurie KG (2004) Death by hyperventilation: a common and life-threatening problem during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Crit Care Med 32:S345–S351 PubMed
98.
Zurück zum Zitat Ornato JP, Hallagan LF, McMahan SB et al (1990) Attitudes of BCLS instructors about mouth-to-mouth resuscitation during the AIDS epidemic. Ann Emerg Med 19:151–156 PubMed Ornato JP, Hallagan LF, McMahan SB et al (1990) Attitudes of BCLS instructors about mouth-to-mouth resuscitation during the AIDS epidemic. Ann Emerg Med 19:151–156 PubMed
99.
Zurück zum Zitat Hew P, Brenner B, Kaufman J (1997) Reluctance of paramedics and emergency medical technicians to perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. J Emerg Med 15:279–284 PubMed Hew P, Brenner B, Kaufman J (1997) Reluctance of paramedics and emergency medical technicians to perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. J Emerg Med 15:279–284 PubMed
100.
Zurück zum Zitat Chandra NC, Gruben KG, Tsitlik JE et al (1994) Observations of ventilation during resuscitation in a canine model. Circulation 90:3070–3075 PubMed Chandra NC, Gruben KG, Tsitlik JE et al (1994) Observations of ventilation during resuscitation in a canine model. Circulation 90:3070–3075 PubMed
101.
Zurück zum Zitat Geddes LA, Rundell A, Otlewski M, Pargett M (2008) How much lung ventilation is obtained with only chest-compression Wiederbelebung? Cardiovasc Eng 8:145–148 PubMed Geddes LA, Rundell A, Otlewski M, Pargett M (2008) How much lung ventilation is obtained with only chest-compression Wiederbelebung? Cardiovasc Eng 8:145–148 PubMed
102.
Zurück zum Zitat Berg RA, Kern KB, Hilwig RW et al (1997) Assisted ventilation does not improve outcome in a porcine model of single-rescuer bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 95:1635–1641 PubMed Berg RA, Kern KB, Hilwig RW et al (1997) Assisted ventilation does not improve outcome in a porcine model of single-rescuer bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 95:1635–1641 PubMed
103.
Zurück zum Zitat Berg RA, Kern KB, Hilwig RW, Ewy GA (1997) Assisted ventilation during ‚bystander‘ Wiederbelebung in a swine acute myocardial infarction model does not improve outcome. Circulation 96:4364–4371 PubMed Berg RA, Kern KB, Hilwig RW, Ewy GA (1997) Assisted ventilation during ‚bystander‘ Wiederbelebung in a swine acute myocardial infarction model does not improve outcome. Circulation 96:4364–4371 PubMed
104.
Zurück zum Zitat Turner I, Turner S, Armstrong V (2002) Does the compression to ventilation ratio affect the quality of Wiederbelebung: a simulation study. Resuscitation 52:55–62 PubMed Turner I, Turner S, Armstrong V (2002) Does the compression to ventilation ratio affect the quality of Wiederbelebung: a simulation study. Resuscitation 52:55–62 PubMed
105.
Zurück zum Zitat Bohm K, Rosenqvist M, Herlitz J et al (2007) Survival is similar after standard treatment and chest compression only in out-of-hospital bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 116:2908–2912 PubMed Bohm K, Rosenqvist M, Herlitz J et al (2007) Survival is similar after standard treatment and chest compression only in out-of-hospital bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Circulation 116:2908–2912 PubMed
106.
Zurück zum Zitat Kitamura T, Iwami T, Kawamura T et al (2010) Bystander-initiated rescue breathing for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of noncardiac origin. Circulation 122:293–299 PubMed Kitamura T, Iwami T, Kawamura T et al (2010) Bystander-initiated rescue breathing for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests of noncardiac origin. Circulation 122:293–299 PubMed
107.
Zurück zum Zitat Kitamura T, Iwami T, Kawamura T et al (2010) Conventional and chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders for children who have out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: a prospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study. Lancet (in press) Kitamura T, Iwami T, Kawamura T et al (2010) Conventional and chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders for children who have out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: a prospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study. Lancet (in press)
108.
Zurück zum Zitat Handley AJ, Handley JA (2004) Performing chest compressions in a confined space. Resuscitation 61:55–61 PubMed Handley AJ, Handley JA (2004) Performing chest compressions in a confined space. Resuscitation 61:55–61 PubMed
109.
Zurück zum Zitat Perkins GD, Stephenson BT, Smith CM, Gao F (2004) A comparison between over-the-head and standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 61:155–161 PubMed Perkins GD, Stephenson BT, Smith CM, Gao F (2004) A comparison between over-the-head and standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Resuscitation 61:155–161 PubMed
110.
Zurück zum Zitat White L, Rogers J, Bloomingdale M et al (2010) Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation: risks for patients not in cardiac arrest. Circulation 121:91–97 PubMed White L, Rogers J, Bloomingdale M et al (2010) Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation: risks for patients not in cardiac arrest. Circulation 121:91–97 PubMed
111.
Zurück zum Zitat Cheung W, Gullick J, Thanakrishnan G et al (2009) Injuries occurring in hospital staff attending medical emergency team (MET) calls – a prospective, observational study. Resuscitation 80:1351–1356 PubMed Cheung W, Gullick J, Thanakrishnan G et al (2009) Injuries occurring in hospital staff attending medical emergency team (MET) calls – a prospective, observational study. Resuscitation 80:1351–1356 PubMed
112.
Zurück zum Zitat Sullivan F, Avstreih D (2000) Pneumothorax during Wiederbelebung training: case report and review of the Wiederbelebung literature. Prehosp Disaster Med 15:64–69 PubMed Sullivan F, Avstreih D (2000) Pneumothorax during Wiederbelebung training: case report and review of the Wiederbelebung literature. Prehosp Disaster Med 15:64–69 PubMed
113.
Zurück zum Zitat Peberdy MA, Ottingham LV, Groh WJ et al (2006) Adverse events associated with lay emergency response programs: the public access defibrillation trial experience. Resuscitation 70:59–65 PubMed Peberdy MA, Ottingham LV, Groh WJ et al (2006) Adverse events associated with lay emergency response programs: the public access defibrillation trial experience. Resuscitation 70:59–65 PubMed
114.
Zurück zum Zitat Sugerman NT, Edelson DP, Leary M et al (2009) Rescuer fatigue during actual in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation with audiovisual feedback: a prospective multicenter study. Resuscitation 80:981–984 PubMed Sugerman NT, Edelson DP, Leary M et al (2009) Rescuer fatigue during actual in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation with audiovisual feedback: a prospective multicenter study. Resuscitation 80:981–984 PubMed
115.
Zurück zum Zitat Hallstrom AP, Ornato JP, Weisfeldt M et al (2004) Public-access defibrillation and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 351:637–646 PubMed Hallstrom AP, Ornato JP, Weisfeldt M et al (2004) Public-access defibrillation and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 351:637–646 PubMed
116.
Zurück zum Zitat Hoke RS, Heinroth K, Trappe HJ, Werdan K (2009) Is external defibrillation an electric threat for bystanders? Resuscitation 80:395–401 PubMed Hoke RS, Heinroth K, Trappe HJ, Werdan K (2009) Is external defibrillation an electric threat for bystanders? Resuscitation 80:395–401 PubMed
117.
Zurück zum Zitat Axelsson A, Herlitz J, Karlsson T et al (1998) Factors surrounding cardiopulmonary resuscitation influencing bystanders‘ psychological reactions. Resuscitation 37:13–20 PubMed Axelsson A, Herlitz J, Karlsson T et al (1998) Factors surrounding cardiopulmonary resuscitation influencing bystanders‘ psychological reactions. Resuscitation 37:13–20 PubMed
118.
Zurück zum Zitat Axelsson A, Herlitz J, Ekstrom L, Holmberg S (1996) Bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation out-of-hospital. A first description of the bystanders and their experiences. Resuscitation 33:3–11 PubMed Axelsson A, Herlitz J, Ekstrom L, Holmberg S (1996) Bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation out-of-hospital. A first description of the bystanders and their experiences. Resuscitation 33:3–11 PubMed
119.
Zurück zum Zitat Mejicano GC, Maki DG (1998) Infections acquired during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: estimating the risk and defining strategies for prevention. Ann Intern Med 129:813–828 PubMed Mejicano GC, Maki DG (1998) Infections acquired during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: estimating the risk and defining strategies for prevention. Ann Intern Med 129:813–828 PubMed
120.
Zurück zum Zitat Cydulka RK, Connor PJ, Myers TF et al (1991) Prevention of oral bacterial flora transmission by using mouth-to-mask ventilation during Wiederbelebung. J Emerg Med 9:317–321 PubMed Cydulka RK, Connor PJ, Myers TF et al (1991) Prevention of oral bacterial flora transmission by using mouth-to-mask ventilation during Wiederbelebung. J Emerg Med 9:317–321 PubMed
121.
Zurück zum Zitat Blenkharn JI, Buckingham SE, Zideman DA (1990) Prevention of transmission of infection during mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Resuscitation 19:151–157 PubMed Blenkharn JI, Buckingham SE, Zideman DA (1990) Prevention of transmission of infection during mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Resuscitation 19:151–157 PubMed
122.
Zurück zum Zitat Turner S, Turner I, Chapman D et al (1998) A comparative study of the 1992 and 1997 recovery positions for use in the UK. Resuscitation 39:153–160 PubMed Turner S, Turner I, Chapman D et al (1998) A comparative study of the 1992 and 1997 recovery positions for use in the UK. Resuscitation 39:153–160 PubMed
123.
Zurück zum Zitat Handley AJ (1993) Recovery position. Resuscitation 26:93–95 PubMed Handley AJ (1993) Recovery position. Resuscitation 26:93–95 PubMed
124.
Zurück zum Zitat Anonymous (2000) Guidelines 2000 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care – An international consensus on science. Resuscitation 46:1–447 Anonymous (2000) Guidelines 2000 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care – An international consensus on science. Resuscitation 46:1–447
125.
Zurück zum Zitat Fingerhut LA, Cox CS, Warner M (1998) International comparative analysis of injury mortality. Findings from the ICE on injury statistics. International collaborative effort on injury statistics. Adv Data (303):1–20 Fingerhut LA, Cox CS, Warner M (1998) International comparative analysis of injury mortality. Findings from the ICE on injury statistics. International collaborative effort on injury statistics. Adv Data (303):1–20
126.
Zurück zum Zitat (o A) (2005) Proceedings of the 2005 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 67:157–341 (o A) (2005) Proceedings of the 2005 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 67:157–341
127.
Zurück zum Zitat Redding JS (1979) The choking controversy: critique of evidence on the Heimlich maneuver. Crit Care Med 7:475–479 PubMed Redding JS (1979) The choking controversy: critique of evidence on the Heimlich maneuver. Crit Care Med 7:475–479 PubMed
128.
Zurück zum Zitat Langhelle A, Sunde K, Wik L, Steen PA (2000) Airway pressure with chest compressions versus Heimlich manoeuvre in recently dead adults with complete airway obstruction. Resuscitation 44:105–108 PubMed Langhelle A, Sunde K, Wik L, Steen PA (2000) Airway pressure with chest compressions versus Heimlich manoeuvre in recently dead adults with complete airway obstruction. Resuscitation 44:105–108 PubMed
129.
Zurück zum Zitat Guildner CW, Williams D, Subitch T (1976) Airway obstructed by foreign material: the Heimlich maneuver. JACEP 5:675–677 PubMed Guildner CW, Williams D, Subitch T (1976) Airway obstructed by foreign material: the Heimlich maneuver. JACEP 5:675–677 PubMed
130.
Zurück zum Zitat Ruben H, Macnaughton FI (1978) The treatment of food-choking. Practitioner 221:725–729 PubMed Ruben H, Macnaughton FI (1978) The treatment of food-choking. Practitioner 221:725–729 PubMed
131.
Zurück zum Zitat Hartrey R, Bingham RM (1995) Pharyngeal trauma as a result of blind finger sweeps in the choking child. J Accid Emerg Med 12:52–54 PubMed Hartrey R, Bingham RM (1995) Pharyngeal trauma as a result of blind finger sweeps in the choking child. J Accid Emerg Med 12:52–54 PubMed
132.
Zurück zum Zitat Elam JO, Ruben AM, Greene DG (1960) Resuscitation of drowning victims. JAMA 174:13–16 PubMed Elam JO, Ruben AM, Greene DG (1960) Resuscitation of drowning victims. JAMA 174:13–16 PubMed
133.
Zurück zum Zitat Ruben HM, Elam JO, Ruben AM, Greene DG (1961) Investigation of upper airway problems in resuscitation, 1: studies of pharyngeal x-rays and performance by laymen. Anesthesiology 22:271–279 PubMed Ruben HM, Elam JO, Ruben AM, Greene DG (1961) Investigation of upper airway problems in resuscitation, 1: studies of pharyngeal x-rays and performance by laymen. Anesthesiology 22:271–279 PubMed
134.
Zurück zum Zitat Kabbani M, Goodwin SR (1995) Traumatic epiglottis following blind finger sweep to remove a pharyngeal foreign body. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 34:495–497 Kabbani M, Goodwin SR (1995) Traumatic epiglottis following blind finger sweep to remove a pharyngeal foreign body. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 34:495–497
135.
Zurück zum Zitat Atkins DL, Everson-Stewart S, Sears GK et al (2009) Epidemiology and outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in children: the resuscitation outcomes consortium Epistry-Cardiac arrest. Circulation 119:1484–1491 PubMed Atkins DL, Everson-Stewart S, Sears GK et al (2009) Epidemiology and outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in children: the resuscitation outcomes consortium Epistry-Cardiac arrest. Circulation 119:1484–1491 PubMed
136.
Zurück zum Zitat Bar-Cohen Y, Walsh EP, Love BA, Cecchin F (2005) First appropriate use of automated external defibrillator in an infant. Resuscitation 67:135–137 PubMed Bar-Cohen Y, Walsh EP, Love BA, Cecchin F (2005) First appropriate use of automated external defibrillator in an infant. Resuscitation 67:135–137 PubMed
137.
Zurück zum Zitat Divekar A, Soni R (2006) Successful parental use of an automated external defibrillator for an infant with long-QT syndrome. Pediatrics 118:e526–e529 PubMed Divekar A, Soni R (2006) Successful parental use of an automated external defibrillator for an infant with long-QT syndrome. Pediatrics 118:e526–e529 PubMed
138.
Zurück zum Zitat Rodriguez-Nunez A, Lopez-Herce J, Garcia C et al (2006) Pediatric defibrillation after cardiac arrest: initial response and outcome. Crit Care 10:R113 PubMed Rodriguez-Nunez A, Lopez-Herce J, Garcia C et al (2006) Pediatric defibrillation after cardiac arrest: initial response and outcome. Crit Care 10:R113 PubMed
139.
Zurück zum Zitat Samson RA, Nadkarni VM, Meaney PA et al (2006) Outcomes of in-hospital ventricular fibrillation in children. N Engl J Med 354:2328–2339 PubMed Samson RA, Nadkarni VM, Meaney PA et al (2006) Outcomes of in-hospital ventricular fibrillation in children. N Engl J Med 354:2328–2339 PubMed
140.
Zurück zum Zitat Cobb LA, Fahrenbruch CE, Walsh TR et al (1999) Influence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation prior to defibrillation in patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. JAMA 281:1182–1188 PubMed Cobb LA, Fahrenbruch CE, Walsh TR et al (1999) Influence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation prior to defibrillation in patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. JAMA 281:1182–1188 PubMed
141.
Zurück zum Zitat Wik L, Hansen TB, Fylling F et al (2003) Delaying defibrillation to give basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation to patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation: a randomized trial. JAMA 289:1389–1395 PubMed Wik L, Hansen TB, Fylling F et al (2003) Delaying defibrillation to give basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation to patients with out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation: a randomized trial. JAMA 289:1389–1395 PubMed
142.
Zurück zum Zitat Jacobs IG, Finn JC, Oxer HF, Jelinek GA (2005) Wiederbelebung before defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized trial. Emerg Med Australas 17:39–45 PubMed Jacobs IG, Finn JC, Oxer HF, Jelinek GA (2005) Wiederbelebung before defibrillation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a randomized trial. Emerg Med Australas 17:39–45 PubMed
143.
Zurück zum Zitat Baker PW, Conway J, Cotton C et al (2008) Defibrillation or cardiopulmonary resuscitation first for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests found by paramedics to be in ventricular fibrillation? A randomised control trial. Resuscitation 79:424–431 PubMed Baker PW, Conway J, Cotton C et al (2008) Defibrillation or cardiopulmonary resuscitation first for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests found by paramedics to be in ventricular fibrillation? A randomised control trial. Resuscitation 79:424–431 PubMed
144.
Zurück zum Zitat Indik JH, Hilwig RW, Zuercher M et al (2009) Preshock cardiopulmonary resuscitation worsens outcome from circulatory phase ventricular fibrillation with acute coronary artery obstruction in swine. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2:179–184 PubMed Indik JH, Hilwig RW, Zuercher M et al (2009) Preshock cardiopulmonary resuscitation worsens outcome from circulatory phase ventricular fibrillation with acute coronary artery obstruction in swine. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2:179–184 PubMed
145.
Zurück zum Zitat Monsieurs KG, Vogels C, Bossaert LL et al (2005) A study comparing the usability of fully automatic versus semi-automatic defibrillation by untrained nursing students. Resuscitation 64:41–47 PubMed Monsieurs KG, Vogels C, Bossaert LL et al (2005) A study comparing the usability of fully automatic versus semi-automatic defibrillation by untrained nursing students. Resuscitation 64:41–47 PubMed
146.
Zurück zum Zitat White RD, Bunch TJ, Hankins DG (2005) Evolution of a community-wide early defibrillation programme experience over 13 years using police/fire personnel and paramedics as responders. Resuscitation 65:279–283 PubMed White RD, Bunch TJ, Hankins DG (2005) Evolution of a community-wide early defibrillation programme experience over 13 years using police/fire personnel and paramedics as responders. Resuscitation 65:279–283 PubMed
147.
Zurück zum Zitat Mosesso VN Jr, Davis EA, Auble TE et al (1998) Use of automated external defibrillators by police officers for treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med 32:200–207 PubMed Mosesso VN Jr, Davis EA, Auble TE et al (1998) Use of automated external defibrillators by police officers for treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Ann Emerg Med 32:200–207 PubMed
148.
Zurück zum Zitat The Public Access Defibrillation Trial Investigators (2004) Public-access defibrillation and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 351:637–646 The Public Access Defibrillation Trial Investigators (2004) Public-access defibrillation and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 351:637–646
149.
Zurück zum Zitat Priori SG, Bossaert LL, Chamberlain DA et al (2004) Policy statement: ESC-ERC recommendations for the use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in Europe. Resuscitation 60:245–252 PubMed Priori SG, Bossaert LL, Chamberlain DA et al (2004) Policy statement: ESC-ERC recommendations for the use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in Europe. Resuscitation 60:245–252 PubMed
150.
Zurück zum Zitat Groh WJ, Newman MM, Beal PE et al (2001) Limited response to cardiac arrest by police equipped with automated external defibrillators: lack of survival benefit in suburban and rural Indiana – the police as responder automated defibrillation evaluation (PARADE). Acad Emerg Med 8:324–330 PubMed Groh WJ, Newman MM, Beal PE et al (2001) Limited response to cardiac arrest by police equipped with automated external defibrillators: lack of survival benefit in suburban and rural Indiana – the police as responder automated defibrillation evaluation (PARADE). Acad Emerg Med 8:324–330 PubMed
151.
Zurück zum Zitat Sayre MR, Swor R, Pepe PE, Overton J (2003) Current issues in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Prehosp Emerg Care 7:24–30 PubMed Sayre MR, Swor R, Pepe PE, Overton J (2003) Current issues in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Prehosp Emerg Care 7:24–30 PubMed
152.
Zurück zum Zitat Nichol G, Hallstrom AP, Ornato JP et al (1998) Potential cost-effectiveness of public access defibrillation in the United States. Circulation 97:1315–1320 PubMed Nichol G, Hallstrom AP, Ornato JP et al (1998) Potential cost-effectiveness of public access defibrillation in the United States. Circulation 97:1315–1320 PubMed
153.
Zurück zum Zitat Nichol G, Valenzuela T, Roe D et al (2003) Cost effectiveness of defibrillation by targeted responders in public settings. Circulation 108:697–703 PubMed Nichol G, Valenzuela T, Roe D et al (2003) Cost effectiveness of defibrillation by targeted responders in public settings. Circulation 108:697–703 PubMed
154.
Zurück zum Zitat Bardy GH, Lee KL, Mark DB et al (2008) Home use of automated external defibrillators for sudden cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 358:1793–1804 PubMed Bardy GH, Lee KL, Mark DB et al (2008) Home use of automated external defibrillators for sudden cardiac arrest. N Engl J Med 358:1793–1804 PubMed
Metadaten
Titel
Basismaßnahmen zur Wiederbelebung Erwachsener und Verwendung automatisierter externer Defibrillatoren
Sektion 2 der Leitlinien zur Reanimation 2010 des European Resuscitation Council
verfasst von
R.W. Koster
M.A. Baubin
L.L. Bossaert
A. Caballero
P. Cassan
M. Castrén
C. Granja
A.J. Handley
K.G. Monsieurs
G.D. Perkins
V. Raffay
C. Sandroni
Publikationsdatum
01.11.2010
Verlag
Springer-Verlag
Erschienen in
Notfall + Rettungsmedizin / Ausgabe 7/2010
Print ISSN: 1434-6222
Elektronische ISSN: 1436-0578
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10049-010-1368-x

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 7/2010

Notfall +  Rettungsmedizin 7/2010 Zur Ausgabe

ERC-Leitlinien

Kurzdarstellung

Editorial

Foreword