Approximately 50 % of patients with heart failure have a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Cystatin C has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular events. This study was carried out to investigate whether cystatin C is associated with cardiac function and cardiac diastolic properties in elderly Chinese HFpEF patients.
Material and methods
A cross-sectional study of 381 elderly Chinese HFpEF patients (81 women, average age 82 ± 6 years) was conducted. Serum concentrations of cystatin C and the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification were assessed and early (E) to late (A) transmitral flow velocity ratios (E/A ratio) were measured to assess cardiac diastolic properties.
Cystatin C levels, N‑terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and age were significantly correlated to the NYHA class (r = 0.605 P < 0.001, r = 0.333 P < 0.001 and r = 0.254 P < 0.001, respectively). Cystatin C levels, age and body mass index (BMI) were negatively correlated to the E/A ratio (r = −0.224 P = 0.005, r = −0.258 P = 0.001 and r = −0.258 P = 0.003, respectively). The patients with cystatin C concentrations below 1.3 mg/l had a higher E/A ratio compared to those with cystatin C concentrations higher than 1.3 mg/l. Cystatin C was also significantly associated with both the NYHA classification and the E/A ratio even after adjustment for the creatinine clearance rate (CCr).
Both cystatin C and NT-proBNP were found to be correlated to the NYHA classification. Independent of renal function, higher serum concentrations of cystatin C were associated with a worse NYHA classification and abnormal cardiac diastolic properties in elderly Chinese HFpEF patients.